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(among others) to nominate the bishops, of the State. These establishments are in and to provide for the ecclesiastical sup- the cities, but they are nearly deserted.
They do nothing for the public weal. They In the additional acts of the Constitution, cannot receive a new member of any sort we learn that (Art. 10), “ to the Provincial without public authority. - Exoept the Assemblies belong the power to legislate in Benedictines, they are all very poor. regard to their civil, judicial, and ecclesias- The support of the clergy comes from tical affairs."
two sources, but both are, in fact, from the In the fullest sense of the term, the State, since the State pays a fixed sum and Church is dependent on the State. It can graduates the price of all services, which do nothing without the civil authority. the priests can claim and collect in the They mutually support each other, and it courts. is to their interest thus to do.
So far as
The Archbishop of Bahia receives 3,600 we can judge, the Emperor and his Court milreis; the eight bishops, 19,200 milreis. seem to have a perfect understanding with The Metropolitan Court expenses at the bishop and his clergy, and they mutually Bahia amount to 5,020 milreis; the Imcontribute to each other's strength.
perial Chapel, &c., to 80,876 milreis, which, The bishops cannot confer orders without with the expense of all the parish priests the special grant of the Emperor. Neither in Rio and suburbs, amount to 126,040 bishops nor priests can absent themselves milreis per year. from their parishes without a special permit The vicar of each parish receives 600 from the Government.
milrcis, and his assistant 400 milreis per The union of Church and State is un- year. doubtedly the cause of many abuses. There The expenses of the clergy, on the part is no pressure on the priest either to be a of the Government, foot up as follows:pure man or an active Christian. He is pro- Expenses of the Court, the Archbishop, vided for, and he is ruled over by another and eight bishops, 126,040 milreis; mean power than public opinion and the free sup- expenses of 1,550 priests (deducting fiftyport of his flock. In fact, he cares not for seven for Rio, included in the above), these. He openly outrages the most sacred 775,000 milreis; total, 901,040 milreis. laws of society and of God, which are A milreis being about fifty-five cents of notorious facts, and of which he is not the money of the United States, the total ashamed. All the fees for his services, as expense of the Romish Church to the a minister of Jesus Christ, are graduated by Brazilian Government amounts to about public law, and he serves only when paid. 495,572 dols. We come now to speak of the
Small sums are sometimes granted for the ORDERS, NUMBER, AND SUPPORT OF THE repairs of churches, but of these we have
no data. The empire of Brazil forms a single eccle- Taking the prices of all the different siastical province, administered by a metro- services together, such as mass, baptism, politan archbishop and eight bishops. Bahia burial, and marriage, the average is 1.50 dols. is the see of the archbishopric, and Pará, each ; and we are told that most priests Maranhao, Pernambuco, Rio de Janeiro, realise quite a large sum during the year Sao Paulo, Marianna, Goyaz, and Cuiabá, for the different services rendered. of the assistant bishops. The eight dioceses From the above it will be noticed that, are so divided as to make these cities centres. so far as money is concerned, the priestThese dioceses, in some instances, lap over hood is not very attractive, though we think different provinces; and as each province they are well paid, if services be the criis a distinct organic government, with its terion of judgment. own peculiar civil and ecclesiastical laws, it RELIGIOUS CONDITION OF THE PEOPLE. is the source of trouble.
The disproportion between the clergy The number of clergy of all sorts in and the people, and the extent of empire, Brazil, fulfilling their functions, is put down is a very great drawback, even if the clergy by the Budget of the State at 1,607, but were as active and influential as the Proin all probability this is an over-estimate-testant clergy in the United States. at least many priests are included who In the absence of a home, a wife, and seldom, if ever, peform the duties of their children, the tendency is for priests to live office. The religious convents, &c., are not together, and accordingly they cluster in at the present day very numerous in Brazil, cities; the people in the interior, and all but the number is not stated in the Budget their primary instruction are therefore neg
AMERICAN INTELLIGENCE. lected. Many priests have parishes from exceeds that of ordinations; and we might sixty to even 200 miles in diameter. This quote many facts to illustrate the destitution in some provinces, larger than several of and utter negligence of the bishops in prothe North American States, as in Piauhy, viding instruction and worship for the there are only thirty priests, being one to people. It is a notorious fact, acknowevery 5,000 inhabitants, who are widely Iedged by all, that the Romish Church scattered.
