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vigorous health, and quickness of apprehension, the mixed race appears, as a class, to be very remarkable.

The Indians are distinguished from the other two races by the color of their complexion, and by their long, coarse, coal-black hair, never crisped as that of the African, or curled as is sometimes that of the whites, and by a scantiness of beard. All their senses, at least those of sight, hearing, and smell, are remarkably acute. In war and the chase they are indefatigable; but they are very averse to all regular or mechanical labor. Cold and phlegmatic in their temperament, they have an irresistible craving for spirituous liquors; and the same constitutional peculiarity, aided by their education and habits, produces that insensibility to bodily pain by which they are characterized. Their faces often have the Kalmuc or Tartar expression, but occasionally exhibit the finest models for the sculptor. They have good natural intellects, and excel in public speaking, both as to force of language and grace of delivery. They are much addicted to gaming, and are invariably superstitious. They are commonly faithful to their engagements either to friend or foe; and their high sense of retributive justice is manifested as much in firmly submitting to its decrees as in inexorably enforcing them. These characteristics are most conspicuous in the tribes which have had the least intercourse with the whites; indeed, it is generally found that after they have lived for two or three generations near the white settlements, they lose all their nobler attributes with their pride of independence, and add the vices of civilization to their own. The mixed breed are a fine-looking race, and are evidently an improvement in personal appearance on the Indian, if not on the white man. The Cherokees and the Choctaws have been most successful in cultivating the arts of civilized life.- Professor Tucker.

To the aforegoing interesting sketch, we add the following notice of the Southern races.

Mixed Races of South America and Mexico.Dr. Tschudi, a distinguished German naturalist, has recently published a work entitled “ Travels in Peru," which is well known. In this work he gives a list of the crosses, resulting from the intermixture of the Spanish with the Indian and negro races in that country. The settlement of Mexico by the Spaniards took place at the same time, and the intermixture of races has been perhaps greater in that country than in Peru. An officer of our army inforins us that the Mexican soldiers present the most unequal characters that can be met with anywhere in the world. Some are brave, and many others quite the reverse, and possessing the basest and most barbarous qualities. This, doubtless, is a result in part of the crossings of the races.

The following is Tschudi's list of the crossing in Peru :

White father and negro mother,

Mulatto. White father and Indian mother,

Mestizo. Indian father and negro mother,

Chino. White father and mulatto mother,

Cuarteron. White father and mestiza mother, Creole, pale, brownish

complexion. White father and china mother,

Chino-Blanco. White father and cuarterena mother, Quintero. White father and quintera mother,

White. Negro father and Indian mother,

Zambo. Negro father and mulatto mother,

Zambo-negro. Negro father and mestiza mother,

Mulatto-oscuro. Negro father and china mother,

Zamboo chino. Negro father and zamba mother, Zambo negro, perfectly

black. Negro father and quintera mother, Mulatto, rather dark. Indian father and mulatto mother,

Chino-oscuro. Indian father and mestiza mother,

Mestizo-claro, frequent

ly very beautiful. Indian father and china mother,

Chino-chola. Indian father and zamba mother,

Zambo-claro. Indian father and china-cholar mother, Indian with frizly hair. Indian father with quintera mother, Mestizo, rather brown. Mulatto father and zamba mother, Zamba, a miserable


Mulatto father and mestiza mother, Chino, rather clear com

plexion. Mulatto father and china mother,

Chino, rather dark. The effect of such intermixture upon the character is thus stated by Dr. Tschudi;—“To define their characteristics correctly would be impossible; for their minds partake of the mixture of their blood. As a general rule, it may be fairly said, that they unite in themselves all the faults, without any of the virtues of their progenitors ; as men they are generally inferior to the pure races, and as members of society they are the worst class of citizens."


The following brief history of Mexico since its independence will afford some faint idea of the misgovernment and anarchy which have desolated that beautiful country for the last twenty-five years. Its occupation by the American troops will be the first taste of good government it has had for many years, and our holding it would be deemed, by many, an undeniable benefit to its inhabitants.

Upon the adoption of the Constitution of 1824, which was copied from our own, Victoria was elected President of Mexico, and was installed on the first of January, 1825. He had scarcely, however, served out his constitutional term of office (four years), when a most violently contested election declared Pedraza as his successor on the 10th of September, 1828. The unsuccessful party, alleging fraud, declared Guerrero to be the rightfully elected President on the 1st of January, 1829. He held his office by a very precarious tenure, until October, 1830, when he was deposed by dissatisfied partisans, and Bustamente proclaimed President. Bustamente was, in his turn, displaced, through the intluence of the young General Santa Anua. Pedraza was by him re-called to serve out the three remaining munths of his term.—Upon the expiration of this time, Santa Anna himself became President in 1833. He retired for a time, and left Gomez Farias to fill his place.

