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Particulars of the Stocks of Cotton in Liverpool on the 31st December, 1847, 1846
46,290 48,160 155,340
116,450 151,660 341,860 Alabama,
45,430 64,870 122,730 Brazil, &c.,
60,110 26,080 57,910 Egyptian,
22,660 51,180 62,190 East India,
65,960 91,560 141,210 Total
363,530 438,970 885,480 Great Britain has been striving for some time past to raise her own cotton. Some years ago an East India Company, with a capital of £500,000, was set on foot for this purpose. The object of the company was to supply the English market with a cheaper and superior cotton of Indian growth, and as an inducement to capitalists to unite in the project, reference was made to a memorial of the Manchester Chamber of Commerce, which stated—“That the quantity of cotton imported into Great Britain in the first eleven months of the year 1838, amounted to 1,374,316 bales, of the value of £14,000,000 sterling, in its unmanufactured state, of which only 96,113 bales were from the East Indies, of the value of abont £600,000, or only five per cent. of the whole value of cotton imported, about ninety per cent. of our supply being drawn from foreign sources. That the value of the above quantity of cotton, in its manufactured state, was £40,000,000 sterling per annum, giving freight for 300,000 tons of shipping, and employment to upwards of 2,000,000 persons;" and concluded by pointing to India as an available, and at ihe same time a more desirable source of supply.
The same considerations have still a governing influence over the manufacturer and shipowner, and, combined with the desire of the government to get rid of its dependence on our country for a material which must be obtained at any sacrifice, have caused the anxiety now manifested by Great Britain to produce cotton within her own territories. In Turkey, too, the experiment has been made to raise cotton, and the French are attempting the same thing in Algeria.
Whilst these efforts are being made abroad in the cultivation of the raw material, an increase of the manufacture is very apparent in this country. The Southern States have lately turned their attention to the subject, and may at no very distant day compete with the north in the production of cotton fabrics. Eight large cotion manufactories are mentioned in South Carolina. One of them is an extensive establishment near Charleston, from which the best results are expected. Georgia and Tennessee are engaged in similar enterprises.
There are thirty-two cotton factories in Georgia in operation, or in progress of construction. There are employed in the buildings and working of these thirty-two factories, two millions of dollars. The number of hands engaged therein is nearly three thousand, and of persons directly receiving their support from the same, six thousand. The value of manufactured goods turned out by them last year fell nothing short of one and a half million of dollars. One third of these manufactured goods were sold out of the state, mostly in the northern markets, and partially in the valley of the Mississippi.
It is confidently asserted by some that the cotton factories of the south must surpass similar establishmenis elsewhere, as there can be no successful competition with factories established in the midst of the raw material.
A Georgia paper, on this subject, holds the following language:“Georgia and Tennessee are destined to become the great manufacturing states of the south, if not of the Union; because they have not only greater resources in proportion to their population, but being traversed in every direction by railroads and rivers, and having a double outlet both to the gulf and the Atlantic,
they will possess unparalleled advantages in regard to both the foreign and domestic markets. If our people would display one-half the energy and enter. prise of the Yankees, in a quarter of a century from the present time we could surpass the whole of New England in wealth and population; indeed, all that we now lack to develop that enterprise and energy is the establishment of manufactories, and the more general introduction of machinery.
“Let us compare for a moment the agricultural wealth of the two states named, with that of New England. Georgia and Tennessee have together a population of 1,694,000; the states of Maine, New Hampshire, Massachusetts, Vermont, Connecticut, and Rhode Island, have 2,422,000 souls. Now, let us see the relative products of the two sections as developed by the census of 1840, and by more recent statistics :
Georgia and Tennessee. Corn 11,943,000 bushels.
