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EUROPEAN INTELLIGENCE. has been refused, on the ground of the To the foregoing statement we may add gravity of the offence not admitting of an that Martin Escalante is a man of uninterim liberation.
blemished character, and has already, on a Thus the case stands at present, and what former occasion, suffered bonds in the seris now the principal thing aimed at is to vice of Christ. He is married, and his wife obtain a decision one way or another. The and family, for whom we bespeak the syminterest of the opposing party is delay, and pathy and prayers of those who can " weep that both because severe punishment is all with them that weep," are residing at the while being inflicted without the same Gibraltar. odium as would attach in the eyes of every We forbear to say anything of the strong man of humanity to a sentence, and because suspicions entertained, that the priests are the continuance of the case is a source of keenly active in the matter; he himself gain to the lawyers and the law courts. says, with much simplicity, and, perhaps, And it is deemed by no means improbable equal truth, that if the Inquisition still that he may be kept in prison for years existed, his soul would ere now have been without his case being brought to an issue, in paradise. unless such a design can be frustrated.
PRUSSIA. THE KING-DEATH OF VON RAUMER, LATE MINISTER OF ECCLESIASTICAL AFFAIRS—DR, STAHL'S
NEW WORK-THE FRIENDS OF LIGHT.
Berlin, Aug. 17, 1859. were the will of God, the days of our good INCREASED ILLNESS OF THE KING. King's sufferings may be shortened. All Christians who know how to appre- THE DEATH OF HERR VON RAUMER, ciate the efforts of our King for the advance formerly Minister for Ecclesiastical and ment of Christianity, must take a deep in Educational Affairs, is another sad event, terest in his present condition of deep and took place on the 6th inst. This high suffering. It was on Sunday week that he official was remarkable for the political systook a walk in the park of Sans-Souci, tem which he with others inaugurated in when the heat was tropical, and after- | Prussia on his accession to power. There is wards went to a cool room in the New no reason at all to extol his predecessor, Herr Palace to take tea with the Queen and von Landenberg, who was a broad Churchman some of his Royal relatives. After a of the best description; neither can Hert little while the Queen observed that his von Raumer be said to have merited Evanface was altered, and asking him how he gelical praise, for his whole policy from the was, he answered, “A little ill." Unfortu- beginning (19th December, 1850), both nately, no physician in ordinary was there, political and ecclesiastical, was what is and two other doctors had to be sent for properly termed reactionary. He was a from Potsdam. Meanwhile his Majesty first-rate champion of the Manteuffel-Westdrove to Sans-Souci Palace and went to phalen Cabinet, which excelled in nothing bed. It was not till midnight that he was else but in humbling their country, fettering bled under the direction of his own phy- all liberal movements, and misleading and sicians. He grew worse the two following perverting the good intentions of the King. days, and on Wednesday, a telegraphic Ilis ecclesiastical views were in harmony message brought the Prince-Regent from with his political, and when, through a Ems to the chamber of his Royal brother. kind of ecclesiastical independence which The King had in the interim been bled a we have in this country, he was unable to second time, and on this occasion blood had carry them into full effect, he did his best been taken from the head. This, with to hinder-or at least, to render difficultGod's blessing, averted the worst conse- any Evangelical enterprise. Thus he was one quences, and since then his Majesty's con- of the leading opponents of the Evangelical dition has somewhat improved, so that he Conference in 1857, and did what he could now takes notice of what is passing around to set the King against it. He promoted him, and utters a few words occasionally to high office, and filled the chairs of the expressive of his wants. It is said that at Universities, and the vacant posts in his times he suffers much pain. His first chap- own bureau, only with persons of the same lain, the Rev. Dr. Straus, is daily at Sans- tendencies. How passionate a man he was Souci. We may devoutly wish, that if it is seen in his conduct towards the two EUROPEAN INTELLIGENCE. pastors who were the most beloved by him difference of judgment. It may be easily of any in this city. The Rev. Mr. Knak, I understood that his friends would have whom I had occasion to mention in my much to say in his praise, and they have last, was, for a series of years, bis con- indeed extolled him as the hero of the fessor, and he attended at his church every Church, while by Rationalists he has been Sunday. But two years ago all this was defamed as if he had not had a single hair altered, and for what reason? Because M. that was good. Both parties are wrong. Knak did not sufficiently oppose the Evan- It must be admitted in fairness that M. gelical and the Berlin Conference, M. Raumer loved our Lord Jesus Christ, laid Raumer quitted his old friend's church, and to heart the welfare of the Church, and chose another pastor, who, as he sup- did much to promote it. But he did posed, was a stronger bulwark against not do this in a right way. Had it been English sectarianism, as he termed our necessary and possible, he would have called Alliance. Henceforth he attended the mi- dragoons to his aid in putting down all nistry of Dr. Büchsel, who, in his view, whom he did not consider as true Churchdeserved well of Lutheranism, because he men. Properly enough we may say of warned his catechumens against the Berlin him in the words of the Apostle, “ I bear Conference. Alas! I am sorry to add, that them record that they have a zeal for God, M. Raumer cannot be held guiltless in re- but not according to knowledge." He lation to the present unhappy condition of wanted that tender and noble love towards his Royal master, whose mind must often bis Christian brethren which is the fruit have been distressed by those contrary views of single-minded faith. The means, there. and measures which the Minister enforced fore, which he used to promote God's kingwhen he endeavoured to put his Puseyite dom, were not in harmony with the Holy fancies in the place of the Gospel.
