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that religious liberty is increasingly seen to be a great blessing, and that heresies must be put down only by moral means. When the Swedish clergyman, the Rev. Mr. Hammar, inquired of the Danes and Norwegians, at the meeting of the Scandinavian Churches, held in Copenhagen in 1857, if they preferred their present liberty to the former state of things? the answer was unanimously given in the affirmative.
It is proper, however, to remark, that these statements refer only to Denmark Proper-to Jutland and the islands; Schleswig has a constitution of its own, from which religious liberty is excluded. Very recently the Baptists here have suffered persecution. Neither have the German Duchies of Holstein and Lauenburg proclaimed religious liberty.
The National Church, also, at the present
time enjoys full liberty. She is, indeed, too dependent on the State; but her members possess privileges which were formerly denied to them. The laity were often prosecuted by the magistrates, like the Baptists, for holding religious meetings without the permission of the clergy. Thirty years ago, when the awakening took place among the peasants in various parts of the country, peaceable citizens were thrown into prison and despoiled of their goods. Now they can meet at any time and in any place; the pastors generally no longer oppose the meetings, but rather rejoice at them, provided they are not the work of sectaries. Unhappily many of the lay preachers are animated by a sectarian spirit, calumniate the Church and her ministers, and condemn those by whom their conduct is disapproved.
LOW STATE OF THE PROTESTANT CHURCH-HOPEFUL CIRCUMSTANCES GOOD TO BE DONE BY RELIGIOUS TRACTS.
Pesth, in Hungary, Aug. 11, 1859. Dear Dr. Steane,-The May number of Evangelical Christendom contains a com munication from a brother in Austria, who refers to a letter in the January number which was written by me, upon the spiritual state of the Evangelical Church of this country; and he says, "A dark picture was drawn of it; indeed, one that seemed to me rather too dark, whilst many light spots and encouraging signs were left unmentioned." This remark in the introduction of his letter would lead any one to suppose that he was about to make up for the want in my letter, and point out those "light spots and encouraging signs" to the readers of Evangelical Christendom. Yet for this we look in vain in his communication; nay, he even grants that the want of spiritual life is acknowledged "by the most unbelieving pastors" of this country, but, "on the other hand," he continues, "the most godly among them account for it by referring to our poverty, and the oppression we suffer." Immediately after, however, he very justly remarks, that we are taught by the Gospel that oppression "should have an opposite effect, and lead to a deeper and more earnest spirituality."
Well, then, this is the very sum and substance of what I stated, and the exact expression of my own feelings with reference to the spiritual destitution of the Evangelical Churches of Austria and Hungary,
and this caused me to express my great astonishment that the Protestant Church could ever have become so degenerate, seeing that persecution and oppression can only serve to quicken, to purify, and to sanctify the true Church of Christ.
What, then, does your correspondent mean to say, or what is the purport of his letter? Why, instead of showing forth the "light spots' and "encouraging signs," he enumerates a number of black spots and discouraging signs, and gives a picture of the whole as dark and melancholy as possible, far exceeding my own description; for with each complaint or evil which he mentions, he lays the blame entirely and forcibly to the unbelief and indifference of the Protestant clergy and people, and to their opposition, even, and enmity against any movement towards a better state of things.
And, I am sorry to say, all this is but too true; and the Protestants of Austria and Hungary, instead of complaining about the Government, have every reason to humble themselves before God on account of their own sins and faithlessness; instead of striving against the laws and authorities of the land, let them turn humbly and submissively to the law and testimony of the Lord, and acknowledge His authority; instead of their bitter complaints about the "Reverses" demanded by the Roman Catholic clergy from parties contracting mixed
marriages, let them be ashamed of the fact that, in some places, as many as two-thirds of all the marriages among Protestants are mixed, and that the parents mostly make very little matter about the Roman or Protestant baptism of their children. May this very fact lead them to see what state the Church is in, and that these so-called Protestants, in reality, neither know nor value the faith they profess. Instead of finding fault with the restrictions and difficulties in school matters-which, after all, are not great-let them rather bewail the sad condition their schools are in, and the shameful manner religion is taught (or rather not taught) in them, for on this point, especially, I could disclose some startling facts-yea, let them bewail their own readiness to send their offspring even to Roman Catholic schools. Instead of expecting and waiting for a better state of things to arise from Government measures or privileges, and from re-organisations of the Church, or from general synods, let them see that the Government, if, on the one hand, unable to crush and extinguish any spiritual life and movement existing in the Churches, is, on the other hand, just as incapable, by any favour or grant of rights, to infuse or call forth any vital state or action in the same. Let them learn from other Churches in Great Britain and Germany, that even under the consistorial form of Church-government there may be living and labouring Christianity, whilst the Presbyterian system is by no means a sure guarantee for orthodoxy and spirituality nay, in Hungary it may be seen that the Presbyteries themselves are the veriest clogs and hindrances to a proper rule and development of the Church. And if this be the case, and if, in addition, clergymen themselves scoff and mock in the vilest manner possible (as has been shown by your correspondent) against Home Missions and similar organisations, which might be the very instrumentalities to arouse and awaken the Protestant population of the country, what then, I ask, might be expected, if even a general synod were granted by the Government? I maintain that this privilege would certainly be abused and made the means and occasion for incalculable mischief and confusion. It is only when the Church is in some degree what it should be, or at least earnestly striving for it, that the Presbyterian form of Church-management may truly be a privilege and a blessing. Therefore, let not the Churches of Austria and Hungary indulge in such vain
hopes and expectations, nor look for help from man, or from anything man-or even the Government-can do for them, but may they look up to God and call upon Him for help. And if the Protestants will but humble themselves in the sight of the Lord, confessing their sins and their neglect, and depart from their former ways, the Lord will certainly have mercy upon them and revive them.