83,585,000 bushels. Wheat
9,911,000 Potatoes 20,581,000
3,792,000 Rye 2,582,000
448,000 Oats 11,247,000
1,097,000 Total 50,348,000
107,194,000 "In addition to this, Georgia and Tennessee produce annually about fifteen million pounds of rice, and probably 3,000,000 bushels sweet potatoes, none of which are raised in New England. They also have, according to the census of 1840, 1,906,851 neat cattle, and 4,484,362 swine; whereas the six New Eng. land States have but 1,545,273 neat cattle, and only 748,698 swine.
"Thus showing that, while we have a little over half the population of New England, we have more than double the capacity to feed them. Hence the fact that provisions are comparatively so much cheaper in these states than at the north, and hence the great advantage which we would have as competitors in manufacturing enterprise. In many parts of Georgia and Tennessee, operatives can live for less than one-half of what it would cost them at Lowell, or in any other of the great manufacturing cities of New England. Having this immense advantage in regard to provisions, and a corresponding advantage in procuring the raw material, why should our capitalists hesitate to invest their means in manufactures ?
It may not be deemed inappropriate to mention here, in connection with what has been stated relative to cotton fabrics, that we are now making cotton duck.
Formerly a great deal of money went from this country to Russia to pay for Russia duck, then used for ships, to the exclusion of every other article of the kind. In place of it, cotton duck is now extensively substituted, and is getting to be generally preferred; and instead of purchasing Russia duck abroad, we manufacture an excellent duck at home, out of materials of domestic growth. In the neighborhood of Baltimore, there are three large establishments for the manufacture of this article, all of which are conducted by one firm.
FOREIGN COMMERCE OF THE UNITED STATES.
Imports. merchandize. 1840
$111,660,561 $12,008,371 $123,668,932 $98,258,706 1841
103,636,236 8,181,235 111,817,471 122,957,544 1842
91,799,242 8,078,753 99,877,995 96,075,071 1843
77,686,354 5,139,335 82,825,689 42,433,464 1844
99,531,774 6,214,058 105,745,832 102,604,606 1845
98,455,330 7,581,781 106,040,111 113,181,322 1846
101,718,042 7,865,206 109,583,248 117,914,065 1847
150,574,814 6,166,039 156,740,883 122, 124,319 In 1840, the excess of exports was
$25,410,226 In 1846, imports
8,330,817 In 1847, exports
34,316,534 The export of specie in 1846 was
62,620 The import of specie and bullion in 1816 was
$3,777,732 Of the domestic produce exported in 1847, the amount exported to England was of the value of $97,747,130, and to France $19,277,992.
During the six months preceding 1st July, 1817, we received from England goods 10 the amount of $54,707,468, from France $14,388,742, from Spain $12,617,113. The balance of trade in our favor in 1847, was, as above stated, $34,316,534.
According to the statements from the Treasury,
$47,310,325 imports from
38,047,095 exports to France
15,130,575 imports from
23,911,532 In the same year (1846), of the total amount of exports, $78,634,410 was exported in American vessels, and $23,000,000 in foreign vessels.
The different articles exported were
$3,453,308 The Forest-Skins and furs and ginseng
1,300,571 Product of wood
5,506,677 Agriculture-Product of animals
7,833,864 Vegetable food
42,767,341 All other agricultural products
4,921,995 Of cotton
3,5+5,481 Other fabrics
203,995 Articles not enumerated-Manufactured
1,490,303 In the year 1847 the exports were very largely increased by the demand for breadstuffs.
The following table, copied from the Shipping and Commercial List, will show the export of breadstuffs from the United States to Great Britain and Ireland, for the year ending September 1, 1847:
Flour, Cornmeal, Wheat, Corn,
1,673,582 354,127 2,505,756 6,818,283 Philadelphia
320,950 244,604 539,633 1,127,125 Baltimore
304,263 82,926 101,376 1,687,996 Norfolk
1,362,761 New Orleans
671,335 71,175 818,770 5,186,330 Boston
80,933 25,646 11,541 574,404 Other ports
49,939 47,513 38,058 541,965 Total
3,150,689 847,280 4,015,134 17,298,744 In addition to which, 88,261 bushels of rye, 436,881 of oats, and 289,613 of barley were exported.