Spirit; in short, he had no confidence in Demonstrative of M. Raumer's character the strength and victory of Divine truth by was also the course he pursued on the sub- itself. But on his death-bed, as Dr. ject of the Congregational Statute for the Bücheel told us, he committed himself to province of Prassia. When the King had the merciful Lord without reservation. approved of it on the representation of the May his friends do so too, and love their Evangelische Oberkirchenrath, the Minister of brethren as Christ did! course could no longer oppose it; but in DR. STAHL'S NEW WORK ON LUTHERANISM order to impede its progress, he obstinately withheld his co-operation, necessary in some It might be allowed us to call Von secular affairs, and requested by the Ober- Raumer's and Dr. Stahl's kindred minds, if kirchenrath, who, even to the present time, the circumspective nature of this latter are waiting for the answer of the Minister. were not combined with a mild personal
M. von Raumer was dismissed from office character. Dr. Stahl's newest work, “The last autumn, when the Prince Regent nomi- Lutheran Church and the Union," a books nated the present Ministry, and he has since of large size, is meant to vindicate the devoted himself entirely to the duties and former against the latter; to dash which he enjoyments of his family circle. At the strikes up a fine tune. He tries to identify funeral service, which took place at it with the system of the Swiss reformation, St. Matthew's Church, Dr. Büchsel showed especially that of Zuinglius; and in order a nice discernment, as he pronounced no to this, he undertakes to show that the eulogy on the deceased, saying that he better doctrine of Calvin had a good deal of himself would have disliked it; and that he Zuinglianism in it; because he knows well left posterity to form their own estimate of that he could not give the Union a severer his merits as a statesman. But he spoke of blow than by proving that it was only a his domestic virtues, and concluded by ad- revival of Zuinglianism, which is generally dressing the seven children, the youngest disliked by German Protestants. To do being only three years of age, to the effect justice, however, to the Reformed Church, that they should be mindful of the piety of he recommends to his Lutheran friends their dear father, who had placed all his the Christian zeal and purity of life confidence in the grace of his Saviour and which distinguish its members. But he walked in the faith of the Lord. The chil- vehemently objects to its democratical dren were all seated round their father's constitution, which he utterly abhors. He coffin, and the scene affected many to tears. is of opinion, that a genuine Church consti
The German press, in reviewing the life tution should be made up, not by the comof the late Minister, has exhibited much bination of Lutheran territorialism and
AND THE UNION.
EUROPEAN INTELLIGENCE. Reformed democracy, but by these blended eastern provinces to reanimate his friends. with purified Catholic elements, and that, These congregations, amounting in all to in this way, the true Catholic Church a hundred, of which thirty-seven are in would come to be established. He wants, Prussia, have recently held a meeting by therefore, congregational representation and their representatives at Eisenach, in authoritative government united, and both Thuringia, where they formed a sort of based on Lutheran doctrine.
union. It is, however, a mere formality, In the meantime, and regardless of Dr. and will have no effect, since their irreliStahl and his followers, the Evangelische gious Rationalism has almost outlived itself. Oberkirchenrath is preparing to introduce In proof of which, I may mention that the the Congregational Statute, now established congregation at Magdeburg ten years ago almost generally in one Prussian province, amounted to some eight thousand persons; into the provinces of Brandenburg and it consists now of hardly four hundred, Pomerania, which are the most impregnated notwithstanding that Uhlich himself lives with old Lutheranism. The Prince Regent and labours among them. There is no has been discussing the subject with his religious vitality either in Pantheism or in Excellency Von Uechtritz, Privy Councillor Naturalism ; both systems are destitute of
. and President of the Oberkirchenrath, and attractivo or rather of regenerating power, steps will soon be taken to carry the mea- and both are passing by. Let us be thanksure into effect.
ful to our present Government for allowing
their congregations the liberty they now Let me close by mentioning that_M. enjoy of worshipping after their fashion ; Uhlich, the leader of the so-called Free this was the best way for it to be seen what Congregations, and who resides in Magde- they are; while the truth as it is in Jesus burg, has been travelling through the will remain for ever!
THE FRIENDS OF LIGHT.
