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original was brought out in 1825 and 1828, a third edition in 1830, a fourth edition in 1836, and a fifth edition in 1844. This work-especially in the last edition, which is much enlarged and improved-is a very valuable guide to the Exegesis of the New Testament. Previously to the labours of Winer there were no treatises of more importance in this department of biblical science than the now almost entirely forgotten productions of Wyss and Pasor and Haab; whereas at present, principally through the exertions of the Leipzig Professor, the Grammar of the New Testament is regarded as a distinct and most important branch of biblical theology, to which, especially in Germany, valuable contributions are every day being made.

The Comparative Darstellung des Lehrbegriffs der verschiedenen Christlichen Kirchenparteien, nebst vollständigen Belegen aus den Symbolischen Schriften derselben' [Comparative Representation of the Doctrines of the different Christian Church-parties, with copious Extracts from their Symbolical Books] appeared in 1824, and, in a second edition, in 1837. This is perhaps the most unexceptionable of all Winer's writings. There are almost no peculiar dogmatic opinions of his own contained in it. It is simply an objective representation of the doctrines to be found in the creeds of the different churches, without any special critique concerning their truth or untenableness. It is characterized throughout by excellency of plan, profundity of research, truthfulness and accuracy of delineation.

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In addition to his Grammar, Lexicon, and Symbolik, Professor Winer is the author of an extensive number of other treatises. The largest of these is his Handbuch der theologischen Literatur' [Handbook of Theological Literature], third ed. 2 vols. 8vo., Leipz. 1838 and 1840-to which in 1842 there was added a Supplement, containing a list of the works in theology down to the close of the year 1841. This, though in many respects a useful publication, is by no means a work of such merit as the treatises already spoken of. It has many inaccuracies, such, for example, as the giving of the well-known Spanish Jesuit Maldonatus maledicentissimus' a place three several times among Protestant writers, though the author lays it down as his plan to arrange Protestant and Romanist authors separately. Moreover, there is no criticism whatever concerning the merits of the various works enumerated, or the value of the different editions of the Fathers, and, in respect to the theological literature of the not-German world, it contains almost no information.

Dr. Winer's minor works have appeared under the following

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titles:-De Onkeloso ejusque Paraphrasi Chaldaica Dissertatio, 1820; De Jonathanis in Pentat. Paraph. Chald., Spec. I., 1823; Comm. de Versionis N. T. Syr. Usu Critico caute instituendo, 1823; Ueber die Armuth der hebräischen Sprache, 1820; Untersuchung ob die hebräis. Sprache leicht zu nennen sei, 1823; Grundlinien einer Methodik des Elementarunterrichts in der hebr. Sprache, 1819; Spicileg. Observat. in loc. Paulin. 2 Cor. x. 1-12, 1829; Disp. de Verbor. Simplicium pro Compositis in N. T. Usu et Causis, 1833; De Verb. cum Præposit. Compositorum in N. T. Usu, 1834; Chrestomathia Talmudica et Rabbinica, 1822; Observationes in Epist. Jac. e Vers. Syr. 1827; Locus 1 Pet. i. 12, a Criticor. et Interpretum Injuriis vindicatur, 1830; Beitrag zur Verbesserung der neutest. Lexikographie, 1823; Conjunctionum in N. T. accuratius explicandarum Causæ et Exempla, 1826; Pauli ad Galatas Epistola. Latine vertit et perpet. annot. illustravit, 1829; Chald. Lesebuch, 1825; Gramm. des biblischen und targ. Chaldaismus, 1824; Disp. de Hypallage et Hendiadyi in N. T. libris, 1824; Disp. de Abstracti pro Concreto in N. T. Causis et Finibus, 1831; Justin Martyr, Evang. Can. usum fuisse ostenditur, 1819; Oratio muneris Rector. auspiciandi causa, 1841; De emendata Novi Testamenti Interpretatione Oratio, 1823. Dr. Winer also edited Bertholdt's Opusc. Acad., 1824; Jo. Simonis Lexic. Manuale Hebr. et Chal., 1828; and Confessio Augustana, brevi annot., 1825. He was likewise the editor of the Exeget. Studien, of the Zeitschrift für wissenschaftlichen Theologie, and, in conjunction with Engelhardt, of the Neues krit. Journal der theologischen Literatur.

