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which he thought it should have been made altogether subservient. That object, he conceives, was the instruction and warning of Israel by the terrible overthrow of Nineveh-and the vexation of the prophet arose from the advantage of that example of the Lord's judgments being lost to the Israelites at a time when, as it seemed to him, it was so greatly needed. He could not, as he had expected, go back to his labours among his own people, with this great argument against impenitence.

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What hope could he any longer have of labouring with success among them? How certainly would they look to the outward result merely of the case, and take new courage to go on in their sins, by this new manifestation of the mercy and forbearance of God? Instead of having reached a higher vantage ground, from which to urge their return to God, he felt as if a signal discouragement had been thrown in his way; and it seemed now that nothing more remained for him to say or do-it were even better for him to die than to live.'-(p. 157.)

This view of the case is worked out with much force and skill, and will no doubt receive due attention from future commentators.

In one of the 'Supplementary Remarks,' or dissertations, Mr. Fairbairn writes on the dependence of evil and good in prophecy upon the spiritual condition of the persons interested in its tidings.' Here, he in particular examines the prophecies concerning Edom, and argues that all of them were accomplished before the time of Christ, for by that time the relation which the predictions contemplated (of intense malignity and opposition to the cause of God's people) had already ceased; the Edomites had become amalgamated with the Jews, and no longer existed as a separate people-they had passed out of the region in which the prophecy moved, and a different state of things had entered. On this view, in which we fully acquiesce, our author administers a fair rebuke to Dr. Keith and other writers on prophecy, who exclude these considerations from their mind.

They accumulate proofs of the present desolation of Idumea, as simpliciter evincing the correctness of Isaiah's prophecy, as if it had been the mere territory of Edom, the region of Idumea, and not rather Edom as a people, and the land only as connected with them. What has that land to do now, or what has it had to do for two thousand years with the Edomites, the peculiar enemies of God?'-(p. 217, note.)

There is much more in this fine work to which we should like to refer, but are constrained to forbear. We pronounce it to be a thoughtful, judicious, and sterling book; and we feel that we render our readers a service in directing their attention to it.

Essays on History, Philosophy, and Theology. By Robert Vaughan, D.D. London: Jackson and Walford. 2 vols. 16mo.

These Essays are selected from articles contributed by the writer to the British Quarterly Review, of which he is Editor. As such they are scarcely further within our province than to record the fact of their separate publication. They are most of them fully worthy the repu tation of Dr. Vaughan, and well exemplify his vigorous style and original habits of thought. He comes out strong-stronger than we


should have expected-against the German philosophy, between which and revealed religion he believes any real harmony to be impossible, and that the only natural relation between these forces is antagonistic. This is most true; but Dr. Vaughan seems to find less of hope than we do in the probable influence of that morsel of evangelical leaven which is for the present all but hidden in three measures of meal. A portion of the writer's views on this subject are exhibited in the remarkable paper called The Priesthood of Letters.' The doctrine set forth here is, that the pulpit has ceased to be the great teacher. The press has assumed that function; and even from the press the divine performs a much less conspicuous part than the man of letters. Thus the era of a new priesthood-the priesthood of letters-has come, and must, from the nature of things, remain. 'The clerical mind, we distinctly see, is no longer ascendant in Europe, it is subordinate: the laic mind is no longer subordinate, it is ascendant.'

Of the other Essays, there are Oxford and Evangelical Churchmen -Characteristics of Dissent-John Foster and Robert Hall-Oliver Cromwell--Locke and his Critics-and the Christian Ministry, are all of high interest from the facts they state, or from the views and thoughts they embody. In Oliver Cromwell,' Dr. Vaughan is thoroughly at home, and handles Thomas Carlyle with a polite roughness, not inconsistent with a just appreciation of the peculiar talents of that remarkable writer.


ZYTTENEIA. A Dispassionate Appeal to the Judgment of the Clergy of the Church of England on the proposed Alteration of the Law of Marriage. London: Charles Cox. 1849. 8vo. pp. 45.