THE PROTESTANT POLES IN PRUSSIA. Prussian Poland is a tract of land about the cities, and people of education became eighty miles wide, extending from the Protestants, and for a time Poland had even south of Silesia to the neighbourhood of a Protestant King, the Bible was translated Bromberg and Thorn, and there branching and circulated, schools formed, and the off in two directions, to the north and country seemed lost to Rome. But the north-east; thus, as it were, embracing the movement had affected mainly the higher Delta of the Vistula and the Province of part of the community, and they had nePrussia. Though there is a considerable glected to instruct the people, so that a reacGerman element here, yet the population is tion took place, the Jesuits came in, the mainly Slavonic, and more particularly Court for political motives changed its Polish; it forms the edge of the great sympathies, and the Thirty Years War Polish world lying to the east, which once produced great devastations amongst the penetrated into Bohemia, Thuringia, and Protestants, and thus Poland became again Lower Saxony, but has receded, leaving a Catholic country. the Wends in Lusatia and the Czechs The number of Protestant Poles in the in Bohemia like islands in the surround- Province of Prussia is about 250,000, who ing sea of German life. The number dwell in the district between Marien werder of the Polish inhabitants of this district and Goldapp. They have regular ecclesiasamounts to about 2,200,000, an eighth part tical order, with 100 parishes and 134 of the whole population of Prussia. Polish-speaking ministers. Provision was
Poland has always been the scene of made at the Reformation and afterwards warm religious strife. Christianity was for Polish students at the University of brought to it from the East by Methodius Königsberg. These Poles maintain their and Cyril, but the Latin Church soon began nationality and their language, although for to strive for the mastery. It had a hard 500 years they have been separated from conflict, and it was not till a short time be- their fellow Poles and united with Prusfore the Reformation that the last traces of sia ; their character is that of simplicity, the use of the vulgar tongue vanished from modesty, obedience, perseverance, and selfthe order of worship, and when the time denial; they are very observant of the of the Reformation did come its effects were outward forms of religion, perhaps supersoon felt in Poland; the Court, the nobility, stitiously 80; and in their public worship
EUROPEAN INTELLIGENCE. and religious life all is liveliness and ac- and German at the Protestant church. The tivity.
Protestant Church at Kalisch, of 5,000 In Silesia there are 70,000 Protestant members, consists one-third part of Poles. Poles, of whom 60,000 live, for the most A number of Polish Bibles are smuggled part, near the Russian frontier, 5,000 near yearly into Russia Proper; but there, for the Austrian, the rest scattered. The for- political reasons, preaching in Polish is not mer had the happiness not only of having permitted. The reports of the Russian Protestant princes at the Reformation, but | Protestant Bible Society from 1853 to 1857 also of being spared the counter-movement, give for these five years an account of the which repressed Protestantism in so many sale of only 116 Polish Bibles in Roman places, so that in the seventeenth and characters (Catholic), and 32 in German eighteenth centuries they formed an active, characters (Protestant). useful, national body, producing many works, So much for the people. As to their reliespecially in hymnology and catechetics; and, gious literature, the first matter is the further, they formed a support to their suf- Bible. This was translated under the aufering and persecuted brethren in the faith spices of Prince Nicolas Radziwill in 1563, who lived in Poland Proper, and whom they and this has remained the chief translation. supplied with ministers. Amongst them have As to confessions, the Poles chiefly adhere been such men as Behm, Cretius, Rohrmann, to that of Augsburg. Luther's Catechism who have done great service to Polish is the chief one used, though others are literature.
occasionally made use of. In hymn-books In the Principality of Teschen, and in they abound; very many of their hymns, as Pless, and Loslau, the Reformation made in the case of the Germans, being as old as considerable progress.
In Teschen there the Reformation. Some of them are transwere fifty Protestant churches, in Pless lations, but many are original, and in these twenty-seven, in Loslau twelve; in 1654, latter the national character is exhibited, in not one of these remained in the hands of their cheerful, unconstrained tone; their the Protestants, and they were not per- love for dwelling rather on the redemption mitted to build one in Teschen till 1707, than the ruin of mankind; their proud and in the other two provinces not till exaltation of the kingly character of Christ ; later still.
their martial delight in the conflict of the The character of these Silesian Protestant Lord with Satan, and the victory over him; Poles is much the same as that of their and the joyful exultation with which they brethren in Prussia Proper. A clergyman celebrate the saints' rule with God and writes: “ It is incredible what an amount Christ in eternal glory, as the inheritance of work there is to be done by the minister of the peasant no less than of the noble. A of a Church composed of Poles and Germans. peculiarity of the Polish psalmody is the The work is almost doubled by the two predominance of the musical element, to languages. But one is abundantly recom- which that of sentiment must yield. It is pensed by the truly pious and warm feeling well known that, in 1530, it was not the of the Polish population. Most of the hymns so much as the tunes of the Church families have morning and evening prayer. which procured for Protestantism so ready No house is without a Bible, a Prayer-book, an entrance into Poland. and the sermons of the celebrated preacher, Many treasures of Polish religious literaDambrowsky. One must hear them sing ture yet lie hidden in manuscripts and old in order to know what it is to sing from the books, which are said to be classical, deep, heart."
