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cluding a notice of the MSS., the texts of which Tischendorf has published), and the text itself. On these subjects we hope to bring forward such points of information as will be of value to the Biblical student, some of which we have collected from various sources, and some have resulted from our own investigations. We only add, that whatever estimate be formed of the critical principles or the execution of this edition, still the place which Tischendorf occupies amongst critical collators is about the highest few have accomplished the half of what he has performed.
We feel bound to point out that which could not so well have been indicated by the Reviewer-the handsome manner in which Tischendorf everywhere acknowledges his obligations to the collations sent to him from time to time by Mr. Tregelles. In the latter part of the Prolegomena his name occurs in almost every page. To ourselves, this kind of intercourse and acknowledgment, between the scholars of our own country and of the Continent, is a source of the highest gratification, in which we doubt not that most of our readers will partake.-EDITOR.
INTRODUCTION TO THE BOOK OF JOSHUA."
By KARL F. KEIL, Ph.D., D.D.,
Professor of Exegesis and Oriental Languages in the University of Dorpat.
Translated by BENJAMIN DAVIES, Ph.D., Leipsic.
The Author's Preface.
THE book of Joshua has, it is true, been written upon of late years by Maurer and Rosenmüller; but how little satisfaction both their works afford, in a theological point of view, is known to all who acknowledge in the historical writings of the Old Testament the sources of sacred history, the records of the Lord's dealings with his chosen covenant people. Even the explanation of objects and things has been so little advanced by these works, that to say nothing of the researches of Robinson, which have appeared since then, and which alone would render necessary a new commentary on this book-it will not be needful to offer a special apology for sending forth another exegetical work, proceeding from the principles of divine revelation, and prepared with a careful comparison of the successful results of the earlier theological expositions, as well as of the later philological and archæological investigations. The historical books of the Old Testament have unhappily been too much neglected hitherto, so that every production in this department is under necessity, in the first place and chiefly, to combat false and perverse views, which are directly opposed to the spirit of the biblical revelation, to clear away the many errors which have been widely spread through the superficial mode of handling the Old Testament history; and hence can but pave the way for a theological and practical commentary, rather than furnish one complete. With the rejection of the revelation of the Old Testament, rationalism has been obliged to reject also its history, because this history is, and declares itself to be, nothing else than the account of the
This Introduction is prefixed to the author's 'Commentary on Joshua,' published in 1847-a most elaborate production, highly creditable to the scholarship and soundness of that rapidly extending evangelical school in Germany to which Professor Keil belongs. To show the character of the work the Preface is given as well as the Introduction. This Introduction requires to be studied rather than read, and will, we think, reward the attention it exacts.-EDITOR.
divine revelation unfolding itself in the course of ages. To the rationalist the historical books of the Old Testament have lost value and meaning as writings claiming historical credit, so that now only criticism can deal with them, and resolve their contents into myths and legends; by which process a scanty residuum of loose historical matter remains, as a muddy basis that cannot be done away, but which defies all attempts to form upon it a consistent history of the Israelites, and allows, at best, only of a fancy picture in the way of historical fiction, without reality and life, as even the latest attempt of this kind made by Ewald has most clearly shown.
From this method of handling the Old Testament history, the revived believing theology suffers this great disadvantage, that it can find no objectively sure ground and point of sight, and is able to put forward only subjective views and opinions on the fundamental articles involving the revelation and inspiration of the Holy Scriptures, without supplying a scientific and historical basis for the same. For the Christian revelation cannot be correctly known and comprehended, without a thorough knowledge of the preparatory revelation of the Old Testament; and this again not without a thorough study of the Old Testament history, from which also the prophetic writings first receive the light necessary for understanding them. The language which our Lord used to the Samaritan woman at Jacob's well, Ye worship ye know not what; we know what we worship; for salvation is of the Jews' (John iv. 22), applies also to every theology that mistakes and ignores the historical progressive development of the divine plan of redemption. If, therefore, we wish the scientific theology of the evangelical church to be again firmly established, we must drive rationalism out of the Old Testament, where as yet it has so firm a footing, that not a few eminent theologians despair of being able any more to rescue the fides humana et divina of the historical books-for no other reason than that they have not independently examined these writings, but only read them under the guidance and in the obscure light of the neological criticism and exegesis. The design and aim accordingly of my Commentary on Joshua, as also of the one I published not long ago on the books of the Kings, which shall be followed, if God will, by a similar work on the remaining historical books of the Old Testament, is to help in breaking the sway of rationalism in the Old Testament, in confuting the wide-spread prejudices which have grown into formal articles of faith, and in promoting the true and believing understanding of the ancient Scriptures.
