« ForrigeFortsæt »
ken off. The rock is of the dull reddish co. the rock, tracing the character, and paintlour, common to the stones in that neigh. ing it black, beginning to work when the bourhood. Tradition says, that in the last water had fallen so as not to be above our century it stood as much as four rods from knees, and finished the operation when the the river, but the inhabitants by digging water was about as deep upon the flood. round it, upon the foolish expectation of The next day the same company went to finding money, gave a passage to the tide. the rock, provided with a large sheet of It is agreed on all hands, that the inscrip- paper of the whole size of the inscription, tion is hieroglyphical ; but for want of an and after retracing the character with exact copy of it, no satisfactory explana. paint, to cure any viscidity which the first tion has been given. A very imperfect paint might have contracted from the excopy was published, early in this century, treme heat of the weather, we applied the in the Philosophical Transactions of the paper to the face of the rock, two of us Royal Society of London, and about twen- managing the ends of the sheet, and the ty years ago a much more accurate one others, with towels, which we dipt into the was taken by Professor Sewall, which is river, pressing the paper upon the rock. deposited in the Museum of the University As soon as the paper was dry enough to be in Cambridge."
removed, we laid it upon the shore, and In the course of August, 1788, Mr. completed the character with-ink. AfterWinthrop took a copy of it
. He was as. up to the light, traced the inscription with
wards I brought it home, and hanging it sisted by the Rev. Mr. West and Col. ink upon the other side of the paper, it haEdward Pope, both of New-Bedford, and ving been reversed by the manner of copy. the Rev. Mr. Smith and Judge Baylies, ing it from the rock. of Dighton. The method of taking the
« The inscription comes within eight
inches of the bottom of the rock, and runs transcript is very particularly described, off at the top and ends, which makes it and as it proves the perfection of the highly probable that it has suffered concopy, may be of service on similar oc siderably since it was first wrought. The casions. We will give it in Mr. Win- character is generally about half an inch throp's own words.
wide, and very shallow, appearing as if it
were made by some pointed instrument.” “We spent one day in cleaning the face of E
Art. 4. Essuys on Hypochondriacal and other Nervous Affections. By John
Reid, m. D. Member of the Royal College of Physicians, London, and late Physician of the Finsbury Dispensary. 8vo. 209 pp. M. Carey & Son. Philadelpbia.
can furnish few characters plore the secret springs of action. more worthy of love and veneration, Pharmacy,' says Doctor Reid, 'is but than that of an accomplished physician. a small part of physic; medical cannot If he be adequately endowed and tho- be separated from moral science withroughly furnished for his good work,' out reciprocal and essential mutilation.' he becomes not only the soother of pain in conformity with this opinion is that and the healer of disease, but one of the of our illustrious countryman, Doctor most efficient auxiliars of morality and Rush, that if physicians would become public order. In order that he may better metaphysicians, and metaphysibecome so accomplished, however, he cians better physicians, it would essenmust not confine his attention to the tially facilitate the inquiries, and throw study merely of inorganic and irra- light on the pursuits of both. Nor tional nature, and the laws of the ani- would physicians and metaphysicians mal economy; he should, also, as the only, find advantage in uniting the stumeans of his most extensive usefulness die of natural and moral science. The and the crown of his glory, analyze the ministers of religion and the instructors human beart-ascertain the constituent of youth_all, whose care it is to preprinciples of the moral agent-and ex- pare members for society and citizens