And now, as your Austrian correspondent found fault with me for not pointing out the "light spots and encouraging signs" that show themselves in this country (although he neglected all the while to do so himself), I must say a word or two more; and, as one good turn deserves another, he having been so kind as to tell me of my fault, I shall now try to make his fault good by mentioning those "light spots" which he may probably have had in his mind, but which he did not bring out. I do not suppose that among those "light spots" our friend would enumerate the somewhat better state of morality in certain parishes, and the smaller number of illegitimate children, when in other places more than one-half are such; nor do I presume that the proportion of mixed marriages in some places being smaller, or that the Church-discipline at Laibach, consisting in applying an antidote against the effects of mixed marriages by means of a ContraReverse, are regarded by him as very bright specks or hopeful appearances, for I trust your correspondent will agree that something else and more is required, if it shall be called a really promising feature. But if he has had his eye upon the two societies lately formed (under the sanction of Government) in the city of Pesth, viz., for the benefit of Protestant orphans and for Protestant mechanics, I perfectly agree that these are, at least, hopeful organisations, though time only will show whether they are really conducted in the spirit of the Gospel, and tend to the furtherance of the same. But of these two societies I could not make mention in my letter, for the simple reason that at the time when it was written they did not yet exist.
But I did mention (which our Austrian friend seems to have overlooked) the certainly very hopeful circumstance that, upon the whole, the people are very willing to hear and to accept of the truth where it is brought before them, having myself, in the little sphere of my own labours, met with the most gladdening results. I also mentioned that, having made a small experiment with the circulation
of religious pamphlets, "the effects were greatly encouraging." And, therefore, in consideration of the state of things in this country, and under the existing want of truly Evangelical preachers, I gave my opinion that the Gospel might here be propagated most effectually through the medium of the press, and I called upon the brethren in Great Britain to support this scheme. To my great satisfaction and encouragement, I perceived from the subsequent numbers of Evangelical Christendom that my appeal had not been made in vain, but that several friends had come forward with very handsome contributions; for which, permit me on this occasion and through these means to express my warmest thanks. May the Lord bless both the givers and the gifts, and may they be made instrumental in conveying the saving knowledge of Christ, and Him crucified, to many a never-dying soul! Let me add that, since I sent that letter, I have gone on with the work of publishing and circulating, and that, whilst so doing, I have found out more and more how immensely large and promising the field is here for such a work; for, in the first place, we should have tracts printed in three different languages-the Hungarian, the Slavonian,
and the German being spoken in this country; secondly, the expenses of postage and carriage are not inconsiderable; and, thirdly, some kind of agency seems to be required to carry on the work fully and properly. Now, of course, I have not the means for supplying the wants in these several respects; indeed, I have already gone to the outside of my own abilities. I can only present the subject to the prayerful consideration of the readers of Evangelical Christendom, and if they see the need of assistance, and feel moved to come forward and lend their aid to this cause, I shall take it as a token from the Lord that this work is to be extended, and I shall be glad to do my utmost in making known the blessed name of Jesus to perishing multitudes; and may it be unto them "as ointment poured forth," and even as a healing balm. May God himself conduct the plan, and to Him be ascribed all the glory!
Please, dear Dr. Steane, to insert this letter in your valuable periodical. May the Lord be with you, and with the noble cause of brotherly love in which you are engaged!
