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dignity of an honorable vocation, by the predominance of evils of saddest issues, and by the long neglected claims of injured humanity. This language cannot, I apprehend, be deemed 100 forcible, when contemplating the condition of praclical medicine, in this our own day and generation. Yes, the venerable art of the physic, rich with the achievements of the mightiest intellects, and the accu. mulated wisdom of more than two thousand years, with its divine claims of origin, and its vast train of blessings in our behalf, seems threatened with dis. trust of iis noble capabilities, to have lost of its repute as a disciplined science among us, and to have surrendered its long-earned resources to the specious appearances and absurd practices which the necromancers and zealots of the darkest ages might hesitate to tolerate. How sadly such a condition of the profession harmonizes with the great objects of the sacred art! Philosophy can scarcely abide the reflections which spring from an examination of the causes which have led to the formation of the Association of the disciples of Æsculapius in behalf of their cherished science. That ignorance of the laws of life, of the rule of health, and of the remedial powers of medicinal substances, prevails to a wonderful degree, even in exalted places, is an incontrovertible position; and hence the innumerable calamities which popular delusion in the curative art entails. Most unfortunately for its victims, like fraud in fiscal concerns, it has a wider influence in its effects than with the immediate objects wiih whom it traffics. Ils dire malignity is often extended through a large circle of the un. conscious and unsuspecting.”

“The influence of this Academy, it is hoped, will contribute in no small mea. sure to destroy the casuistry which sometimes insinuates itself in discussions among minds of limited grasp, on the supposed ultra-conservative tendency in medicine. It will unfurl the banner of philosophy, and in the march for truth, allow every one to pursue the path he deems best for its attainment. Free discussion will be cherished in good faith, as the light thus emanating imparts the purest lustre, and detects error in its most hidden recess. Il will exull in discorery. It will be vigilant in investigation, and strive in all becoming ways to discriminate the true from the false, the certain from the conjectural, the indeterminate from the definite."

It is unquestionably true that these demonstrations on the part of the leading medical men of the country are imperiously demanded by the increasing abuses in the practice of medicine and the sale of drugs. With respect to the latter, the recent developments are astounding, as will appear from the following statement:

Adulteration of Medicine.-- From a printed circular by the Trustees of the Col. lege of Pharmacy, New York, the following passages are cited in the last issue of ihe American Journal of Science and Arts:- Blue pill is imported, containing a per centage of mercury from ten down to seven and a half

, mixed with blue clay and Prussian blue-to give the proper design and color. Two importations of this kind from the manufactory of William Bailey of Wolverhampton, have already been exposed—the first in 1845, and the other recently. Its composition, according to the analysis of our Professor Reid, is, mercury, earthy clay, Prussian blue used in coloring, sand in combination with the clay, soluble saccharine matters, insoluble organic matters, and water.

Very large quantities of rhubarb, much decayed, the better parts of which are dark colored, with scarcely any taste or smell, having probably been exhansted to make extracts, come from England, invoiced there from 14 to 3 pence sterling per Ib. It is intended and used for powdering, color being given to it by turmeric, &c.

The article called oxide of zinc on the English labels is generally carbonate of zinc, being in ported, it is said, at a price which precludes the possibility of honest preparation.

All that is received under the name of precipitated sulphur-or"ac sulphur," as the merchants commonly term il-except when it is expressly ordered, from an honorable manufacturer, contains from 80 10 95 per cent. of sulphate of Jime.

Opium is often invoiced at one-third the value of good quality, and is found, upon examination, not to be worth even that. The same may be said of scammony. Most of the foreign extracts are not what they profess to be, and cannot be relied upon in the treatment of disease. The salts of quinine, morphine, and all the more costly chemicals, are greatly adulterateil.

The agent of an English manufacturer of chemicals, extracts, and many other preparations used in medicine, has said—and his remarks are in print—that it is a regular and systematic business, carried on by his principal and others in his line, to make articles for the American market of different qualities-one for the Atlantic cities, and another, very much inferior, for the West; meaning thereby our Western States. He gives us, for instance, the following quotations: " Compound extract of colocynth, 9s. 6d.; do. for the West, 5s."—the latter, as we are allowed to infer, containing no scammony, only the poorest sort of aloes, and but litile, if any, colocynih, or extract from it. Again we hare: “Blue pill, 3s. 9d.; for the West, 1s. N."

It is wonderful, remarks Silliman's Journal, that such uncommon doses as we hear of, are taken, and, indeed, required, at the West, and that disappointment is everywhere experienced by physicians in the action of medicines. And these examples are but few out of many that might be given.

A stringent law, rigidly enforced, should at once be applied to the removal of this monstrous evil.

RELIGIOUS INTELLIGENCE. Denonninations in the United States. Estimated Number of Churches and Clergy.

No. Churches.

Ministers. Baptists,

13,673

8,255 Methodists,

6,942 Albright or Evangelical,

650

250 Presbyterian,

4,868

3,496 Congregational,

1,728

1,675 Unitarian,

300

250 Episcopalian,

1,232

1,373 Roman Catholics,

812

834 Lutherans,

1,232

501 German Reformed,

750

191 Universalists,

1,044

700 Unitarian Baptists,

650

782 Dutch Reformed,

279

271 German Methodists,

500 Swedenborgians,

42

30 Mormonites,

400

250 Moravians,

22

24 Friends,

400 Jews,

150

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The annual receipts, in 1847, of the American Bible

Society, were
of the American Tract Society, :

Board of Foreign Missions,
American Home Missions,
American Sunday School Union,
Protestant Episcopal, Foreign and Domestic,
Baptist Foreign and Home Missions,
Presbyterian, do. do.
Methodist Mission,

$205,068 160,131 209,365 116,768 139,686

53,992 109,645 113,968 78,934

.