On the 13th of May, 1834, Santa Anna disolved the Constitutional Congress and Council, and by a military order summoned another. He suddenly became a Centralist. Farias was deposed, and Gen. Barragan took his place. The new Centralist Congress met in January, 1835. Their first order was for the disarming of the militia of the States. Zacatecas refused as well as Texas. The plan of Toluca went into operation under the auspices of Santa Anna, which abolished the legislatures of the States, and changed them into military departments, each under a military commandant; and all of these to be amenable to the chief authority, a dictator, Santa Anna. Upon this, Texas took up arms—declared against the revolutionary plan of Santa Anna: and in favor of restoring and maintaining the Constitution of 1825. Zacatecas had also taken this stand, but was reduced by the dictator. Texas remained yet to be subdued, and to be compelled

" To sue for claims, and own a conqueror.” In September, 1835, General Cos marched against her. In October, 1835, she found the Lexington of her revolution at Gonzales; a Bunker Hill at Goliad; a Saratoga at San Antonio; and finally, on the 26th of April, 1830, a Yorktown at San Jacinto. On the 20

of March prerious, however, finding it utterly vain to struggle for the re-establishment of the Mexican Constitution of 1825, Texas had declared her independence.

In 1837, Bustamente was again elected President of Mexico. In July, 1840, another revolution broke out, in which Gen. Urrea and Gomez Farias seized the presidency, and after a conflict of twelve days, agreed upon an amnesty.

In August, 1841, Paredes and Santa Anna both rose against Bustamente, bombarded the city, and deposed him. During the same month, Santa Anna had the plan of Toluca” superseded by another, that of “ Tacubaya,” which gave to the General of the army (himself) the power to call a Junta which should elect a provisional President. In June, 1842, Congress assembled under this revolutionary “plan.” In December, Santa Anna dissolved it. It was not until January, 1844, that the Mexican Government got fairly into operation under this new plan.

At the instance of Santa Anna, four millions of dollars were voted by Congress to prosecute the war against Texas. He retired soon after to his plantation, and Canalizo was elected President by one vote.

In the fall of 1844, Paredes declared against Santa Anna, and marched against the capital. On the 6th of December, 1844, the latter was deposed, and General Herrera elected provisional President. (This was the time when Santa Anna's leg was dug up and dragged through the streets of Mexico, and he himself banished.)

On the 16th of September, 1845, Herrera having been declared elected, took the official oath as President. On the 21st of Dec., 1845, having manifested a willingness to amicably settle the Texas difficulty with the United States, by receiving a cominission “clothed with full powers to settle all the difficulties between the two countries,” he was displaced by Paredes, who breathed the fiercest hostility to Texas and the United States.

Santa Anna, who was the known and bitter rival of Paredes, was permitted to return to Mexico, as it was thought such were his relations, his influence might favor peace: at any rate, it could not put a more hostile aspect upon Mexican policy than it already wore. He became President again, and has lately again been deposed from power.

Such is the history of that oppressed people. Since 1824, they have had sixteen Presidents, more than half of whom were mere usurpers and military adventurers.— Inquirer.


Settlements were made in the limits of Texas as early as 1692, but the savages were so hostile in the vicinity, that but little progress was effected. The Spanish government, and afterwards that of the Mexican, in order to establish settlements in this territory, offered grants of lands and other inducements to settlers from the United States. Early in 1821, Stephen B. Austin, from Connecticut, went to the Brazos river to secure a portion of territory which his father had bequeathed to him. He secured the grant, and liberal offers were made by the government to others who would settle there.

Many settlers accepted these offers, and their increase and prosperity began to alarm the Mexican government. When Irturbide was dethroned in Mexico, a confederation was formed; Coquila and Texas were united in one state, and a system of measures was adopted which finally led to the declaration of Texan independence. In 1825, the Mexican Congress passed a law prohibiting all traffic in slaves, and freeing all born in Texas at the age of 14; and soon a law was passed freeing all slaves in the limits of Texas. As most of the settlers were planters from the southern states, who had brought their slaves with them, these laws were considered by them to be unjust and oppressive.

The Texans in vain petitioned the Mexican Congress for relief; and Stephen Austin, when visiting the capital for this purpose, was seized and put in prison, where he was confined two years. Upon the abrogation of the state government, and the establishment of Centralism under Santa Anna, a convention of the citizens of Texas was called, and independence from Mexico was declared. General Cos having been sent by the Mexican government to dissolve the legislature and seize the members, the people of Texas flew to arms. On the 8th of October, 1835, they moved upon Goliad, a strong fortress, which they carried after a bloody engagement. A force of 1000 men, under the command of Austin, advanced upon San Antonio, where General Cos was entrenched with 1,500 men, and forced him to surrender on condition that the prisoners should be allowed to pass beyond the Rio Grande.

Santa Anna, the President of Mexico, with a force of 8000 men, moved forward, threatening to exterminate the Americans from the soil of Texas. The right of his army moved in the direction of Matamoras; the centre and left, under Santa Anna himself, marched towards San Jacinto. It was his intention that the divisions should move in parallel lines and keep up a communication, and so sweep the province, and meet at Galveston.

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