for the state, would find the means of and pride of opinion, have retained usefulness greatly multiplied in their their systems; and instead of contrihands, if they would extend their stu- buting to the original stock'of knowdies, far more than they do, to those ledge, or to their own gradual renovadepartments of learning, which are re. tion, have remained, for the most part, garded by the vulgar, both the bookish immoveably moored to the same staand the illiterate, as proper only for tion, by the strength of their cables and the doctor. They would then be en- the weight of their anchors, measuring abled to urge obedience to the divine the rapidity of the current by which command, and encourage the practice the rest of the world is borne along.' of virtue by a thousand touching mo- Even at this day, the spirit which pretives, with which they are either total. dominates in most ancient seats of ly unacquainted, or which, from their learning, has emanated from systems of very limited knowledge, they cannot education that were established ages exhibit with skill. The more nearly ago, in the eclipse of science, and when the teacher of truth can approach, and learning pursued her inquiries in the the more completely he is enabled to pale glimmer of the cloister, more carecomprebend the whole nature of the ful about words than things. The consubject of his exhortation, the more tinuance of such systems, at this period convincing may he render his argument of the world, when the state of knowand the more winning will be his per- ledge and the opinions out of which suasion. The motives drawn from the they grew, have so long since passed consideration of a future state, and the away, is like opening the prison doors nature of ultimate retribution, sublime to a captive, and leading him forth to and effectual as they are, when arrayed light, and air, and nature, but insisting before the clear-sighted and wise eye that he shall still wear bis iron collar, of faith, are but too often unavailing, if and bis chain and ball. Light began to opposed to the temporary but tangible dawn on the nature of man as soon as inducements which passion brings so philosophy quit conjecture for experinear ; when, if they were aided by a ment. This light has increased with wider range of argument, drawn from the unfolding glories of the science of an extensive and intimate acquaintance medicine, and though, for a long time, it with the multiform character of man, was streaked with the hues of morning, the passions themselves might be enlist- the various rays appear to be blending ed in their enforcement, and, producing into bright beams of steady effulgence. their due results, they would be follow- A sublime improvement yet remains to ed by a long and bright train of happy be made in the education of the minisconsequences. Scholastic systems, and ters of religion, as well as the profesthe forms and genius of public educa. sors of medicine. It is the union of tion, instead of keeping pace with the natural and moral science. Solomon, general progress of society, and con- whose wisdom was the light of bis age, stantly harmonizing with the character knew every plant, from the cedar of of the times, have ever been among the Lebanon to the byssop on the wall;' last subjects of reformation,
and it is not to be doubted, that the The improved condition of society profound, luminous views which he took in modern times, must be attributed of practical ethics, are to be explained chiefly to the advancement of physical by his extensive knowledge. Throug science, and while its cultivators, by the medium of science and observation, their individual or combined exer- divine wisdom chose to convey that iltions, have contributed so largely to the lumination to the mind of the son of benefit of mankind, academic institu- David, which shed a ray of glory over Lions, with an aristocratic haughtiness the age in which he lived, and added Not only
splendour to the Jewish name. Tad- not the only good consequence of such mor has been for ages a heap of ruins ; a system of education. The period of Jerusalem-the prophecy, not in this instruction was thereby necessarily city,' has long since been fulfilled- the lengthened, and boys were not sent forth golid of Ophir is exhausted, and the into society to fill the stations and perTemple has fallen; but the memory of form the functions of men. 'the Preacher' has descended tbrough was the individual benefited, in this all the reverses of the nation over which way, but the state also was a gainer; be ruled, gathering new honours with the resources of the one were augmentevery successive generation.
