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1834,

1837,

19.618

287 1835,

28.728

476 1836,

27,342

560 10,709

151 1838,

25,669

585 The total exports in 1838 were 81,754 tons. Spain has iron of excellent qualiiy. It is probably more ductile than any other. But Spain has never manufaciured to any great extent.

An ancient writer (Diodorus Siculus) says :-" The Celterberians make weapons and darts in an admirable manner; for they bury plates of iron so long under ground, until the rust hath consumed the weaker part, and so the rest be. comes more strong and firm. Of this they make swords and other warlike weapons, and with these arms thus tempered, they so cut through everything in their way, that neither shield, helmet nor bone can withstand them.”

In France, also, the manufacture of iron has much increased within the past few years. In 1819, there were produced 742,000 quintals of iron (of 100 pounds each). In 1830, the quantity manufactured was 1,484,685 quintals, and in 1845, 3,422,643 quintals. The value of all the work performed in smelting the ore and of all the manufactures of iron and steel, is estimated at 166,112,789 francs.

Iron ores are abundant in the United States. Those hitherto worked are chiefly the magnetic oxyd, brown hematite, the argillaceous oxyd, and bog-ore, a variety of the limonite.

In New Hampshire, the magnetic oxyd is found. In Vermont, Rhode Island and Connecticut, the brown hematite. In Massachusetts, bog.ore. In New York, New Jersey and Pennsylvania where iron is most abundant, are found the magnetic and argillaceous oxyds, brown hematite and specular. To these may be added, the carbonate of iron, which has been recently smelted, and produces iron having the carbonaceous impregnation of steel. Maryland also has iron ore, and the iron of Virginia, Tennessee and Connecticut is highly esteemed. In New Jersey, there are twelve furnaces, and sixty-three forges.

It is our intention to follow the historical sketch, which we have given, with statements of the production and manufacture of iron in the several states. In this number, we commence with Pennsylvania, and have only room for a part of our tables of the iron statistics of that state. We here embrace the opportunity to remark, that it is impossible for us, within the compass of a single number, to insert statistical notices of every portion of the Union, or to include within it every subject important and interesting to the reader, and appropriate to the work.

Within the year, we hope to do all this, and thus to carry out our design in this department of the Register.

The following tables are taken from the coal and iron statistics of Pennsylvania, prepared by C. G. Childs, Esq.

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50 6,584 1,031

260 7,765 8,220

45 625 7,500 1,619 1,692

2 36

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9 10 4

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5 3

Adams
Allegheny
Armstrong
Beaver
Bedford
Berks
Bradford
Butler.
Centre
Chester
Clinton
Clearfield
Columbia
Crawford
Cumberland.
Dauphin
Delaware
Erie
Fayette
Franklin
Huntingdon
Indiana
Lancaster
Lebanon
Lehigh
Luzerne
Lycoming
Mercer
Mifflin
Montgomery
Northampton
Perry
Philadelphia
Schuylkill
Somerset.
Union.
Venango
Warren
York

11 2 3 7 3 2 1 2 2 6 3 1 1 9 8 20

1 11 3 1 6 4 4 4 4 6 8

2,830
3,000

100

100 1,800 3,810 13,855

80 6,912 3,020 600 870 600

59 1,904 1,150 3,523 2,951

287 2,109

3 11 27

1 14 3 1 1 3

80 10 400 224 12 20 292

518 1,357

19 784 231 93

2,000

125 2,150

10,600 466

5,537

150

88

80,000

7,500 110,000 120,000 20,000 15,000 70,000 258,500 780,100

18,000 420,500 233,000 20,500 43,000 283,000

2 5 4 2 1 3 1 1 1

125

4 1 2 16 3 4

355 6,546

30

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4

Total,

150 703 4,050 1,125 8,653 14,093 | 39,367

30 170 2,090 16,525

297 6,108 3,000

4,714 86 955 270 1,230

26 600 3,365 640 17,200

910 6,227 1,300 16,152 1,752 4,650 365 8,942 20

50 150 427 208

10,120

18 1,118 15,200

4,712 144,500 100,000

95,000 303,150 314,050 107,000

1,000 22,000 232,000

3,360 73,655

11 207 284 164 339

25 138

9 39 462

7 308

5,113

213 98,395

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In 1846 there were 206 charcoal furnaces, making 173,369 tons; and 7 anthracite furnaces, making 16,487 tons.

