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IV. The Divinity of Christ is plain, from the fact of his being created and appointed the Judge of the Universe.
THE DIVINITY OF CHRIST PROVED TO BE NOT A NEW DOCTRINE, BUT THAT IT WAS KNOWN BEFORE THE NICENE COUNCIL HELD IN THE BEGINNING OF THE FOURTH CENTURY, BY REFERENCES TO THE FATHERS-BARNABAS, HERMAS, IGNATIUS, CLEMENS ROMANUS, POLYCARP, JUSTIN MARTYR, THEOPHILUS BISHOP OF ANTIOCH, IRENEUS, TERTULLIAN, CLEMENS ALEXANDRINUS, ORIGEN, AND CYPRIAN.
[The above five Lectures upon the Divinity of Christ were preached from the same text; Matt. xxii. 41, 42.]
ON THE PERSONALITY OF THE HOLY SPIRIT.
Matt. xxviii. 19.-Go ye, therefore, and teach all nations, baptizing them in the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost.
The first proof of the personality of the Holy Spirit appears to result from the manner in which the Spirit, whatever is intended by that word, is mentioned in the Scriptures.
In order to understand this it is necessary to reflect upon the meaning of the word " Spirit."
The first meaning of the term Spirit, is wind, or breath. (John iii. 8.)
The next use of the term Spirit, in the Scriptures, and other writers, in analogy to this, is to denote the invisible and immaterial part of man, in distinction from that which is corporeal, fleshly, and tangible. (Matt. xxvi. 41.)
Again, It is applied to those supernatural agents who are supposed not to be clothed with gross flesh and blood, and not to be possessed of bodies, or any fleshly vehicle whatever. (Luke xxiv. 39; x. 17, 20.)
The fourth meaning of this term is very agreeable to the former. By way of distinction, the word Spirit is applied to the third person in the blessed Trinity; that is, THE SPIRIT, by way of eminence; and it appears to be so employed when it is preceded by the definite article: τὸ πνεῦμα, THE SPIRIT.
The second argument on this subject is derived from the obvious consideration, that the particular acts which are ascribed to the Holy Spirit, and its inspirations, are such as are totally inconsistent with any idea but that of his being a proper person.
Speaking is ascribed to the Holy Spirit. (2 Sam. xxiii. 2; 1 Tim. iv. 1; Acts xiii. 2.) Approbation is ascribed to the Spirit. (Acts xv. 28.)
The passion of grief is often applied to the Spirit of God. (Eph. iv. 30; Isaiah lxiii. 10.)
Suffering or permitting is predicated of the Holy Spirit. (Acts xvi. 7.)
Sin can be committed against nothing but a person; but Peter addresses Ananias in these words, "Why hath Satan filled thy heart to lie to the Holy Ghost ?" &c. (Acts v. 3, 4; Matt. xii. 32.)
The third argument for the personality of the Holy Spirit, is derived from the personal pronouns applied to the Spirit of God, in such a manner as
cannot be accounted for, except upon the obvious supposition of the intention of our Saviour to represent the Spirit of God under the character of a person. (John xiv. 16-26; xv. 26; xvi. 13.)
In the fourth place, the passage which has been taken as the foundation of this discourse, appears to afford an irrefutable proof of the truth for which we are contending; because the Holy Spirit is here associated in such a manner with two real and divine persons, as would render the connexion unaccountable, if a real person was not understood in the third, as well as in the two former instances.
ON THE ATONEMENT.
1 Cor. xv. 3.-For I delivered unto you first of all, that which I also received, how that Christ died for our sins, according to the Scriptures.
I. The first argument in proof of the atonement of Christ, is, that the death of the Saviour is repeatedly stated to be a proper sacrifice.
ON THE ATONEMENT.
1 Cor. xv. 3.
II. The second argument for this doctrine is this; That the importance which the inspired writers attach to the blood of Christ is utterly inconsistent with the socinian hypothesis, of his death being
merely an example, and as that of a martyr sealing his testimony with his blood.
III. The inspired writers mention the subject of the death of Christ in such a manner as implies its being a real and proper substitution.
IV. The Scriptures in numerous passages declare, that Jesus Christ is the proper cause and author of our salvation, and all the spiritual benefits which the gospel announces.
V. The exaltation of Jesus Christ at the head of the universe, which is expressly declared to be the reward of his sufferings and death, is utterly inconsistent with any supposition short of their being expiatory.
ON THE PERSONALITY AND REAL EXISTENCE OF SATAN.
Matt. iv. 1.—Then was Jesus led up by the Spirit into the wilderness, to be tempted of the devil.
The evidence for this proposition must be a matter of pure revelation; for, when we consider the innumerable multitude of beings inferior to us, a chain that descends from ourselves to the very verge of non-entity by such mutations of littleness, that they are for ever eluding our senses; they leave it uncertain, that there are not as many besides in the middle stages as in open vision. The inference, rather than the contrary, is, that they exist in an equal scale-that there are as many gradations of beings raised above us, as there
are beneath us. An ascending series is as probable as the descending, though we may not be as familiar with one as with the other. Nor is it improbable that there are invisible or spiritual agents in an inferior order to man. When we consider the infinite variety of forms of which nature is susceptible, it is not improbable that there are in existence, beings, either purely spiritual, or possessed of a vehicle so refined as to elude our senses, and, therefore, justly styled spirits.
But here let us consider the tenour of scripture on this subject:
I. The sacred record gives us an idea of a spiritual order of beings styled angels.
II. Let us examine the solutions, given by the socinians, of the language of scripture on the subject, and see whether these solutions will answer the various occasions on which it occurs, and whether the difficulty of the passages can be considered as removed by the interpretation which these solutions suggest.
Those who oppose the doctrine of the real existence of Satan, suppose in general that the words Satan, and Devil, are used as a prosopopeia, or personification, though what they are intended to personify they cannot agree [about]. Sometimes they are supposed to personify evil in the abstract; at other times, the Jewish magistrates and priests; at other times, the Roman magistrates and rulers; and at other times, a personal enemy to the apostle Paul in the church.