With this object before me I have neglected, as quite foreign to the plan of my work, not only the constant critical comparison
of the ancient versions, but also the collation of the printed fragments from the Samaritan book of Joshua. I do not, indeed, hold the Masoretic text for infallible and faultless, but yet I regard it as more original, and, with very rare exceptions, also more accurate than the very corrupt text of the utterly loose Alexandrian version, to which many a modern critic is disposed again to assign the general preference, taking it on the whole for the original and undamaged text of the Old Testament. So also I do not believe that Joshua's history can receive any real elucidation from the patchwork of the Samaritans, which appears, on all external and internal grounds, to be of very late date. And although an impartial and careful critical comparison of the Hebrew original with the ancient versions, and also of the contents and spirit of the historical writings of the Old Testament with the later Jewish and Samaritan reproductions of the Hebrew history, is of no small importance as confirming theology and the church in the belief of the integrity and trustworthiness of our canonical books; yet the church at present needs, above all things, that the contents of the Old Testament should be opened up for her again in clearness and purity, and so brought to her consciousness, to the end that the God of Israel may again be universally acknowledged as the eternal and unchangeably faithful, as the only true and living God, who in his dealings with Israel had regard to the welfare and admonition of us all; since he chose Abraham and his seed for his people and the depositary of his revelations, that from them the salvation of the whole world should proceed, and that in them all the nations of the earth might be blessed.
Should the present work afford aid towards supplying the want of the evangelical church, then it has accomplished its purpose. May the Lord God grant it!
§ I. Name, Contents, and Design of the Book of Joshua.
The name of the book is taken from its contents, which embrace the history of the Theocracy under the guidance of Joshua, the son of Nun, who, as the servant of Moses, was ordained by the Lord as his successor, to continue and to complete his work by leading the people of Israel into the possession of Canaan, the land promised to the fathers. The narrative accordingly begins with the divine summons which Joshua received after the death of Moses to undertake the leadership of the people, to which he had already been called; and it closes with the death and burial of Joshua, and of his contemporary, the high priest Eleazer. Joshua was called not only to conquer the land of Canaan, and to extirpate its inhabitants before Israel, but also to divide it among the tribes
of Israel (i. 2-6). This book, therefore, consists of two principal parts or halves; the first (i.-xii.) giving the invasion and conquest of the land, and the second (xiii.-xxiv.) its distribution among the Israelites. Yet this does not fully express its contents. As the call of Joshua involved not only the command to conquer and divide Canaan, but also the promise of divine help on condition of the unfailing observance of God's law as delivered through Moses; so also this book relates not only the history of the conquest and division of the land, but also the wonderful aid which the Lord rendered to his people whilst taking it into possession, and all that Joshua did for the fulfilling of the Mosaic law, as well as for the permanent establishment of the people in their new country. Now, though in all these points the narrative is closely connected with the Pentateuch, as a continuation of the same, it still recapitulates Moses' account of his conquest of the land eastward of the Jordan, and its distribution among the two tribes and a half, together with the appointment of the three cities of refuge in that territory, in order to give a complete view of the course of events in Israel's taking possession of the whole land on both sides of the river.
The author of our book had, accordingly, in view neither a mere description of Joshua's great deeds, nor yet a mere history of the Theocracy under Joshua, with a continuation of the narrative in the Pentateuch from the death of Moses to that of Joshua. He designed rather to show, along with the historical proof of Joshua's faithful fulfilment, by divine aid, of the call he had received, how God fulfilled his promise to the fathers by rooting out the Canaanites before Israel, and giving their land for an abiding possession to the twelve tribes of Jacob. Thus the book forms, notwithstanding its close connection with the Pentateuch, an independent and complete work, as the historical record of the conquest and partition of the land, which the Lord gave to his chosen people that they might live therein and serve him in love and faithfulness.
§ II. Unity of the Book of Joshua.
The closer examination of the contents, as set forth in my Commentary at the commencement of both parts of the book, and still more fully by L. Koenig, affords unquestionable evidence of unity throughout. Nevertheless, this unity has been denied by various critics down to our day, and the history, robbed of its coherence, has been cut up into fragments for very insufficient
b Alt-test. Studien, 1 heft, Authentier des B. Joshua, p. 4, seq.