has not the same power now in Brazil as It often occurs that years pass wherein formerly; that out of the large cities the the parish priest does not see some of his churches are going to decay, are without parishioners. When he visits certain neigh- proper furniture, and are not being repaired. bourhoods, he is compelled to baptize And it is safe to say that the people are in children from four to six years of age- as bad, if not worse, condition than in sometimes parents and children at the same heathen lands, as to evangelisation, because time. We have conversed with persons they hold to a sort of spurious Christianity, who remember well when they were which cuts off all investigation, which baptized, and gave us as the reason of their blinds the heart and understanding, which deferring it, that no opportunity had oc- engenders the greatest presumption, the curred. We state these things, which greatest ignorance, the greatest prejudice, Brazilian writers also state, simply to show and the greatest indifference. No man that the people in the interior are in great understands this, unless he has attempted need of the Gospel, and that there must be to reach such minds. in such places great ignorance and great We think no one will violate truth in excesses.
making the strongest, the most unqualified In the province of Minas, one-third part statements in regard to the debased state of the children are illegitimate.
of religion in the Brazilian empire. The In the provinces of Pernambuco and Rio great mass of the people are in the deepest Grande de Norte (perhaps of Cará) the pro- error, and they seem to rejoice in it. portions of assassinations is one to 2,000 NO inhabitants; in all Brazil it is one to 10,000.
The following things, for the most part, “In the interior," says a Brazilian author, they have not. They have not the Bible "all the religion of the people consists in or any religious literature. Even the higher witnessing, at great intervals, some solemn classes in the cities have only the Catechism, religious rites-such as mass, an image pro- the Sacred History, Prayers to the Virgin, cession, or a festa—without any religions Mass-books, &c. training, or the permanent influence of a They have no living ministry. Even in good example.
Rio, the people have the most miserable And, we will add, what else have the specimens of priests, to whom they pay no people in Rio, the chief city of the empire respect whatever, except when they stand
The official documents of the different at the altar; men given up to indolence, to provinces disclose the fact that the Roman ignorance, and who shame their profession Catholic religion does not possess, in Brazil, by their broken vows of celibacy. In the one-half its former energy in other words, interior, however, they have but seldom the that it is gradually losing its hold, not by presence of a priest. the influence of a better faith, but purely The people have no instruction from on account of the weakness and poverty in, the pulpit, or in any other way. To call and lack of sympathy for, the Brazilian the few addresses delivered per year on Church.
the festas of the Church (chiefly about the “Rome," says a Brazilian author, "has Virgin and the lives of so-called saints), infelt more interest in North America." structive sermons, would be to insult com
As it is not the genius of Romanism to mon sense. Brazilians themselves acknowelevate, after it has its hold on the people, ledge that more than two-thirds of the priests therefore nothing of late years has been could not preach if so disposed--that they done for Brazil. She is Roman Catholic have not the instruction or ability. But out all over, and that is enough. What is the of the cities, the people have not the benefit use of educating and elevating, if the people of even these yearly addresses-in fact, have the true faith? In this line of con- they have no instruction of a religious kind, duct is observed the essence of Romanism beyond the catechism. in all lands.
The people of Brazil hare no Sabbath. The number of priests who die annually far It is out of the question for religion to have
AMERICAN INTELLIGENCE. much power over the masses, where the white, rich and poor; those coming first Sabbath is not regarded. The only public being first served. worship which the people have on the Sab- But in respect to the prosperity of the bath is mass, which occupies but a small Church in Rio, there are special reasons for portion of the day, while the balance is it; and they constitute no data whereby to given to various amusements, or at least judge of the whole Brazilian Church. to occupations unsuited to the day. How is will specify some of these reasons :it possible, therefore, for such a people, 1. Rio de Janeiro is the Court-the re. who have nothing to elevate them, who sidence of the Emperor, and the highest lack all the great instrumentalities of reli- , manifestation of Brazilian civilisation, and gion, to be practical Christians? If, in the thus the Churches enjoy these advantages. United States and England, with all the ap. 2. In Rio are many rival Churches, a pliances of religion in full force-the Bible large number of priests, and great wealth open-the press free and active-public in the community. and social worship—the Sabbath and its 3. Several of the Churches are well off, schools-family religion—a virtuous, intel- having real estates, while one or two are ligent, working laity, and an active, intelli- liberally supported by the State, being the gent, pure, and respected ministry, the truth special Churches of the Emperor. advances so slowly, how is it possible that 4. Each Church has one or two brotherthis people should as yet have under- hoods; a sort of Church “ Odd Fellows," stood what be the first principles of the who administer the affairs of the Church, Gospel ?