The exports from the city of New York alone, to Great Britain, Ireland, France and all foreign ports for 1847, were as follows:
To Great Britain, &c. France. All foreign ports. Flour
bbls. 1,673,582 243,433 2,154,161 Corn meal
354,127 4,075 415,581 Wheat
bush. 2,505,756 352,800 3,085,134 Corn
6,818,263 5,772 6,964,952 Rye
75,692 104,423 1,007,159 Oats
367,791 3,368 416,486 Barley
296,208 The following table, showing the exports of corn, flour and wheat, by months, though differing somewhat in its aggregate from the official figures given above, is still near enough correct to be of interest in illustrating the course of trade during the year:
Corn, Wheat Flour, Rye Flour, Wheat,
bbls. bush. September
117,949 87,195 505 151,765 October
198,181 163,967 953 222,380
367,350 115,161 489 303, 121
276,758 1847. January
411,440 129,825 2,678 160,434 February
814,922 136,313 1,343 149,217 March
1,188,240 77,819 999 82,789 April
1,052,012 100,551 5,629 74,059 May
471,947 111,700 2,938 66,232 June
766,883 342,080 2,985 397,437 July
1,238 741,327 August
402,781 189,031 572 305,086
6,811,731 2,107,348 21,279 2,930,655 The total receipts by the Hudson river, from the opening of navigation to the middle of September, were 2,009,297 barrels of wheat flour, 94,3
do. cornmeal, 1,483,400 bushels of wheat, 2,843,841 do. of corn, and 192,635 do. of rye.
VOL. 1.-MAY, 1848. 9
The annual trade report of Philadelphia shows the results of the last year to be
Value $2,792,773 Corn meal
1,341,024 Rye flour
99,436 Ship bread
1,081,636 Rice tierces 2,102
Total value $6,302,346 The aggregate value of these articles is about twice that of last year.
In the first month of 1848, the quantity of foreign and domestic merchandize exported from the port of New York, is given in the following statistical statement:
To Great Britain. Flour, bbls. 61,354 Whalebone, lbs.
3,300 4,532 Cheese, lbs.
1,783,010 Pork, 252 Oil cake, Ibs.
263,110 Beef, 2,786 Bread, bbls.
912 Rice, tierces 196 Wheat, bushels
85,151 Lard, lbs. 288,112 Corn,
164,166 Bacon, lbs. 783,314 Cotton, bales
4,043 Sperm oil, gals. 3,300 Butter, lbs.
1,412 Whale oil 40,442 Hemp,
150,770 Tallow, lbs. 244,312 Flaxseed, lbs.
10,119 France. Pork, bbls. 50 Cotton, bales
3,888 Beef, 76 Tallow, lbs.
270,212 Hams, &c., Ibs. 512 Whalebone, lbs.
84,512 Ashes, bbls.
British West Indies Flour, bbls. 4,643 Beef, bbls.
700 Rye flour, bbls. 79 Hams, lbs.
16,210 Corn, bushels 950 Butter, lbs.
21,111 Oats, 660 Cheese, lbs.
21,313 Pork, bbls. 2,493 Lard, lbs.
26,718 Corn meal, bbls. 470 Sperm oil, gals.
140 Spirits turpentine, gals. 196 Whale oil, gals.
1,342 Bread, bbls. 1,228 Rice, tierces
208 Tobacco, leaf, bhds. 9 Wheat, bushels
800 Tobacco, manufac., lbs. 2,316
British Colonies. Flour, bbls. 2,308 Rye flour, bbls.
169 Corn, bushels 850 Pork, bbls.
263 Cheese, Ibs. 2,000 Beef, bbls.
41 Tar, bbls. 145 Corn meal, bbls.
2,274 Oats, bushels 50 Bread
50 Rice, tierces