In 1839, the long sought discovery was made of using anthracite coal for

PROPRIETORS.

PRODUCT.

2,500

Clay,

smelting in furnaces and rolling mills. This has given a new impetus to the business, in which Pennsylvania must take the lead, as anthracite coal is almost confined to this State. This discovery aroused the energy of the bituminous coal operators, and introduced into the State the process of coke pig iron, so long and successfully practised in England.

The following table contains a complete list of the anthracite furnaces in Pennsylvania at the present time, (April, 1847,) with their annual products. The increase of this branch of the iron trade in the State, has no parallel in history. Anthracite Furnaces erected since 1839, and in blast in 1847;

with their annual product. NAMES OF WORKS.

No. Tons. Allentown, Bevan & Humphreys,

2 7,000 Birdsboro', E. & G. Brooks,

1 1,750 Bloomsburg, Paxton, Fisher & Co.,

2 8,500 Conshohocken, Stephen Colwell,

1 3,000 Chickanalingo, E. Haldeman,

1 Henry Clay, Eckert & Brother,

1 4,500 J. Platt,

1 1,750 Columbia, J. & P. Groves,

1 2.000 Haldeman, P. Haldeman,

1 1,500 Harrisburg, David R. Porter,

1 3,500 Lackawanna, Scranton & Co.,

2 3,500 Lebigh Crane Iron Co., Crane Iron Co.,

3 13,000 Lebanon, Coleman,

2 7,000 Lightstreet,

1,500 Montour Iron Works, Montour Iron Co.,

4 15,000 Mauch Chunk, S. & W. L. Richards,

1 1,500 J. McDowell,

1 1,500 Phænix Works, Reeves, Buck & Co.,

3 12,000 Pioneer, G. G. Palmer,

1 1,800 William Penn, Livingston & Lyman,

1

3,250 Red Point, Samuel R. Wood,

1

3,750 Roaring Creek, S. R. Wood,

1 2,000 Shamokin, Shamokin Iron Co.,

1 2,500 Shawnee, Holmes, Myers & Co.,

1 1,750 Spring Mill, Kunzi & Farr,

1 2,500 St. Clair, Burd Patterson,

2 3,500 Sarah Ann, Porter & Stewart,

1 2,000 Pomeroy & Harrison,

1 1,750

40 121,800 In Progress of Erection. Malinda, Blair & Madden,

2,500 Franklin, George Moss & Co.,

3,000 Phenixville, Reeves, Buck & Co.,

4,000 Safe Harbor, Reeves, Wolf & Co.,

4,500 Out of Blast. Elizabeth, at South Easton, two, product tons,

4,000 The discovery of the process of making anthracite iron, and the reduced price at which it can be manufactured, induced a number of capitalists to put up extensive Rolling Mills.

In 1845, the first bar of railroad iron was manufactured in the Uuited States. Since that period, various establishments have gone into operation, and about

Valley,

Plate do.

do.

45,000 tons can now be manufactured annually, in this State alone, and 100,000 tons in the United States.

Anthracite Rolling Mills. The following rolling mills have been erected and put into operation in this State, within the last four years. The annual product and the kind of iron manufactured at each mill are added :

ANNUAL PRODUCTS, TON$. 1-Montour Iron Works-Danville-Murdock, Leavitt & Co., make Iron Rails,

10,000 Do. do.