Believe me, very truly and respectfully yours,
To the Editor of Evangelical Christendom. The Rev. Mr. Morse, of Adrianople, gives a very interesting account of a young Turk, a cadet in the Pasha's school at Adrianople, who often visited the missionaries, and brought many young men with him, from time to time, during the winter.
He had professed his belief in the truth of Christianity, and though for a long time there was no opposition, excitement and persecution rose at last, and he was sent as a culprit to Constantinople. But it appears that the Colonel, in whose charge he was sent, was a personal friend, had read the Scriptures with the young man, and was himself quite inclined to Christianity. He took letters to the missionaries at Constantinople, and, on arriving there, called upon them with his prisoner. Other students have since called to see us, and we have experienced no marks of disrespect; but, on the contrary, among the Greeks and Armenians, increased confidence and respect.
By the latest accounts received, Dr. Dwight, of Constantinople, mentions that orders have been given by the commandant
at the barracks where the young man is placed, that he should be well treated and remain at his ease. Dr. Dwight also remarks: "The work among the Turks is looming up, and if not hindered by some untoward event, or by our neglect and sluggishness, it will, by and bye, assume very large proportions. That the Turkish officials throughout the country have been instructed not to persecute Mohammedans who embraced Christianity, is very evident. The Governors of Sivas, Cesarea, and Diarbekir have, to my knowledge, and within a short time, with cases actually before them, openly and publicly declared that a Mohammedan who became a Christian could not be molested."
Rev. Mr. Williams, of Mardin, April 8, gives the following account of the conversion and stability of Pilgrim Meekha :
"Our chief progress is seen in the changed position of the most influential of the Protestants, Pilgrim Meekha, of whom I have spoken before. But before giving his history further, I ought to make you ac
quainted with the man. Originally a Ja- the city was alive with this when I came cobite, he thirty years ago became a Papist, and carried over one hundred houses with him; since then they have had no such earnest, vigorous partisan as he. The Virgin Mary had few more sincere devotees than he was six months ago. Thrice he has made the pilgrimage to Jerusalem, and last summer, when the Priest Sarkis fled to Mr. Marsh, and declared himself a Protestant, the Armenian Papal Bishop said to this man: 'It would seem that these heretics would make a permanent lodgment here. What shall we do?' He replied: 'Don't worry about that; I'll be security that they don't remain here.' We are here yet, and he is our stoutest champion.
"He thus became a Protestant. Before the priest, who is still with us, and holds firmly to the truth, was forbidden the active duties of a priest on account of his Evangelical views, he had sown much Gospel truth among his disciples; and secretly, not a few of them were semi-gospelers. Among these was a son-in-law of Meekha, who, returning from Bagdad in the fall, and hearing what had occurred in the summer, began to speak more openly, but in great fear of his father-in-law. Last December Pilgrim Meekha had a quarrel with his bishop about a matter of 900 piastres. Returning to his house exasperated at the dishonesty and falsehood of his bishop, he sent for his son-in-law Sado, and said, What is this new way of which you have got hold? Take the Gospel and read to me.' For three days did he keep him reading, until Matthew, Mark, Luke, John, the Epistles, and the whole was finished. You may judge of his amazement when he found that what he had hitherto believed to be most precious was not only without foundation, but was opposed to the whole spirit of God's Word. He sent for the priests, and they came. 'Prove your doctrines from the Bible, and silence that young man,' said he. They had no arguments but cuffs and cursings; before this mere youth their words were powerless. In vain he asked them to cease their revilings, and prove their faith. Convinced that they could say nothing, he ceased Virgin worship, and declared himself a Protestant. His wife, sons, and sons-in-law urged him, first to collect his debts and what was due to him, and then avow the truth, but to all their remonstrances he was deaf; and to-day it went all over Mardin that Pilgrim Meekha was a 'prote.' Scoffs, jibes, sneers, were rattled upon him; and
till he was thrown down in the streets. The Patriarch is at Mosul, and Meekha made up with the priests until he could be heard from. The answer came: If Pilgrim Meekha and the other will stand in the church holding black candles while masses are said, and then pass round the church saying to every one, "I have sinned; forgive me; what I taught was a lie; only the Roman Church is truth," they may be forgiven; if not, anathematise them.' They are anathematised. Meekha remained at his home, pondering over his position, and hearing the Gospel read, until the expiration of a self-appointed period, and then publicly and fully declared himself as a Protestant.
