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latter part of it.' If, in the middle of the summer, their strain were found sweet and musical, the inconsistencies of the poets on this topic, might disappear. “They fix (Mr. Spence continues) on some funny branch of a tree, and sing all day long. Hence this insect is opposed to the ant, in the old Æsopian fables; which is as industrious and inoffensive, as the other is idle and troublesome. Any one who has passed a summer in Italy, or the south of France, will not think Martial's epithet inhumane too severe for these creatures. The noise they make (the tranllator hath been informed) is occafioned by the friction, or percussion of their thighs, against a sort of tympanum in their sides. Ælian intimates something similar; but his authority is little to be depended on. This lively anecdotist tells us, that the female Cicada is mute; thinking, like a bashful bride, that she ought, in propriety, to be filent. See Ælian, b. i. c. 20.

Ælian concurs with THEOCRITUS, ANACREON, Virgil, and the poets in general, in affirming that the Cicada lives on dewprobably an erroneous notion, though Spence seems inclined to believe it, and Fawkes asserts it gravely. From Ælian, b. 12, c. 6. and ANACREON, Od. 42, we may judge that this creature was held in great veneration by the ancients. The Athenians wore golden Cicadæ in their hair, as an emblem of national antiquity; since, it seems, they derived their origin, like those insects, from the earth. Sacred to the Muses, and the daughter of JUPITER, to eat a Cicada was deemed extreme impiety. Such, however, was no unfrequent practice. John the Baptist, we read, ate the locust.

A harmless infe&t why pursue

That only laps the rosy dez?
See a beautiful Epigram in the Anthologia on this idea.

RAPIN's ode to the Cicada is well known: The translator shall conclude his notes with a version of it, performed at a very early age, as a school exercise.


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1. Cicada lov’d, whose little limbs are spread On yonder soft luxuriant bed;

Who hoppfi the lawns along,

Chaunting an idle fong : Whether, amid full-blown flowers,

Blythe thou fipoft refreshing showers Drunk with heaven's fragrant tears;

Or where green waters glide,

Thou loveft to reside,
In the moist grass of lady plains ;
Or modulating dulcet strains

Thy emulative throat

Out vies the shepherd's note,
Whilst all the village round thy accents hears.

II. Or when the fun darts down its scorching ray To vex the rustic's weary way;

By a sweet murmuring rill,

Thou gratest, shrieking shrill : Or if the deities of heaven

Nectarian faveets to thee have giv'n With ministerial rains :

And bounteouby bestrew

Tby bed with pearly dew--
Alit my jong; while kill'd in rhymes
Thy poet thro' all future times

To lafi, a temple rears;

And thro' the listening Spheres Still more and more thy fame immortal honor gains.

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LINE 196.

Where sport the HOURS !The daughters of JUPITER and Themis, according to OrPHEUS and Hesiod, the former of whom informs us that they were born in the spring.

Præfides fcribus cæli cum mitibus Horis, says Ovid; making them the door-keepers of heaven. In this circumstance Homer agrees with Ovid; and also assigns to them the care of the aerial regions, Il. b.5. They are again mentioned by our author, in the Syracufian Golips.


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? Where the pale philtre that may



love? Our fears are awakened for a moment at the abrupt appearance of the enchantress, as she invokes the pale moon, and begins her horrid rites. The character, however, of SIMOETHA is of the mixed kind. It was not the purpose of Theocritus, to excite our fears, in a continued series, by an uninterrupted representation of the magical process. Though in the piece before us, in the Pharmaceutria of Virgil, and a similar performance by SANNAZARIUS, we may see the principal ceremonies—we must have recourse to other authors, for the horrors of incantation. The Canidia of HORACE, and the Thesalian forceress ERICHTho, in the 6th Book of Lucan, will furnish us with no inadequate ideas of ancient necromancy. We may remark, by the way, that Lucan had, probably, the incident of Saul and the Witch of Endor in view, while his ErichTho was raising up a dead body, to satisfy the enquiries of SEXTUS, concerning the event of the civil war. APOLLONIUS Rhodius hath also exhi. bited enchantment in all its terrors.

The practices of witchcraft have been remarkably similar in all ages and nations of the world. The magical use of amulets and charms was, doubtless, of very high antiquity; though Dr. WARBURTON hath referred its original to the age of the PTOLEMIES. Long before the times of Moses, the art of divination was practised in Ægypt and the land of Canaan. PHARAOH fent for all the magicians of Ægypt to interpret his dream. The teraphim that RACHAEL stole from her father LABAN were, most likely, little magical images. The ear-rings which JACOB buried under the oak at Shechem, were no other than amulets.


ABRAHAM's servant, (who was sent to look for a wife for his fon ISAAC) as foon as he found REBECCA, took a golden ear-ring (or jewel for the forehead) of half a thekel weight, and put it on her face: this was probably a frontlet, with magical words engraved on it, like the Arabian talisman. See “ CLOGHER's Chronicle of the Hebrew Bible vindicated,' page 157.

As the world grew older, its fuperititions increased. Ægypt no longer preserved her superior pretenfions to magic, while Pontus, Allyria, (lee conclufion of this Idyllium) and many other nations, became equally celebrated for their enchanters; to whom the power was attributed of reversing the order of nature, on the most trivial occasions. The Romans were subjected to perpetual alarms through the infernal rituals of HECATE ; and some thousands at a time have been convicted of forcery, in the imagination of this credulous people. Nor was it the uninformed mind alone that gave way to such fanciful superstitions. The wise Cicero, and the no less philosophic Aurelius, were, in this point, as undiscerning as the vulgar. And, in after times, the Apostate Julian, who rejected Christianity, became a dupe to magical impofture. We are not to wonder, then, at the triumphs of forcery, at a subsequent period, when ignorance and error had involved in darkness the European nations. In the fifth and fixth centuries it was a darkness, indeed, that might be felt. The crusades were, afterwards, the means of introducing into Europe, a species of necromancy, whose aspect was peculiarly captivating to poetic imagination. Asia had been long, indeed, the seat of enchantment. The Magi of Persia and the Brahmins of India have, many ages, been famed for their deep researches in the occult sciences, and their reputed intercourse with the invisible world.

The romantic invention of Genii and Faeries originated in the East; and such may juftly be considered as a valuable acceffion to the less marvellous fi&tions of the classic poet; though in some of our modern poems, we have an injudicious mixture of the Gothic and classical machinery.

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