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POPULATION OF CANEA.

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mercial mart. The population of the place has increased proportionably, for, although not one-third the size of the capital, Canea contains now nearly an equal number of inhabitants. Of late years, the increase has been extraordinarily great; confidence in the government of Mohammed Ali having induced no less than three thousand “ mediatised" Greek pirates to settle at Canea, since the island has been annexed to the Egyptian dominions.

The streets are wide and well paved, but by no means clean, and an oily Greek smell pervades the whole place. The shops are good, but offer no great variety of merchandize. The houses are wretched, without a single exception ; lofty, old, and ricketty. The mosques and churches are propped up on crutches, and even the flag-staffs of the European Consuls partake of the general tottering character of the place; the old foretop-mast, from which the union jack is displayed, seemed disposed to part company with the roof of Mr. Capogrosso's house, whilst the consular

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pole of the King of the French appeared to be quite overweighted with the enormous outspread charter of the three glorious days."

One would suppose that a smart shock of an earthquake would make Canea a heap of ruins; it has, however, withstood so manyfor the island is very subject to them—that the inhabitants appear to have no fears of such a catastrophe.

TAXATION IN CANDIA.

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CHAPTER XI.

venue

Trade of Candia - Productions - Exports and Imports Injurious Consequences of the total want of Inland Communication - Re

-Taxes - Greek Church Establishment-Price of Labour and Provisions-Character of the Inhabitants-Wretched Condition of the Island-Summary Account of the State of Candia during the War in Greece-Effects of the Battle of Navarin-Candia given up to Mohammed Ali - Insurrectionary Movement Desertion of Osman Pasha-Form of Government–The acquisition of the Island not beneficial to Egypt — Advantages its Possession holds out to Great Britain-Conclusion.

The trade of Candia, though in a more thriving state than during the latter years of the Turkish domination, is, nevertheless, far from being in the flourishing condition that the extreme productiveness of the island, and its admirable commercial position, might naturally lead one to expect. It is taxed, like that of Egypt, with a three per cent ad valorem duty on all imports; and most articles of produce pay the same rate of duty on ex

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TRADE THROWN OPEN.

portation. Some, however, are charged much higher; soap, for instance, pays ten and a half

per cent duty on its value; silk, eight per cent; oil, seven and a half.

Although the productions of the island are thus taxed rather heavier, perhaps, than they were under the Turkish government, yet the removal of several most vexatious restrictions offers more than counterbalancing advantages to the country generally; for instance, many of its productions - amongst others, all the oranges and lemons ! — were obliged formerly to be shipped at the port of Candia, and to be sent exclusively to Constantinople! so that perishable articles had sometimes to undergo a land journey of a hundred miles, ere they reached their place of embarkation.

The trade has now been thrown open, and the duties have been equalised at all the ports of the island. The same fixed rate of export duty is now also charged on the various articles of produce, to whatever foreign ports they may be consigned, which was not formerly the case.

PRODUCTIONS OF THE ISLAND.

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The exports of Candia are, at the present day, but few, and consist principally of consumable articles ; oil, soap, honey, wax, a few raisins, oranges, and other fruits, and a small quantity of raw silk.

Of every thing else, the island may be said to be actually in want, not even a sufficiency of corn being grown for the subsistence of its scanty population. It possesses, nevertheless, a soil, and enjoys a temperature, that should render it independent of any productions but those of a tropical climate. The woods of oak, chesnut, walnut, and pine, with which its mountains are clothed, ought even to be a valuable source of profit; but there is not a practicable road to any one port of the island, and, consequently, timber is imported ! The olive-tree is better calculated than any other for making charcoal, but though the whole island is covered with old and unproductive trees that can be turned to no other account, yet the want of communications, and the expense of labour, occasion fuel . to be procured cheaper from abroad! Both

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