who are always on hand at festas and proTHE CONDITION OF THE CHURCH IN RIO DE cessions, and who, by mutual fees, support
the poor, take care of the sick, and bury the The capital of the empire and largest dead. They are certainly praiseworthy city in South America, is somewhat dif- societies, and are the safeguards of the ferent, outwardly, from the rest of Brazil. faith. So far as we can learn, they correA stranger would be apt to say : “I see spond, in many respects, to the male memhere no evidence of decay; but on the bership of a Protestant Church, except that contrary, all the churches seem to be the organisation is more distinctive-has flourishing, while some are being en certain titles, badges of membership, and larged and beautified, and new ones built.” grades of office. In Rio there are fortyIt is true, it does thus appear; and we eight of these brotherhoods. They are are told that all the demonstrations of the usually composed of the working classes. last year have been on a grander scale They embody a vast amount of organised than formerly. It is true, also, that the strength, superstition, zeal, and means. churches are in a finer condition--many They are all strong supporters of “Nossa undergoing repairs or being enlarged. Senhora,” in all her offices, human and The different cemeteries near the city are divine. being beautified, while all the festas of the In the province of Rio de Janeiro there different churches are very rich and very are 109 parishes, having 218 priests ; in the well attended. In fact, were we a Roman city of Rio there are nine parishes, and in Catholic, we should feel very well con- the suburbs seven more-sixteen in all, tented with the aspect and prospect of the giving twenty-eight priests—though the faith, if Rio were permitted to furnish the Imperial chapel and hospitals give about data. We have visited the different churches twenty more. In these sixteen parishes, in every day and at all hours, and taking the and around Rio, there are seventy-six festas of the Church into account, or even chapels, some fifteen of which are churches the aggregate daily attendance at mass, by of medium size, while the balance are only far more persons enter the sanctuary in places where mass is celebrated at stated Rio, than the Protestant churches of any periods, but they are not churches in the city of equal size in the United States. It proper acceptation of the term; and it is is true, two-thirds of these are negroes and simply absurd to say, as some writers have mulattoes, but they are worshippers and said, that “there are over fifty churches in human beings. And we would here state, Rio de Janeiro." that Brazilian Romanism teaches one great As we have stated, there are about fifty truth, which in the United States is often active priests in Rio, though the whole forgotten—that is, the democracy of reli- number may be much larger, if we take gion; for here there are no privileged seats, into account all who have been ordained; but all meet on perfect equality—black and I but many of these are in business, and do
AMERICAN INTELLIGENCE. not perform, or but seldom, priestly func- , which there is sent forth yearly some eight tions. Of the different orders of monks, or ten young priests; but the culture there &c., in Rio, we could not learn anything obtained is very superficial, for it is not a definitely. There are four convents and theological, but a general school for all two nunneries, and the number of members studies. Among the marked men of Brazil in any one of them does not probably --and she certainly can boast of some-we exceed fifty. They are not in a flourishiog do not know a single ecclesiastic. condition.
The duties of the priest are very trivial Judging, then, from the outward appear- in Brazil, chiefly the services of the mass, ance of things—from the signs of lifefrom which require neither time, talent, nor the zeal and rivalry of the different brother- effort. They seldom preach, or engage in hoods—from the crowded festas, the church any service requiring study or reflection. decorations, the church repairs, and the They never lecture to the people. They frequent image processions got up “regard- never write books. They are seldom teachers
less of expense”—the Church in Rio is on of the young. They are not permitted to the advance. This certainly cannot be dis- visit private families; and with the exception puted. The Emperor and lady seem to be of marrying, visiting the dying, and burying as zealous and devout as the most humble the dead, we do not know that they perform in life, and of course will not permit things any other noble duties. How they manage to decline. It is true, the higher classes to pass their time, remains a mystery. The (by these we mean the men of intelligence, ministerial office, as it is understood in the of business, and of wealth) seem to have United States, besides embracing what we little to do with religion, except when com- have mentioned above, includes preaching pelled in the rites of marriage, of baptism, the Word, striving to induce men to become and of burial. They are seldom seen in the reconciled to God, and guiding the flock churches or at any of the festas ; for the both by precept and example. But these lower classes, the females, and especially functions are not at all fulfilled by the negroes, are the true devotees of the Romish Brazilian priesthood, as will be seen when Brazilian Church.
we contemplate their character. In conversing with intelligent Brazilians, It may be safely affirmed, that the chait is found that they hold but few of thé racters of the priests are generally bad— distinctive doctrines of their Church. In especially as professed ministers of Christ. fact, they know not what they do believe This is the general opinion of Brazilians exactly, but they have a sort of idea that, themselves. They are uniformly esteemed as the Roman Catholic religion was the faith indolent. The idea of personal holiness, of of their parents, is the faith of the people moral purity, does not enter into their conand the State, they ought to support it, ception of a padre. To the eye, his person
, especially as the renunciation of it would and garb are always repulsive; and, knowruin all their social and worldly interests. ing his private life, his sanctimonious air
Rio is confessedly the most civilised and must be regarded as the height of hypocrisy. the best provided point, religiously, in all Many of them keep their houses, and rear Brazil; and we now propose to speak of the a numerous offspring. This unhappy fact, culture, labours, and characters of that many padres are licentious men (by THE RIO CLERGY ;
which we mean, living contrary to their for a people will always correspond, reli- vows of chastity, and the laws of God and giously, to their teachers.
