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XX. Damp beds are frequently met with at inns which are little used, and in the rooms where fire is seldom made: they ought to be carefully avoided, for they not only bring on illness, but sometimes prove the death of the person who has the misfortune to sleep in them. Travellers should examine the beds, to see if they be quite dry; and they ought to have the bedclothes aired in their


If the mattresses are suspected, it will be preferable to lie down on dry and clean straw. If a friend offer you a bed, endeavour to have it warmed, with the necessary precautions, because there are in certain houses certain beds kept only for particular visitors, and therefore they might be damp, if not used for a long while.

XXI. People whose clothes have been wet through, should look for very dry beds, have the sheets well aired, put on clean shirts, smoking them with sugar, or something of that nature, and, before they go to bed, to rub their skins with dry flannel, which promotes perspiration. Those parts of the body that have been wet ought to be washed with lukewarm water, in which a little soap has been dissolved. Those whom circumstances may not permit to put on dry clothes, should keep their bodies in constant motion, till the clothes are become dry again upon them. This inconvenience ought to be avoided as much as possible, because it brings on rheumatic pains, agues, colics, &c. to people not used to it.

XXII. Persons who have perspired copiously from the heat of the sun, should shelter themselves, as much as opportunity will permit, during the falling of the dew; if they cannot avoid it, they should by no means sit down. Continual exercise favours transpiration, and diminishes the bad consequences which the cold air exposes people to.

XXIII. Since a body, which is void of food, is more apt to attract contagious maladies, a traveller should never visit a sick person in the morning before breakfast; it will then not be amiss to eat a bit of bread dipped in vinegar, and to wash the nostrils and mouth with camphorated vinegar before visiting the sick. During the time he is in an hospital, or sick room, he should never swallow his spital, and rather use something to draw it up, such as sponge, or blotting-paper. It is also very wholesome to drink a glass of wine, with a little sugar and the juice of half a lemon, on these occasions.

XXIV. Travellers ought always to carry with them a bottle of aromatic vinegar (vinaigre de quatre voleurs), some aperient pills (Dr. Stevenson's Imperial Marine Pills and Tincture are best adapted for journies either by land or sea), Hoffman's Anodyne Drops, and some such other useful and necessary articles; as frequent occasion occurs for such things where they are not always to be conveniently had.

Dr. Franklin, who was a very wise man, as well as a


very garrulous one on many occasions, (for although he was not over-fond of the inquisitive impertinence of other people, he has found enough to say for himself on many useful subjects, which he was by no means desirous of consigning to oblivion), gives us the following hints to be used by those who are about to undertake a sea voyage :

“ When you intend to take a long voyage, nothing is better than to keep it a secret, as much as possible, till the moment of your departure. Without this you will be continually interrupted and tormented by visits from friends and acquaintances, who not only make you lose your valuable tim

valuable time, but cause you also to forget a thousand things which you wish to remember; so that when you are embarked and fairly at sea, you recollect, with much uneasiness, affairs which you have not terminated, accounts that you have not settled, and a number of things which you proposed to carry with you, and which you find the want of every moment. Would it not be attended with the best consequences to reform such a custom, and to suffer a traveller, without deranging him, to make his preparations in quietness, to set apart a few days, when these are finished, to take leave of his friends, and to receive their good wishes for his happy return ?

“ It is not always in one's power to choose a captain, though great part of the pleasure and happiness of the passage depends upon this choice, and though one must for a long time be confined to his company, and be, in some measure, under his command. If he is a

sociable, sensible man, obliging, and of a good disposition, you will be so much the happier. One sometimes meets with people of this description, but they are not common. However, if yours be not of this number, if he be a good seaman, attentive, careful, and active in the management of his vessel, you must dispense with the rest, for these are the most essential qualities.

" Whatever right you may have by your agreement with him to the provisions which he has taken on board for the use of the passengers, it is always proper to have some private store, which you may make use of occasionally. You ought, therefore, to provide good water, that of the ship being often bad; but you must put it into bottles, without which you cannot expect to preserve it sweet.

You ought also to carry with you good tea, ground coffee, chocolate, wine of that sort which you like best, cyder, dried raisins, almonds, sugar, capillaire, citrons, rum, eggs dipped in oil, portable soup, biscuits. With regard to poultry, it is almost useless to carry any


you, unless you resolve to undertake the office of feeding and fattening them yourself. With the little care that is taken of them on board of ship, they are almost all sickly, and their flesh is as tough as leather.

“ It may happen that some of the provisions and stores, which I have here recommended, may become almost useless, by the care which the captain has taken to lay in a proper stock; but in such a case you may dispose of it to relieve the poor passengers, who, paying less for their passage, are stowed among the com

the crew.

mon sailors, and have no right to the captain's provisions, except to such part of them as is used for feeding

These passengers are sometimes sick, melancholy, and dejected, and there are often women and children among them, neither of whom have any opportunity of procuring those things already mentioned, and of which, perhaps, they have the greatest need. By distributing amongst them a part of your superfluity, you may be of the greatest assistance to them ; you may restore their health, save their lives, and, in short, render them happy, which always affords the liveliest pleasure to a feeling mind.

“ The most disagreeable thing at sea is the cookery, for there is not, properly speaking, any professed cook on board. The worst sailor is generally chosen for that purpose, who, for the most part, is equally dirty and unskilful; hence comes the proverb used among the English sailors, God sends meat, but the Devil sends cooks. Those, however, who have a better opinion of Providence, will think otherwise : knowing that seaair, and the exercise or motion, which is communicated by the rolling of the ship, have a wouderful effect in whetting the appetite, they will say that Providence has given sailors bad cooks, to prevent them from eating too much; or, that knowing they would have bad cooks, he has given them a good appetite, to prevent them from dying with hunger. However, if you have no confidence in these succours of Providence, you may yourself, with a lamp and a burner, by the help of a little spirits of wine, prepare some food, such as soup,

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