Having thus taken a rapid glance at Dr. Winer and his works generally, let us now proceed to inquire particularly into the character of his Lexicon. It first appeared at Leipzig in 1820, 2 vols., 8vo., and was translated into Dutch by Corell. A second edition was brought out in 1833-38. The first three parts of the third edition were given forth in 1846, and the subsequent parts have since been gradually appearing.

The Realwörterbuch is a unique production. Though there be many books in our language entitled dictionaries of the Bible, yet these do not generally embrace the same kind of articles which Winer's work takes up, and, even when they give the same themes which he gives, they treat them in a fundamentally different manner. This may safely be said of the compilations of Jones, Watson, Barr, Davidson, Robinson, Brown, Buck, Mansford, and Eadie, as well as of the Encyclopædia of Religious Knowledge, the Pictorial Dictionary of the Holy Bible, the UnionBible Dictionary of America, the Gazetteer of the Old and New Testament, the People's Dictionary of the Bible, and many other similar publications. These are works not so much for the advancement

advancement of Biblical science as for the dissemination of useful instruction among the ordinary ranks of the people. In Germany, also, there is no Bible-lexicon which can properly be compared to that of Winer. Even at home he is left alone in his glory. The best-known German works previously to the time of Winer were Rechenbergius's Hierolexicon Reale, Leipzig, 1714, 2 vols., 4to.; Hezel's Biblisches Real-Lexicon, Leipzig, 1783-85, 3 vols., 4to.; Leun's Biblisches Encyklopädie, Gotha, 1793-98, 4 vols., 4to.; and Bellermann's Handbuch der Biblischen Literatur, Erfurt, 1787-1804, 4 vols., 8vo. Since the appearance of Winer's book, however, these old productions have been entirely laid aside.

There consequently remain only two Bible-dictionaries at all worthy of being compared to that of the Leipzig professor. The first of these is Calmet's Dictionnaire Historique, Critique, Chronologique, Géographique, et Littérale de la Bible, Paris, 1722, 2 vols., folio, and two supplementary vols. in 1728; but in a much improved and enlarged edition in 1730, 4 vols., folio. An English translation of this second edition by D'Oyley and Colson in 3 vols., folio, appeared at London in 1732. The more recent editions by Mr. Charles Taylor and Dr. Robinson of America are universally known. The other Bible-dictionary referred to is the Cyclopædia of Biblical Literature, edited by Dr. Kitto, Edinburgh, 1845, 2 vols. 8vo. These two lexicons, however, do not embrace the same extent of ground with that of Winer. Calmet gives out the scope of his work as being the Letter, History, and Criticism of Scripture.' But what he means to include under these vague terms can be learned only from a personal acquaintance with his ill-digested lucubrations. As a member of the church of Rome, he has many articles which could find no place in a Protestant treatise. Besides, he has many articles which are of really no value either to Protestant or Romanist. And, on the other hand, his list is in many instances defective—at least when viewed from the standpoint of modern theology. The Cyclopædia of Biblical Literature, besides including Biblical Archæology-to which in the more extensive sense of that term the Realwörterbuch is confined-contains also Biblical Introduction,' or, still more correctly, the History of Holy Writ. The German lexicon, therefore, takes up only the one half of the field gone over in the English treatise. But, notwithstanding this, Dr. Winer's work cannot be reckoned deficient. He takes up a distinct department, which, with the utmost pro

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d See Hupfeld, Begriff und Methode der sogenannten biblischen Einleitung, Marb. 1844; De Wette's Einleitung in das alte Testament, p. 1, Berlin, 1845; and Oehler's Prolegomena zur Theologie des alten Testaments, p. 8, Stuttgart, 1845.


priety, can be considered apart from the History of Holy Writ. In fact, the History of Holy Writ, as Winer himself states in his preface, can be much more advantageously treated of in a systematic than in an alphabetical order. The English student, however, who is so very scantily supplied with works on 'Biblical Introduction,' can be disposed to find no particular reason for complaint that Dr. Kitto and his contributors have supplied him with a series of such very valuable articles on the History of Holy Writ,' though he might have considerably preferred a systematic to an alphabetical arrangement of a science which is much more preparatory to the study of Scripture, than for occasional consultation when one is already engaged in the study of the Bible itself. It is, therefore, only the one half of the Cyclopædia of Biblical Literature which has common ground with the Real-lexicon and can be compared to it.