1,000 2_Wilkesbarre—T. T. Payne-Rail and Plate,

6,000 3—Great Western-Great Western Iron Co.-Kails and Plates, 10,000 4-Harrisburg-Burke-Plate,

1,500 5-Philadelphia-Thos. Hunt-Rails,

2,000 6 -Robinson & Verreé-Plate,

1,200 7- do. -Leibert and Wainwright-Rails,

4,000 8- do. - Thomas & Ogden-Bar and Rod,

2,000 do. -James Rowland, 2 mills—Plate and Round, 4,500 10-Manayunk-B. & C. B. Buckley—Plate,

500 11-Phænixville-Reeves, Buck & Co.-Rails,

12,000 12–Norristown—Moore & Hooven-Merchant Bar,

2,000 13_Pottsgrove-Potts Merchant Bar,

2,000 14-Pine Grove-Joseph Baily-Plate,

850 15—Reading—Sabata & Co., | Axle, 16—

1,000 do. -Jones & Co., Small Iron, 17- do. -Seyfort & McManus Bar and Nails,

2,500 18-Little Schuylkill-Small Iron,

500 19—Lackawanna-Scranton & Co.-Plate and Rails,

6,000 Total tons,

69,500 In our subsequent numbers, we purpose to continue our tables, completing the statements for Pennsylvania, and giving full statistical accounts of the production and manufacture of iron, in the other states of the Union.

.

POPULATION OF THE UNITED STATES.

The statistics of the old provinces were obscure and uncertain at the commencement of the revolution; but the population at that time could not have amounted to more than 2,500,000. After the peace, a census of the population has been taken every ten years.

In 1790 the number of the inhabitants in the old states amounted to 3,929,827, including 629,697 slaves, and also the population of Vermont, which had increased to 85,530; and that of Kentucky, into which emigration rushed with rapidity from the New England States, amounting to 173,677. The slave population were distributed as follows:—158 in New Hampshire; 16 in Vermont; 948 in Rhode Island; 2764 in Connecticut; 21,324 in New York; 11,423 in New Jersey; 8,887 in Delaware; 3,737 in Pennsylvania; 103,036 in Maryland; 292,627 in Virginia; 100,572 in North Carolina ; 107,094 in South Carolina ; 29,264 in Georgia; 12,430 in Kentucky, and 3,417 in different territories. Total slaves in 1790 629,697.

In 1800, the population increased to 5,305,925, including 896,849 slaves.

In 1810 the census gave 6,048,539 free, and 1,191,364 slaves. Total, 7,239,814.

In 1820, the number of freemen were 8,100,108, and of slaves 1,538,118. Total, 9,638,131.

In 1830, the returns gave 10,857,177 free, and 2,009,043 slaves. Total 12,866,920 inhabitants.

By the census of 1840, the total number of the population was 17,062,566, consisting of 7,249,266 free males, and 6,939,842 free females. Total free, 14,189,108, and of 186,467 free colored males, and 199,778 free colored females. Total free colored, 386,245: of 1,246,408 male slaves, and 1,240,805 female slaves. Total slaves, 2,487,213.

In Maine, Massachusetts, Vermont and Michigan, there were no slaves; in New Hampshire, 1 female slave; in Rhode Island, 5 female slaves; in Connecticut, 17 female slaves; in New York, 4 slaves; in Ohio, 3; in Indiana, 3; in New Jersey, 674; in Pennsylvania, 64; in Delaware, 2,505; in Maryland, 89,495; in Virginia, 449,187; in North Carolina, 245,317; in South Carolina, 327,038; in Georgia, 280,944; in Alabama, 253,530; in Mississippi, 195,211; in Louisiana, 167;822; in Tennessee, 183,058; in Kentucky, 182,258; in Illinois, 271; in Missouri, 58,240; in Arkansas, 19,953; in Florida territory, 25,713; in Wisconsin territory, 11; in Iowa territory, 16; in the district of Columbia, 4,695 slaves.

The decennial increase per cent. of the population has been as follows, viz: in the ten years ending 1800, 35.01 per cent.; 1810, 36.45 per cent.; 1820, 33.35 per cent. ; 1830, 33.26 per cent.; '1840, 32.67 per cent. The commissioner of patents estimates the population of the United States during 1847 at 20,746,400.

The emigration to this country, from Europe, has increased steadily up to this time. In 1831, the number of foreigners who arrived in our ports was 15,713, and in 1840, 86,338. What effect the recent agitations in Europe will produce on emigration, cannot be certainly predicted. The whole number of emigrants from 1830 to 1840, is estimated at 540,000, and since that period the influx has been much greater. The low price of land in the west, and the high prices of labor, are strong inducements to the laboring classes of Europe to leave their homes, and seek a sure living and competence in America.

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