"You was born a Jacobite, became a Papist, and are now a Protestant; why not turn, Moslem?' is frequently asked tauntingly, He replies: 'I was a Papist because I thought their religion was in the Gospel; the day I knew it was not I left them, and if you will prove the Koran from the Gospel, I will turn Moslem.' 'Then you were blind all your life, hey?' 'Yes, I was, but I was sincere; and thank God now my eyes are opened.' His sincerity and earnestness no one questions. No one pretends that he has been bought to Protestantism; and his wife is as sincere and earnest as himself; and while their outside friends were weeping at their great excommunication, they were rejoicing and thankful that the Gospel had come to them. They have five daughters; two being married live elsewhere, and under the teachings of the priests, believe their father bewitched. But the three at home, seeing that the Gospel led him on step by step, go with him and rejoice. It is a wonderful instance of the power of the truth of God.
"Turkish Missions Aid Society,
7, Adam-street, Strand, London."
ERRATUM.-In the number for July last, page 241, in an article headed "Turkish Empire, Population and Religious Statistics," the number of Jews in European Turkey is put down at 70,000. This is a great mistake. In the metropolis alone there are near 70,000 Jews, in the Romania there are more than 100,000, Salonica contains a Jewish population no less than 35,000, and Adrianople above 10,000. Besides they are to be found in larger or smaller numbers in Bosnia, Servia, Bulgaria, and all the other provinces. The total number of Jews in European Turkey is certainly more than 250,000 souls.
number given in the above article as living in Asia is also much too low, but I regret my being unable to give you the right number from personal observation. I hope E the time is not far distant, when, along with the laudable interest in the evan
gelisation of Turkey, the number and claims of the children of Israel scattered in that empire will be better known and more fully appreciated.
I am, Sir, yours in Christ,
INCIDENTS IN MISSIONARY LIFE.
We have been favoured, by the kindness of the Rev. J. Cox, of Trevandrum, with the Report of the missionaries of the London Missionary Society in the Travancore District, for the last year, printed at the Mission Press at Nagercoil. Its contents are full of interesting details, from which we take the following:
"There is a head man of this village who for many years was an idolator, and after which he became a disciple of Muttukutti. He abstained from flesh and ate only vegetables. He raised a pagoda and gained over several heathens to his side, who respected him as a Swami. While matters were thus, the man was attacked four or five months ago with a deadly disease. After this he continued a follower of Muttukutti for some time, using every means in his power for his recovery, but in vain. He then had recourse to the devils which he had forsaken, made all sorts of vows to them, and held feasts in honour of them. He spent much money also on magicians and sorcerers, but all proved to be in vain. Thinking that his disease may soon prove fatal to him, and that his mind may be in a proper state to receive Christianity, I went and spoke to him about the folly of heathenism. He acknowledged it readily, but showed no desire to embrace the Gospel. As he did not, however, object to my visits I saw him frequently and explained the truth to him gradually. The inmates of his house, who used to laugh at me, now became serious hearers, as they seemed to be tired of trusting in the devils. On the day previous to his death, as I was sitting on his bedside speaking to him, one of his sons brought out a copy of the New Testament. I asked him where he had procured it. He replied, that it belonged to his uncle, and that his father wished it to be brought to him. For what purpose, I asked. He replied, that his father on
J. B. GOLDBERG.
the previous day called all his sons to his bedside and addressed them thus: 'I do not think I shall live much longer. I beg of you to bury me after the heathen custom; but, as for you, you need not to continuo any longer heathen. All of you must embrace Christianity and attend the services on Sabbath days, and begin to do so immediately after my death.' So saying, he ordered me to fetch this New Testament from my uncle. I asked the father what his intention was in ordering it to be brought. He understood my words, but had become unable to speak. He then lifted up his hands towards Heaven, and seemed to be fervently engaged in prayer to God. I asked him if he was willing to hear a chapter read. He signified his wish. I read to him from the 5th of Mark, the case of the woman who had a bloody issue, who had spent all her property on physicians, to no purpose. I told him that he resembled that woman, as he had spent his property in vain in his offerings to the devils, and exhorted him to repent and believe in Christ. I then read to him the 5th chapter of the 2nd of Corinthians, and spoke about heaven, hell, and judgment, in the hearing of them all. Who knows that he has not obtained mercy at the Lord's hand?"
The following narrative is from another catechist :
"Whilst reading to some heathens, a man who was a goldsmith by trade seemed much interested in what he heard, and was evidently an intelligent man. He interrupted me in my discourse, saying, 'I have been making inquiries about Christianity from various catechists for the last two or three years. I feel a little pleasure in your religion, as I am somewhat acquainted with its doctrines. I wish to propose one question, not for the sake of dispute, but to ascertain the truth. The existence of only one God is a truth acknowledged by every