AID TO THE ROMAN CATHOLIC CHURCH IN AMERICA.

The association (in Europe) for the propagation of the faith, have granted to the missions in America, this year: $5000 to the Bishop of Dubuque; $6000 to the Bishop of Detroit; $4000 to Bishop of Cincinnati; $3000 to Bishop of Philadelphia ; $3000 to Richmond ; $4000 to Bishop Hughes, New York; $1000 to Priests of Mercy, New York; $2000 to Hartford; $3000 to Nashville; $3000 to Louisville; $8000 to Bishop of Vincennes, and $3000 to congregation of Holy Cross, same diocese; $6000 to St. Louis ; $2250 to Milwaukie; $3500 to Bishop of Little Rock; $7500 to Bishop Quarter at Chicago; $3500 to Natchez; $4750 to New Orleans; $7500 to Mobile; $8000 to Charleston ; $6000 to Lazarists in the United States; $2150 to Society of Jesus, Missouri; $9000 to Society of Jesus in Rocky Mountains; $760 to Dominicans in do.; $10,000 to Dr. Odin, Vicar Apostolic, Texas; $3000 to Jesuit missions in America ; $26,000 to West Indian and South American missions ; $11,000 to the Archbishop of Oregon city ; $4000 to Vicar Apostolic, Hudson's Bay; $26,000 to British American missions; $11,500 to Oblats, Canada, and Hudson's Bay; $6000 to Jesuits in Canada.

DECREASE OF THEOLOGICAL STUDENTS.

A gradual decrease, for several years past, of candidates for the ministry in the Old School Presbyterian church, is noticed with some expressions of alarm, by the Presbyterian treasury. In 1844, there were 364 students in the various stages of education, preparing for the ministry of that church ; in 1846, there were but 339. In the same time there was a diminution of new candidates from 99 to 67.

To show this relative deficiency, the Treasury remarks that the Free Church of Scotland, with about 700 ministers and 800 congregations, has nearly as many theological students as the Old School church, which has 1700 ministers, and 2400 congregations. A like decrease is asserted of the graduates of the Congregational and New School seminaries. In 1843 there were 177 graduates from these institutions, and in 1846 only 150.

We find the following account of the number of churches in the city of New York, going the newspaper rounds.

Churches in New York.-Twenty years ago (1828), when the population of New York was 200,000, the number of places for public worship, of all denominations, was 101, of which 22 were of wood. Now, with a population of about 400,000, there are 219 places of this character. The following figures show the distinction of the present church structures during the last twenty years, and relative strength. Epis. Pres. Meth. Bap.

. R. C. Cong. In 1828 18 20

12 14

4

0 In 1848 42 43 32 24 16 9 Inc. in 20 years.

24 23 20 10 12 9 The denominations not embraced in this list, are unimportant as to numbers, or have remained nearly stationary.

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The Pope has addressed a letter to the oriental schismatics, inviting them to return to the Roman Church, and promises to receive the clergy in their ecclesiastical rank. He has also sent a nuncio to Constantinople, Cardinal Ferrieri, who has had an audience of the Sultan, and presented to him an address.

The Sultan's reply to the Nuncio was to the following effect:"I shared the general joy with which was hailed the accession of Pope Pius to the Pontifical throne. It was for the purpose of expressing these sentiments that I sent Habib Effendi to Rome. I am happy that friendly relations have been established between the States of the Catholic Church and the Ottoman empire during my reign. I fully sympathize with the Pope in what he has done for his people. Like him, I wish that civil and religious liberty should be established in my dominions; I wish all denominations of my subjects to have equal rights and privileges; I wish them to love their common country, and to look upon me as one who would govern them through their affections, and not by the exercise of arbitrary authority.” On the days immediately preceding the audience

VOL. I.—MAY, 1848. 19

granted by his Majesty to the representative of the Holy See, deputations waited on Monsignor Ferrieri, composed of the chiefs of the Armenian and Greek Churches, and of the Israelites resident in Turkey. The object of this deputation was, besides complimenting the Nuncio on his arrival at Constantinople, to beg of His Eminence to express to the Sultan the satisfaction with which his Christian subjects of every denomination saw the proof of liberality and toleration which his Majesty gave in consenting to establish diplomatic relations with the Holy See.Daily News.

PROTESTANTISM ALLOWED IN TURKEY.

Translation of a Royal Order obtained by the Right Hon. Lord

Cowley, from the Sublime Porte, in favor of the Sultan's Protestant subjects.

“To His Excellency the Pasha, the Superintendent of the City Taxes.

“Whereas, the Christian subjects of the Ottoman Government professing Protestantism, have experienced difficulty and embarrassment, from not being hitherto under a separate and special jurisdiction, and from the Patriarch and heads of the sects which they have left naturally, not being able to superintend their affairs, and

“Whereas, it is in contravention to the supreme will of his Imperial Majesty, our Gracious Lord and Benefactor, (may God increase him in years and power!) animated as he is with feelings of deep interest and clemency towards all classes of his subjects, that any of them should be subjected to grievances; and

“Whereas, the aforesaid (Protestants) in conformity with the creed professed by them, do form a separate community,

“It is His Supreme Majesty's will and command, that for the sole purpose of facilitating their affairs, and securing the welfare of the said Protestants, the administration, therefore, should be henceforward confided to your Excellency, together with the allotment of the taxes to which they are subjected by law; that you do keep a separate register of their births and deaths in the department of the Control, according to the system observed with regard to the Latin Rages; that you do issue passports and permits of marriage; and that any person of established character and good conduct, chosen by them to appear as their agent at the Porte for the transaction and settlement of their current affairs, be duly appointed for that purpose.

"Such are the imperial commands, which you are to obey to the letter;

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