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Calmet was undoubtedly a great man in his day, and he accomplished much for the advancement of Biblical interpretation. But, however praiseworthy and useful his dictionary once was, it is by no means suited to the advanced state of theological literature. It contains many theories that have long ago been exploded, philology that has been superseded by more careful and philosophical investigations, archæological blunders that have long since been exposed and corrected, and innumerable geographical descriptions that have been entirely set aside by the concurrent voice of recent travellers. The Cyclopædia of Biblical Literature, as might have been à priori expected, is not of uniform merit. Very many of the articles are admirably written, though others are more sketchy and not so sound. As a general rule, those who have written most for this compilation have written best. Considered as a whole, it is a work of sterling worth and real usefulness. It has even already brought about in England and America a new era in this department of theological science.

The Realwörterbuch is a truly Germanic production. Its every page is replete with learning. It is a noble monument, raised at an enormous expense of time and trouble. Many a long and many a laborious hour its indefatigable author must have pored over it. For its composition, many a venerable folio in the Leipzig University library must have been despoiled of its learned dust,' and many a recent publication on geography and natural history been carefully consulted again and again. The statement prefixed by the learned Suicer to his Thesaurus opus viginti annorum indefesso labore adornatum,' may, with a superadded decennary, be truthfully applied to the


⚫ See, however, the opposite opinion of Credner, Kitto's Cyclop. vol. i. p. xviii. Herculean


Herculean task accomplished by our untirable author. Realwörterbuch is anything but superficial. Every article bears traces of the hand of the student and scholar. Especially is this the case in reference to bibliographical notices and Oriental literature. But it is by no means a faultless production. It contains many grievous errors, and these too upon matters of the utmost importance. It is woefully deficient in sound, healthful Christian sentiment. The rationalistic sneer and sceptic doubt are ever and anon to be met with. It is characterized by no holy vein of serious industry and sanctified talent. It is only a scholarlike production-and a production, too, which is most unscholarlike wherever it is most unchristian. Its jeering cavils may, as a class, be fairly represented as being poor and paltry. Difficulties, which even a tyro in theology could most easily solve to the satisfaction of any man of an honest heart and sound head, are brought forward in the most glaring and exaggerated manner with bitter and sarcastic insinuations. Theories are propounded, which are but the baseless fabric' of ungodly visions-unsupported alike by sound philosophy and the word of God. Hypotheses are framed which can be regarded only as the most extraordinary of those exhibitions of human folly which have been lately given to the world as speculations concerning our religion.' New and daring allegations are made and dismissed with a few hasty words, as if every one were bound to receive them on the lexicographer's ipse dixit. Moreover, several articles contain loose, rambling statements, and very many are deficient in logical discrimination and sifting criticism. The bibliographical references, too, many and varied and useful though they be, are not uniformly characterized by anything like judiciousness of selection.




To afford a fair specimen of the work itself, we here subjoin a translation of the article on the Apostles.' It has been fixed upon not on account either of its merit or demerit, but simply on account of its general interest and its fitness for giving a truthful exhibition of the author's views and style of composition.

‹ Apostles, átóσtodoi; Syr. Jl. Such was the name given to the twelve, whom, in accordance with the number of the tribes of Israel (Matt. xix. 28; Lightfoot, Hor. Heb., 323; cf. Tertull. c. Marcion, iv. p. 415),' Jesus chose from among his followers (Mark iii.


f Prof. Norton, The Genuineness of the Gospels, part ii. ch. iv. vol. i. p. 160, of the London reprint of 1847. See the whole chapter, entitled 'Concluding Remarks on the Direct Historical Evidence of the Genuineness of the Gospels,' which, though tinged with the Socinianism of the writer, is, nevertheless, so far as it goes, a piece of sound learning and true philosophy.

The number twelve was regarded as so fixed, that the Apostles were often designated simply oi débeкa (Matt. xxvi. 14, 47; John vi. 67; xx. 24, etc.). Even

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