ed, and the other was presented with In medicine, too, the noblest tri- an efficient member. If the changes in umph is to be achieved. The day is the manners of modern times, and paryet to come, and it will come, when ticularly the revolution in the art of the skill of the physician will be em- war, have rendered the gymnasium less ployed, not so much in prescribing necessary in a political view than it remedies, as in furnishing antidotes was, still these changes have not dirather in establishing the general regi- minished the force of the reasons in its men of lite, than in restoring enjoyment favour, drawn from its moral and phyto any particular moment. In regard sical effects upon the individual.' On to mere bodily health, the arrangement the contrary, these reasons bave reof the academic lite, in the literary in- ceived new strength from the more stitutions of the present day, has been complete and multiplied divisions of left to the wisdom of men, who, how- society into classes, in this latter age
of ever extensive may have been their the world, and the far greater number classical attainments, and however of individuals who are exempted from faithful may have been their endea- manual labour. vours to enrich the minds of their But though the truth of these posipupils with the treasures amassed in tions must be admitted, yet it would books, were but litile acquainted with doubtless be a fond expectation to look the discipline of the body, or the art for their adoption in practice, till the of preserving that health, without progress in physical science, which is which, their efforts must be fruitless, and annually extending its conquests and the destruction of which, is tou often collating every part of nature, shall, in the direct consequence of indiscreet the flow of time, havę aided the philoexertions to force the developement of sophy of mind in renovating partial the mind. That kind of hot-bed cul. theories, and views which include but tivation, which is so much the method half our nature. of many, is not only hazardous to the The foregoing are a few of the ideas health and persect growth of the body, which have presented themselves to us but is pernicious also to the mind. The in perusing Doctor Reid's work. These mind should be allowed to follow na. Essays, we think, valuable ; not that ture in its gradual approach to matu. the author has given any thing very, rity. It will then long retain the tul- original or profound, but he has added ness of its powers and scarcely know the sanction of his name and practice, decay. Nourish it, but not pamper it. to the opinions of others who have Stail-feeding is as fatal to the mind as gone before him, and they abound in to the body. In this respect, at least, wise maximns and benevolent instructhe ancients were wiser than we. The tions, the fruit of long and multifarious exercises of the gymnasium were as experience, gathered by acute obseressential with them, and regulated with vation, and expressed with elegance as much care as the lessons of the and force. Physicians like Doctor school. A vigorous constitution was Reid, consider man as he is,
pounded being, of much good sta- and is, in consequence, to be worked upon mina, but of a fearful liability to dis- by remedies that apply themselves to his order, both in his mental and corporeal still more than by those that are directed
imagination, his passions, or his judgment, faculties, and with the fidelity of one, immediately to the parts and functions of who truly feels, in the very retirement his material organization. of his heart, good will toward men, and
Doctor Reid then proceeds to exemwith a noble disdain of empirical arts, plify the strong connexion between and that sordid and murderous self-in- the mind and the body, first by adduterest which prolongs languishment for cing some of the very wonderful effects the sake of securing an income, they upon the body produced simply by the urge the observance of all those moral
power of volition: and then, by taking and physical habits, which are so con, notice of the operation of the passions formable with the dictates of nature and both upon the intellectual and physical the injunctions of religion, and directly health. From among the passions, he calculated to render men independent has selected the fear of death, pride, of tinctures, powders, pills, and lan and remorse, as furnishing some of the cets. Oi the importance of moral and
most signal illustrations. On the submetaphysical science to the physician, ject of the power of volition, though Doctor Reid thus speaks.
our author blames, as both ineffectual He who, in the study or the treate and cruel, the conduct of those who atment of the human frame, overlooks the in. tellectual part of it, cannot but entertain tempt the cure of hypochondriasis by very incorrect notions of its nature; and reproof or ridicule, yet he acknow. fall into gross and sometimes fatal blun. ledges and maintains the salutary inders in the means which he adopts for its fluence of an energetic and well reguregulation or repair. Whilst he is direct. lated. will. To illustrate the power of ing his purblind skill to remove or relieve the will over the vital and animal funcsome more obvious and superficial symptom, the worm of mental malady may be tions, he cites a case related by Doctor gnawing inwardly and undetected at the Cheyne, which is so astonishing that we root of the constitution. He may be in a
shall insert it for the amusement and situation like that of a surgeon, who at the instruction of our readers. time that he is occupied in tying up one is one of a man, " who could to all apartery, is not aware that his patient is bleeding to death at another.-Intellect is pearance die, at any time he chose, and not omnipotent; but its actual power
after having lain a considerable time over the organized matter to which it is exactly as a corpse, was able to restore attached, is much greater than is usually himself to the various functions of ani. imagined The anatomy of the mind, mation and intellect." Doctor Cheyne, therefore, should be learnt, as well as that who together with Doctor Baynard and of the body; the study of its constitution Mr. Skrine, went to visit biin, thus rein general, and its peculiarities, or what may be technically called its idiosyncra- lates the circumstances. sies, in any individual case, ought to be He could die or expire when he pleased ; regarded as one of the most essential and yet by an effort, or somehow, he could branches of a medical education.