and, above all, national; these should be The number of Protestants in the Pro- printed, that the cultivated portion of the vince of Posen is about 12,000, of whom people may see how unfounded is their pre11,000 live in four or five provinces at the judice of Catholicism being inseparably consouthern extremity of the province. These nected with their nationality. The people have never been able to be independent. at large seek more spiritual nourishment, In the former stormy times they existed and for the last ten years the activity of the only through the assistance of the neighbour- press has greatly increased, in the publicaing Silesia, whence they received preachers tion, not only of Bibles and religious books, and books, and they should be considered but also of other productions, popular hisas forming a branch of the Protestant tory books, school-books, &c. Also a ProChurch of Silesia.
testant Polish almanack has been published Very little is known of Russian Poland. for several years. Still there is a great lack In Cracow there is preaching in both Polish of the personal preaching of the Gospel ; EUROPEAN INTELLIGENCE. here pre-eminently labourers are wanted, from that of his flock, and that flock is poor, for the Churches and for the schools. The so that there needs an entire and loving Protestant minister among the Poles has an devotedness to his work. But if he gives arduous task. Generally of German descent, this, his reward will be great. his national character is totally different
DENMARK SKETCH OF THE PROGRESS OF RELIGIOUS LIBERTY. Although the Reformation abolished the prohibited from making proselytes, and the abuses of Romanism and gave the nation exercise of their worship was restricted to the Word of God in the vulgar tongue, it two or three towns. Hitherto, however, did not introduce religious liberty. Several they were always treated with kindness, laws were enacted in defence of Pro- ! and it is only in our own times that they testantism. The people readily abandoned have had to complain. Intolerance was Popery, and the Reformed doctrine spread provoked by the Baptists. 60 universally that only a few poor monks Previously to 1839 there were no Bapremained adhering to the old faith. The tists in Denmark, except, indeed, a MenJesuits, however, employed all the means nonite congregation at Fredericstadt; but in their power to recover the lost ground, about this time many of the laity embraced and especially endeavoured to seduce those their opinions, formed themselves into a young Danes who went to pursue their Church in Copenhagen, and were zealous in studies in foreign schools and universities. propagating their views. Their zeal met But apostacy was visited with heavy penal with considerable success, and they soon ties; it was illegal to enter Roman Catholic had to encounter persecution. They were colleges, and the country was closed against forbidden to leave the Lutheran Church, to the Jesuits. This intolerance was not exer- propagate their sentiments, and to hold cised towards Romanists alone, but against meetings, except with the permission of Protestants also of other communions. the minister of the parish.
They were In the year 1553, John à Lasco arrived imprisoned, their goods were confiscated, in Copenhagen with many of the Reformed and their infants were forcibly taken from who were driven from England; but they them and baptized. Some of the clergy were not allowed to settle in the country, blamed these measures, and desired that and in the depth of winter were com- the Baptists should be encountered only pelled, with their wives and children, with spiritual weapons. One of them, the to travel into Germany. To prevent Rev. Mr. Kukegaard, now Bishop of the introduction of the Calvinistic doc- Alburg, was suspended for some time be trines, twenty-five articles (articuli pro cause he refused to administer forced bapperegrinis) were enacted in 1569, which tism. This persecution, however, did not all foreigners were required to sign be. last long, and the Government resolved fore they were permitted to establish that the Baptists should be tolerated. themselves in the country. By the law of In 1849 the law was passed which gives 1663 and the Royal ordinance of 1665, the entire religious liberty. No one is comLutheran Confession was the religion of pelled to pay for the support of any form of Denmark; but permission was already given worship of which he disapproves (except to dissidents to reside in the cities of Schles- the payment of the imposts on land, as the wig and Altona, and to Roman Catholics tithes), and all may follow their own reto settle in Copenhagen; and in 1682 ligion so long as it does not militate against Christians of all denominations were allowed public order and morality. Dissenters by to establish themselves in Frederica, in this law, moreover, are exempted from Jutland. Upon the revocation of the Edict sending their children to the public schools, of Nantes (1685), the Reformed met with a provided they give them a sufficient educakind reception, and built a church in Copen- tion. There is thus complete liberty—the hagen, in which Divine service is celebrated only difference being that the Lutheran to the present day, both in French and Church is paid by the State, a privilege German. At a later period, liberty of wor- which is purchased at the cost of her indeship was granted to the Moravians in some pendence. parts of the kingdom. Still, dissidents were The consequence of this state of things is