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obedience of the subject will be voluntary, chearful, and I might almost say unlimited. A generous nation is grateful even for the preser. vation of its rights, and willingly extends the respect due to the office of a good prince into an affection for his person. Loyalty, in the heart and understanding of an Englishman, is a rational attachment to the guardian of the laws. Prejudices and passion have sometimes carried it to a criminal length; and whatever foreigners may imagine, we know that Englishmen have erred as much in a mistaken zeal for particular persons and families, as they ever did in defence of what they thought most dear and interesting to themselves. It naturally fills us with resentment to see such a temper insulted and abused."

The style of an exordium should be clear and correct. At first an audience are generally attentive to the speaker, and when they are not warmed with the discourse or subject, are more disposed to criticism. All appearance of art or inflated language must then be avoided ; for in an introduction nothing hurts more than ostentation. On this account an appearance of modesty has always been thought requisite in an

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exordium.* Most men entertain too high an opinion of themselves to be pleased with those who assume any thing of an overbearing appearance; wherefore be cautious never to promise too much at first, for if your argument proves dull after you have raised expectation, the hearers will feel disappointment, and will consequently be displeased instead of concili. ated. Every public speaker should bear in his mind the artful demeanour of the wise Ulysses in the contest with Ajax, as described in the 13th book of Ovid's Metamorphoses

“ Donec Laertius heros
" Adstitit; atque oculos paulum tellure moratos
“ Sustulit ad proceres; expectatoque resolvit
Ora sono: neque abest facundia gratia dictis,
“ Si mea cum vestris valuisset vota, Pelasgi,
“ Non foret ambiguus tanti certaminis hæres:
Tuque tuis armis, nos te potirenur, Achille!"

“ A murmur from the multitude,
" Or somewhat like a stifled shout ensued
« Till from his seat arose Laertes' son,
" Look'd down awhile, and paus'd ere he begun;

*“ Atque commendatio tacite si nos infirmos & impares, &c.--Est enim naturalis favor pro laborantibus; & Judex religiosus libentur patronem audit quem justiciæ suæ minimum timet.”-Quinct. l. 4. c. 1.

" Then to th' expecting audience rais'd his look,
And not without prepared attention spoke:
“ Soft was his tone, and sober was his face;
“ Action his words, and words his action grace.c
If Heaven, great chiefs, had heard our common

“ These arms had caused no quarrel for an heir,
“Still great Achilles had his own possess'd,
“And we with great Achilles had been bless'd”.



In your introduction never anticipate any thing that would be more properly introduced afterwards; this takes away the grace of novelty, and the force of what should follow.

Lastly, The introduction should bear a proportion both in length and kind to the dis

Dr. Blair remarks, that a long introduction before a short discourse is as improper as a large portico before a small house; it must also be proportionate in kind, for as a finely adorned portico before a mean building, so is a flowery introduction to a flat discourse. Learned men have generally found the greatest difficulty in making introductions; for it is not easy to be plain and simple without being somewhat dry and uninteresting.

The second part is the narrative or explica

tion. Narrative is chiefly necessary


popular assemblies, and for the bar, to state those circumstances which ought to be well understood. In sermons the word explication is used; it serves the same purpose. as the narra. tion, and in these is justly reckoned among the most difficult parts of a discourse.

In narration all superfluous circumstances must be omitted, and the best way is to reprem sent things in a picturesque manner.

Of this we have an excellent example in Swift's Essay on the Fates of Clergymen; the style should be simple but elegant. In a sermon the same rule must be observed. The explication should be clear, concise, and correct; the language plain but elegant. You must observe what light the context throws upon your discourse, and consider in what it differs from similar subjects.

The third part of a discourse is the statement or division of the argument. This generally follows the narrative, though sometimes it as properly goes before it. Some critics have been of opinion that a formal division of orations is unnecessary and improper, as it checks the passions, and breaks the unity of a discourse; but, in truth, it is only a faulty division that breaks



the unity: a proper division is not only con. sistent with unity, but even renders it more conspicuous. It also allows a resting-placa to the mind, where it can reflect on what has been said, and look forward to what is to come : according to Quinctilian, it is like a man travel. ling upon a road which is marked with stones at every mile end; this makes his journey seem shorter than if he was always uncertain how far he had to go. It however depends upon

the occasion, the subject, and the taste of the orator, whether any formal division should be

proposed or not. In cases where it is adopted the following rules are recommended by writers on rhetoric

Ist. In a good discourse the heads should be distinct, and none of them included in another.

2dly. The divisions should be ranged in their natural order; you should first begin with the most simple, and then proceed to things of greater importance.

3dly. They should exhaust the subject, otherwise the division is imperfect. You must therefore consider into what parts of divisions the subject most naturally resolves itself.

Athly. The beads should be expressed in con

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