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fruits and wine. The production of strawberries is immense-over 100 bushels are sold daily in the markets. But it is especially famous for its trade in pork, bacon and lard. The number of hogs packed in Cincinnati, during the past season, is 475,000.
We present a table, from the Cincinnati Gazette, of the operations in the three leading articles of provisions during the last two years
10,538 22,621 Pounds,
581,522 966,587 Lard-Barrels
16,524 15,660 Kegs,
8,388 14,719 Tierces,
2,758 5,017 Barrels,
87,337 87,042 Pounds,
868,355 1,460,049 Lard-Barrels,
78,516 124,939 The St. Louis Republican furnishes the following statement of the number of hogs packed in the West during the season of 1847–8. The numbers are only given as an aggregate.
Ohio River. Wheeling
5,000 Tennessee and Cumber. Cincinnati, 475,000 land rivers,
100,000 Louisville, 100,000 Aurora,
10,000 Maysville, 10,000 Covington,
6,000 Wabash and White rivers, 200,000
Total number 1,081,000
Mississippi River. St. Louis, 69,921 Quincy,
20,000 Alton, 35,000 Keokuk,
10,000 Hannibal, 20,000 Oquawka,
5,000 Rockport, 3,000 Bloomington,
19,000 Lagrange and Tulley,
10,000 Churchville, 5,000 Burlington,
216,924 Mlinois River. Peru, 3,000 Lagrange,
3,000 Lacon, 5,000 Canton,
10,00) Peoria, 25,000 Knoxville,
10,000 Pekin, 25,000 Springfield,
3,000 Point Ísabel, 5,000 Griggsville,
6,000 Beardstown, 25,000 Tremont,
10,000 Naples, 6,000 Total number
Missouri River. St. Joseph, 5,000 Boonville,
4,000 Western, 10,000 Rocheport,
3,000 Lexington, 2,000 Liberty,
5,000 Brunswick, 5,000 Total number
3,000 Total amount of above tables
1,492,921 There are several small towns not embraced in the tables, which will probably swell the total to 1,500,000.
New Orleans is the great outlet for the trade of the western rivers.
Although the receipts of sugar, molasses, hemp, and cotton for the year 1847, do not equal those of 1846, still the value of the products received at New Orleans from the interior, during the past year, exceeds anything of the kind in any previous year, by many millions of dollars. In 1846 the receipts of sugar
186,650 hogsheads. molasses 9,000,000 galls. hemp
14,873 bales. lead
785,324 pigs. cotton
1,041,393 bales. The annexed table exhibits the receipts at New Orleans for the year ending September 1st, 1847. Commerce of New Orleans—Value of Receipts from the Interior.
Value in Articles.
Dollars. Apples, bbls.,
118,836 Bacon, assorted, hhds, and casks, 28,607 60 00 1,716,420 Bacon, assorted, boxes,
8,325 30 00
249,750 Bacon hams, hhds. and tierces, 14,518 65 00
913,670 Bacon, in bulk pounds,
25,509 Bagging, pieces,
60,982 10 50
640,311 Bale rope, coils,
337,206 Beans, bbís.
24,536 4 00
98,144 Butter, kegs and firkins,
51,384 5 00
256,920 Butter, bbls.,
852 20 00
17,440 Beeswax, bóls.
1,109 40 00
44,360 Beef, bbls.,
32,738 10 00
327,380 Beef, tierces,
21,230 16 00
339,680 Beef, dried, pounds,
3,430 Buffalo robes, packs,
55 60 00
3,300 Cotton, bales,
740,669 44 00 32,589,436 Corn meal, bbls.
308,505 Corn, in ear, bbls.
69,576 1 10
681,533 Corn, shelled, sacks, .
