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GREAT BRITAIN AND EGYPT.

The course of the Tigris, or Euphrates, (even should Persia, by conquest or alliance, become a party in the war on the side of Russia) can never be taken as a line of operations for attacking India; for, besides the natural difficulties that present themselves by that route, and its being a diverging line, it is one which, by leading towards the shores of the Persian gulf, would be liable to be cut off, by a force despatched from England. It would be still further objectionable, from its being exposed to attack from Egypt: and this again shows the advantage it would be to Great Britain, to strengthen that power, and attach her to our interest; as, by her means, we should at all times have it in our power to attack Persia, and so bind the Shah to us by fear, when other means fail; and the Egyptian army is even now more than a match for the disunited and undisciplined Persians.*

The total population of Persia is eight millions of souls, two millions of which, perhaps, are Nomads. Indeed, the entire population is divided into independent tribes, having different habits and

COMMERCE WITH EGYPT.

137

The

Turning now to other considerations, that urge Great Britain to adopt a friendly line of policy towards Egypt, besides the preservation of her eastern empire, it must be evident to every one, that the great change which has been wrought in the state of Egypt must produce a corresponding one in her commercial relations with other countries. greater the advance of Egypt towards civilization, the greater will be the amount of her produce the more numerous her wants: and here again it becomes the policy of Great Britain to be early in the field to counteract the intrigues of other powers, particularly of France, our principal competitor for commercial advantages.

The advocates of the system of free trade will say only let the ports of Egypt be thrown

interests, and presenting but slight means of resistance to an invader. The regular army amounts only to about twenty thousand men-cavalry, infantry, and artillery; but the troops that might be brought into the field, in any popular war, would amount probably to three hundred thousand, two-thirds of which would be cavalry. But such an army is little to be depended upon-the annual revenue which reaches the Shah's treasury being under two millions sterling-far too small a sum to pay so large an army.

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SUPPLY OF EGYPT.

open to all nations alike, and England will be sure to have the advantage; doggedly maintaining that in no case can we stand in need of commercial favour.

When, however, we see the artful manner in which France is using every means to monopolize the supply of Egypt-when we consider the advantages she derives from situation-and the preference she claims as the principal consumer of Egyptian produce, we must indeed be wedded to a theory, to which practice is so diametrically opposed. It behoves Great Britain, therefore, on this score also to unite herself firmly with Egypt by the tie of reciprocal interest; and the advantages we have to offer, are- security to her commerce-and release from foreign control.

Any attempt to attain our end by bullying Mohammed Ali would be the acme of impolicy. If he ceded to our demands through necessity, he would be our pretended friend and concealed enemy. If he resisted them, though he would inevitably succumb, Russia

GREAT BRITAIN AND EGYPT.

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would be the only party benefited by his fall. Let Great Britain, therefore, throw off the mantle of hypocrisy, and bind Egypt to her by gratitude as well as mutual advantage. That the tie may be lasting, and the benefits conferred on the country greater than those which would be produced by a mere acknowledgment of her integrity, let a spur be given to her industry by insuring her against falling into the hands of a Turkish oligarchy, equally as baneful to the prosperity of the nation as the tyranny of the Mameluke Beys ; and this can only be effected by guaranteeing the succession of Ibrahim Pasha to the throne of his father.

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Character of Ibrahim Pasha-His Conduct in Syria-In the Morea -Popularity of Mohammed Ali - Grievances of his Subjects Difficulties he has to contend against - Wasteful Expenditure of Money on the Wild Schemes of Foreign Adventurers - Project to throw a Dam across the Nile-Railroads-Concluding Remarks upon the system of Government.

TRAVELLERS do not differ more in their measurements of the base of the Great Pyramid of Ghizeh than in that of the intellect of Mohammed Ali's son. Indeed, whether Ibrahim be really his son, or merely the child of his adoption, is even matter of dispute. I incline to the former opinion; but it signifies very little whether such be the case or not, provided he is acknowledged to be so by Mohammed Ali, and has sufficient talent to follow in his soi-disant father's footsteps.

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