man), is so notorious, that they are not perThe priests of Rio, with few striking mitted to enter private houses—so notorious, exceptions, are men of very ordinary culture. that the arm of Government was once inIn the first place, the material is bad. The voked to compel the priests to marry-s0 talented sons of a family never become notorious, that no respect is shown them in priests. It has passed into a proverb in the street by the people. We have conBrazil (so we have been told by natives), versed freely with all classes—the young that when a father has a son fit for nothing and old, bigots and liberals—and we have else in the world, he consents to have a priest yet to meet with a single individual who made out of him. At any rate, no one is has attempted in the least to deny or defend 80 foolish as to assert that the Brazilian the clergy against the charge of open, unpriests are learned men, or even intelligent; blushing violation of their vows of celibacy. they are generally thought the contrary. One would suppose that if these things
The theological schools of Brazil are not were really so, the people would desert the worth naming. In Rio there is one, from | altars of such priests. But it is not somit
EDITORIAL NOTICE. is far otherwise. The doctrine is simply is it strange that the people should resemthis : It makes no difference what is the ble their spiritual guides and fathers ? Cercharacter of the officiating priest; he is tainly not; and they do resemble them. divinely ordained, and therefore we get the For the most part, whatever may be the sacraments—all else is nothing.
causes, the people are ignorant and very We would here remark that we do not superstitious, not at all inquisitive, but selfthink the “confessional” is much resorted satisfied and willing dupes to a religious to in Rio—at least by the better classes. system which, though it has had full sway Now, where the clergy are illiterate— for three hundred years, has neither enwhere they perform only the necessary lightened nor elevated them. duties of their office, and where they are
(To be continued.) not respected on account of their bad morals,
EDITORIAL NOTICE OF CURRENT EVENTS.
The Society for Propagating the Gospel The Congregational body are taking meain Foreign Parts is taking steps with a sures to reorganise and extend their Home view to improve the openings in China and Missionary operations. They propose to Japan. At a recent public meeting in Lon- form a society to promote this work excludon, presided over by the Bishop of Lon- sively in London, by aiding weak metrodon, resolutions were adopted to that effect. politan Churches, and assisting to raise new
The revision of the Prayer-book is a ones in the poorer districts. Their existsubject which engages the steady attention ing society, in the meantime, is to pursue of an increasing number of earnest and in- its labours more vigorously in the country fluential members of the Church of England, districts, to which they are to be confined. both lay and clerical. They held a Confer- Some of the leading Nonconformists of ence lately, at which General Alexander London have engaged St. James's Hall for was called to the chair, and Lord Ebury Sabbath evening services, to commence with took a leading part in the proceedings. the first Lord's-day in this month. Exeter
The Bishop of London commenced the Hall continues to be occupied by the clergy Lord's-day evening services at St. Paul's of the Established Church. Secular build Cathedral for the working classes on No. ings are, as we rejoice to see, more than vember 28. The sacred edifice was crowded,
aforetime used for purposes of Divine worand it is said that more than 10,000 per- ship and for the preaching of the Gospel. sons had assembled round it before the Paul preached not
in the Synagogues only, doors were opened, by far the largest but in the school of one Tyrannus," and
" part of whom were, of course, unable to on Mars hill. find admission.—This excellent prelate is A meeting has lately been held of leading also indefatigable in his labours in the persons in the Society of Friends likely to crowded district of Bethnal-green, preach result in some important modifications of ing in the different churches, evening after the interior discipline of that respectable evening, to large and attentive congrega- body of Christians. The questions discussed tions. - Other bishops are also addicting related to the propriety of allowing marthemselves more than was the case with riages to be solemnised in their assemblies some of their predecessors to a laborious when one of the contracting parties only is a discharge of their onerous duties as “minis- member of their body, or when neither party ters of Christ and stewards of the mysteries is a member, but both parties attended of God.” May their godly zeal find an their religious meetings. The subject of abundant recompense in the increasing plainness of speech, behaviour, and apparel, power and prevalence of true religion ! was also debated. No practical measures
Prayer Meetings for a revival of religion can be adopted except by the Yearly Meetare now held, we believe, in many if not in ing. With considerable difference of opimost towns in Scotland. They embrace nion there was, we are told, “a prevailing persons of all Christian denominations, and feeling of brotherly love, under which are said to be well attended. Similar meet- Friends were mercifully permitted to sepaings continue to be held every week in rate." Exeter Hall, and in some other parts of The Queen's Proclamation to her new London, and also in some provincial towns. subjects in India has been a topic much