2 00 4,773,020 Cheese, boxes,
57,429 3 50
201,001 Candles, boxes, :
29,736 Cider, bbls.,
1,431 Coal, western, bbls.,
267,375 Dried apples and peaches, bbls., 8,770
21,925 Feathers, bags,
87,450 Flaxseed, tierces,
8,658 Flour, barrels,
1,617,675 5 50 8,897,213 Furs, hhds., bundles and boxes,
600,000 Hemp, bundles,
60,238 15 00
98,342 1 25
122,927 Hay, bundles,
95,231 3 00 285,693
Amount. Iron, pig, tons,
1,151 Lard, hhds.,
143 Lard, barrels and tierces,
117,077 Lard, kegs,
275,076 Leather, bundles,
3,716 Lime, western, barrels,
5,994 Lead, pigs,
650,129 Lead, bar, kegs and boxes,
1,291 Molasses, (estimated crop) galls. 6,000,000 Oats, bbls. and sacks,
588,337 Onions, bbls.,
7,185 Oil, linseed, bbls.,
3,637 Oil, castor, bbls.,
1,439 Oil, lard, bbls.,
2,573 Peach brandy, bbls.,
72 Potatoes, bbls.
142,888 Pork, bbls.,
302,170 Pork, hhds.,
9,452 Pork'in bulk, pounds,
8,450,700 Porter and Ale, bbls.,
1,363 Packing yarn, reels,
2,193 Skins, deer,
1,784 Skins, bear, packs,
71 Shot, kegs,
3,992 Soap, boxes,
4,361 Staves, M.,
2,000 Sugar, (estimated crop) hhds., 140,000 Spanish moss, bales, :
5,990 Tallow, bbls.,
6,658 Tobacco, leaf, hhds.,
44,588 Tobacco, strips, hhds.,
11,000 Tobacco, chew'g, kegs and boxes, 3,930 Tobacco, bales,
1,001 Twine, bundles and boxes,
1,334 Vinegar, bbls.,
1,059 Whisky, bbls
126,553 Window glass, boxes,
3,805 Wheat, barrels and sacks, . 833,649
Other various articles-estimated at
90 2 00 20 00 20 00 22 00 16 00
2 00 12 00 40 00
6 7 50 5 00 20 00 15 00 18 00
2 60 25 00 70 00
4 00 20 00 55 00 100 00 12 50 3 00 7 00 4 00 10 00 4 00 2 30
Value in Dollars. 34,530
11,440 2,692,771 1,100,304
19,365 1,440,000 529,503 14,370 72,740 28,780 56,936
1,152 285,776 3,626,040
378,080 507,042 10,222 10,965 35,680
1,065 71,856 11,338
23,960 133,160 2,452,340 1,100,000 49,125 3,003 9,338
15,220 1,917,392 5,500,000
Total in 1845–6,
90,033,256 77,193,464 57,199,122 60 094,716
Increase of the Eastern States (in 10 years) 163 per cent.
108 In the Northwest and West, then, lie the great growth of the United States, as compared with European nations, and in ihe Valley of the Mississippi, the largest share of it.
ICE TRADE OF THE UNITED STATES.
The principal locality for cutting ice to be exported to foreign countries, is the Wenham Lake, near Boston. Boston and its suburbs, or town of Charlestown, near the lake, are the principal places of export.
There are in Boston about twenty companies engaged in transporting ice to the East and West Indies, New Orleans, South America and Europe, and to other warm climates. In 1830, the quantity of ice shipped from Charlestown to distant ports, amounted to 30,000 tons. No less than 50,000 tons were exported from Boston. The expense to the shippers was 12,340 dollars, or about a quarter of a dollar a ton. The average receipts were 3,570,000 dollars; a single firm in Boston freighted 101 vessels, and a cargo was sent to the East Indies, and exchanged pound for pound for cotton, which was sold at a profit in Eng. land. Saw-dust
, for packing, is worth three dollars per cord. Formerly, ice sold in New Orleans for six cents per pound, and now sells for one cent per pound; but more money is made from ihe increased consumption at one cent than was made at six cents. The ice is sawed into blocks by a machine, and is packed on board the vessels with straw and hay, in thin deal boxes, air-tight. One company expended 7,000 dollars for hay alone. The annual crop of Wenham Lake ice is considered good at 200,000 tons, and can be cut and housed in about three weeks.
In September, 1833, the first cargo of ice from Boston, was discharged at Calcutta.
Since 1833, the trade has greatly increased ; and, from the small beginning at Boston, has extended from other northern pórts; and a considerable quantity is now annually shipped at New York.
From an interesting account of the ice cutting, published two or three years since, we make the following extract:
“ The Wenham Lake is in an elevated position, and embosomed within hills. The lake has no inlet whatever; but is fed solely by springs which issue from the rocks at its bottom, a depth of 200 feet from its surface. This depth explains the great solidity of the ice formed upon the lake.
