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vernments to afford the proof of their friendly feelings in my regard.

“ 5th. In short, finding myself powerful amongst my people, acting consistently with our sacred code, that is to say, in virtue of the judicial fetwas which have been openly sent to me by all the Ulemas of Arabia and Anatolia, I am enjoined by the law to resort to every means of strengthening my nation and government. Now, as such means can only be realised by my receiving a concession of the countries which I have just demanded, I feel warranted in persisting in my demand, until it shall have been assented to. I have thus ardently laboured hitherto, with no other view than to leave the world with some degree of renown.

“Since my nation has so confidently had recourse to me, rather than incur the reproach of having abandoned her, and preferred indulging in repose, I shall gladly court a glorious death in her service. It is under the inspiration of these sentiments that I humbly beseech England and France to adopt, in my regard, a determination consistent with justice, equity, and their own interest.”

No. II.

Extract from a Firman, addressed by his Highness Mo

hammed Ali, Viceroy of Egypt, to the Members of the Provincial Council of Canea, dated 16th August, 1833.

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“ Although the island of Candia contains within itself all the seeds of prosperity, and combines all the conditions

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necessary for rendering it rich and prosperous, yet doomed for many years past to be distracted by internal broils and dissensions, a great portion of its fertile soil has been left untilled, and the olive-tree, which may be considered its richest production, still remains totally neglected.

“ The cause of this is, that the greater part of the land devoted to its cultivation is owned by individuals who do not possess the means indispensably requisite for rendering it productive.

“Now, it is evident, that if such a state of things continues much longer, the result must be that this valuable production will become extinct. To check, therefore, the progress

of an evil that every day grows more serious, some means must be devised for improving the culture of the olive; and, to effect this desirable purpose, the inhabitants have no better method than that above recommended, which consists in their mutually lending each other aid and assistance.

“The government, on its part, moved thereto by a sense of justice and equity, will charge itself with the manufacture of all the implements, &c. necessary for the cultivation of the country, for such of the inhabitants as have not the means of otherwise procuring them.

“ It will, at the same time, chastise those malevolent persons, whose conduct may tend to hurt the interests of the country. It will undertake to lay the foundation of the mighty structure of civilization, using every possible means of delivering the inhabitants—Mussulmans as well as Christians—from the darkness of ignorance, by opening their eyes to the beneficent light of science.

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The Firman then proceeds to give directions to the government of Canea to clean out and improve the port

- to establish two schools for the education of the children of the inhabitants-Mussulmans and Christians.

The whole to be effected at the cost of the government.

Another paragraph decrees the abolition of the tax, established “from time immemorial” on cattle.

Extract of a Firman, addressed by his Highness Moham

med Ali, Viceroy of Egypt, to the principal Inhabitants of Canea, dated Canea, 20th August, 1833.

“ We are pleased to believe, that each of you, moved by a noble emulation, will have at heart the amelioration of the condition of his children, and will consider it a duty to co-operate in forwarding the well-being, civilization, and glory, of his native land.”

Proceeding, then, to point out his intention of giving each village, of which the inhabitants are all Christians, a chief of their own selection; and to such as contain a mixed population, a Mussulman and Christian chief, for the government of his co-religionists repectively, the Viceroy concludes in the following words : “ If you have any observations to offer relative to the resolutions of the council, do not hesitate in forthwith making them known to us.'



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