come to life again. He insisted so much The savage, the rustic, the mechanical upon our seeing the trial madę, that we drudge, and the infant whose faculties were at last forced to comply. We all have not had time to unfold themselves, three felt his pulse first. It was distinct, or which (to make use of physiological thouglı small and thready : and his heart language) have not as yet been secreted, had its usual beating. He composed himmay, for the most part, be regarded as self on his back; and lay in a still posture machines, regulated principally by physi- for some time. While I held his right cal agents. But man, matured, civilized, hand, Dr. Baynard laid his hand on his and by due culture raised to his proper heart; and Mr. Skrine held a clear looklevel in the scale of being, partakes more ing-glass to his mouth. I found his pulse pf a moral than of an animal character, sink gradually, till at last I could not feel
any by the most exact and nice touch. Dr. nerves strung by the untiring energy of Baynard could not feel the least motion in their wills, have triuinphed over hun. his heart; nor Mr. Skrine perceive the least sort of breath on the bright mirror ger and thirst, and heat and cold, and he held to his mouth. Then each of us,
inhaled untainted the bot breath of pes. by turns, examined his arm, heart, and tilence. Or if they have died of sickbreath ; but could not, by the nicest scru. ness, it has been when, by some accident tiny, discover the least symptom of life in or evil habit, the proper character of him. We reasoned a long time about this their minds was either permanently or odd appearance as well as we could; and, for a time destroyed, or after exposure finding he still continued in that condition, we began to conclude that he had indeed and excitement had both been long past. carried the experiment too far; and at last It is not pretended that in any of the we were satisfied he was actually dead, instances alluded to, volition has been and were just ready to leave bim. This exerted with the especial design of actcontinued about half an hour. By nine o'clock in the morning in autumn, as we
ing upon the springs of life, as in the were going away, we observed some mo- case reported by Doctor Cheyne, but tion about the body; and upon examina- that by the general healthy tone of the tion found his pulse and the motion of his will and its occasional extraordinary heart gradually returning; he began to excitement, the body has been kept as breathe gently, and speak softly. We it were in a prepared state to resist the were all astonished to the last degree at this unexpected change ; and after some
invasion of disease, or to throw it off, further conversation with him and our. instead of tamely submitting, if at any selves, went away fully satisfied as to all time it had actually seized upon
sys. the particulars of this fact, but not able tem. The fact it is presumed will not to form any rational scheme how to ac- be denied ; and how else can it be ex. count for it.
plained? Occupation, whether of mind This, however, was the last experi- or body, or both, will hardly furnish ment the man made, for in a few hours an explanation, for simply having much afterwards he actually died.
to do, especially if it be attended with Civil as well as medical history can, great responsibility and be difficult of it should seem, furnish many examples execution, instead of conducing to the of the preservative power of an ener- corporal good of a man of feeble will, getic will. We can well recollect bow would of itself destroy him. Nor can often, in reading the narrative of men it be said in opposition, that the hope wbo have been remarkable for their of reward, whether in wealth, honour, spirit of adventure, we have been struck or renown, would account for the fact, with the fact that they have almost uni- for this feeling would not so much proformly escaped the diseases which have duce its effect directly, as by stimulaswept off their followers. Of those ting resolution, and operating through men who have astonished the world by the medium of volition ; and as for the heroism of their exploits in the field courage, intrepidity in danger, and the of battle ; who have founded empires, feeling of exultation upon the successo or new-modelled the institutions of ful issue of an arduous struggle, these states ; who have extended the limits are all qualities of the will, or are found of civilization, or led the way through in those men only who are character onexplored regions of the earth, we be- ized by the energy of that faculty. But lieve but few comparatively have ever we do not pretend to be qualified to lain long on the bed of languishment. enter into a profound discussion of this“ While men of pusillanimous spirits subject, and we will pass on, to what bave fallen beneath privation and is said of the fear of death. disease like grass beneath the mower's After some striking remarks on the scythe, these great men, their animal melancholy inconsistency exhibited by fibre invigorated and shielded, and their those, upon whose health the fear of