“ The ice-houses are built of wood, with double walls; the space between which is filled with sawdust; thus interposing a medium that is nearly a non conductor of heat between the ice and external air: the consequence of which is, that the ice is not affected by the temperature of the external atmosphere.
« The machinery employed for cutting the ice was invented for that purpose. It is worked by men and horses.
" From the time when the ice first forms, it is carefully kept free from snow, until it is thick enough to be cut; that process commences when the ice is a foot thick. A surface of some two acres is selected, which at that thickness will furnish about 2,000 tons; and a straight line is then drawn through its centre, from side to side, each way: A small hand-plough is pushed along one of these lines, until the groove is about three inches deep and a quarter of an inch in width, when the marker' is introduced. This implement is drawn by two horses, and makes two new grooves parallel with the first, twenty-one inches apart, the gauge remaining in the original groove. The marker is then shified to the outside groove, and makes two more-having drawn these lines over the whole surface in one direction, marking all the ice out into squares of twen. ty-one inches. In the meantime, the plough, drawn by a single horse, is fol. lowing in these grooves, cutting the ice to the depth of six inches.
“ One entire range of blocks is then sawn out, and the remainder are split off toward the opening thus made, with an iron bar. This bar is shaped like a spade, and of a wedge-like form.
"When it is dropped into the groove, the block splits off; a very slight blow
being sufficient to produce that effect, especially in cold weather. The labor of 'splitting is very light or otherwise, according to the temperature of the atmosphere.Platforms' or low tables of framework, are placed near the opening made in the ice, with iron slides extending into the water, and a man stands on each side of this slide, armed with an ice hook. With this hook the ice is caught, and by a sudden jerk, thrown up the slide' on to the platform. In a cold day everything is speedily covered with ice by the freezing of the water on the platforms, slides, &c., and the enormous blocks of ice, weighing, some of them, more than two cwt., are hauled along these slippery surfaces as if they were without weight.
« Forty men and twelve horses will cut and stow away 400 tons a day; in favorable weather, 100 men are sometimes employed at once. When a thaw or a fall of rain occurs, it entirely unfits the ice for market, by rendering it opaque and porous, and occasionally snow is immediately followed by rain, and that again by frosts, forming snow ice, which is valueless, and must be removed by the 'plane.'' The operation of planing is similar to that of cutting.
" In addition to filling their ice-houses at the lake and in the large towns, the company fill a large number of private ice-houses during the winter-all the ice for these purposes being transported by railway. It will be easily believed, that the expense of providing tools, building houses, furnishing labor, and constructing and keeping up the railway, is very great; but the traffic is so extensive, and the management of trade so good, that the ice can be furnished, even in England, at a very trifling cost.
“ Extensive ice-houses, in London and at Liverpool, have been constructed of stone, &c. Though transported in the heat of summer, it is not much reduced in bulk. The masses of ice are so large, that a small surface only is presented to atmospheric action in proportion to their weight, and therefore do not suffer from their exposure to it, as the smaller and thinner fragments do, which are obtained in our own or other warmer climates. It appears, also, that ice frozen upon very deep water, is more hard and solid than ice of the same thickness obtained from shallow water."
The growth and enormous consumption of a plant prepared not as a product of use and nourishment, but as a stimulant, and which was not known in Europe three centuries ago, is remarkable.
* In the city New York alone, the consumption cigars computed at 10,000 dollars a day-a sum greater than that which the inhabitants pay for their daily bread; and in the whole country, the annual consumption of tobacco is estimated at 100,000,000 lbs., being seven pounds to every man, woman, and child, at an annual cost to the consumer of 20,000,000 dollars.
"In 1840, it was ascertained by a committee appointed to procure and report statistical information on the subject, that about 1,500,000 persons were engaged in the manufacture and cultivation of tobacco in the United States; 1,000,000 of whom were in the states of Virginia, Maryland, Kentucky and Missouri. Allowing the population of the whole country to be 17,000,000, it will be seen that nearly one-tenth are in some way engaged in the cultivation or manufacture of this article. The value of the export during that year was nearly 10,000,000 dollars.” -(McGregor.)
Notwithstanding the variety of the soil in the United States tobacco is produced in most of the states. In Massachusetts, Connecticut, Pennsylvania, Maryland, Virginia, North Carolina, Souih Carolina, Georgia, Alabama, Missis
VOL. I.-MAY, 1848. 10