This is one of an immense number of pamphlets which have appeared within the last few months, upon a subject which now engages the attention of the Legislature-the lawfulness and expediency of marrying a deceased wife's sister. This is, in its substance, a summary of the arguments on both sides of the question; and it seems to us a skilful and impartial one. The pamphlet must therefore be of use to those who wish to see the bearings of the question, and the arguments pro and con, reduced to a small compass. In the preface, the compiler makes it no secret that his own views are in favour of the abrogation of the Act by which such marriages are declared unlawful. We, for our own part, never had any doubt on the subject-so far as the scriptural argument is concerned. The argument is, there at least, all on the side of those who contend for the lawfulness of such marriages. There wants no new hand in this exhausted controversy, or we might be disposed to set forth our own views at length. The present writer allows just weight to the testimony of Dr. Adler, the chief Rabbi. The tendency of Judaism is rather to overstrain than to mitigate the enactments of the law of Moses; and in any cases a law of doubtful meaning may be interpreted by custom-that is by the usage of those who are subject to it-and by Dr. Adler's testimony it appears that the lawfulness of such marriages has never been questioned by the Jews,


and that in practice such a marriage, so far from exposing the parties to any reproach, is considered proper and even laudable.'

A Selection from his Grace the Archbishop of Canterbury's Practical Exposition of the Gospels, of those parts more particularly which relate to the Faith and Practice of a Christian. By the Rev. George Wilkinson, B.D. London: C. Cox. 1849. 12mo. pp. 203. A selection from the works of a living divine by any other than the author himself, is, as the present editor remarks, a very unusual event. It originated in a suggestion which he made to his diocesan (then Bishop of Chester) that 'a selection from the four volumes of the Gospels, adapted to the means and opportunities of numbers for whom the larger work might not seem so well adapted, would be invaluable.' The Bishop intimated a ready acquiescence in any plan by which his writings might be rendered more extensively conducive to the spiritual welfare of the community, and his free consent that they might be forthwith used for the purpose pointed out. Thus authorized, Mr. Wilkinson set to work, and we have here the result of his labours in a small and very valuable volume. There is little in it to suggest its relation to the original work, the use of which it is certainly in no degree likely to supersede. The Archbishop takes the gospels in regular order; but of the two parts of which this lesser work consists, Mr. Wilkinson takes, in the first, certain prominent facts and teachings, and may be said to have founded it chiefly on the gospel of St. John; and the second portion is wholly devoted to the sermon on the Mount. This is therefore not what we would call an abridgment; neither is it a selection; for the editor very often takes the ideas without the words of the author, and very often expands them to three or four times their original extent, as is particularly observable in the second portion, where the editor seems to follow no determinate rule-sometimes he adheres closely enough to his author-sometimes adds his own remarks to, or interlaces them with those of the author; and sometimes forsakes his author altogether, and expresses the same leading ideas in other words and with new illustrations. Upon the whole, although it is open to question whether Mr. Wilkinson might not have produced a better book if he had followed his author more entirely, on the one hand, or had prepared it entirely from his own resources on the other-he must be allowed to have produced a useful manual, likely to be acceptable to those for whom it is intended. It is one of that class of books which plain, serious people like.

A brief Commentary, Analytical, Exegetical, and Practical, on the Epistles of St. Paul to Timothy and Titus. By the Rev. Alexander S. Paterson. Edinburgh: Lowe. 1848. 18mo. pp. 184.

The author of this little work is known for similar small commentaries on the first Epistle of John and first of Thessalonians, and the success of these seems to have encouraged him to proceed. The size of the

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volume being that most common to children's books, would scarcely prepare one for the amount of unobtrusive erudition and sound exegesis he has contrived to pack into it. It is anything but a superficial book; and it appears to be well calculated to serve the object for which it is designed. It originates in the idea that a small work on the pastoral epistles, constructed on strict principles of exegesis, and yet unfolding in a practical form the meaning and import of these precious letters, might serve as a useful text-book both to ministers and people.' Notwithstanding the extraordinary conciseness which is the characteristic of the work, he expatiates considerably on certain important or favourite texts, and always with good effect. This agreeably relieves the dreariness which might have been the result of unmitigated brevity throughout. Upon the whole, Mr. Paterson has very creditably performed a somewhat difficult task; and those who can overcome the prejudice against a very small book on a very large subject will by no means lose their reward.


NEANDER AND THOLUCK.-We have much pleasure in presenting in this portion of our pages the following interesting communication respecting these eminent and remarkable men, which lately appeared (under the signature of Sigma) in the foreign correspondence of the New York Courier and Enquirer, and was reprinted in that excellent American journal The Literary World, whence we transcribe it. The particulars given are of especial interest at this time:

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Berlin, March, 1849.-I had the opportunity the other day of seeing the celebrated Professor Neander. I first went in the morning to the University to hear him deliver an exegetical lecture, upon a chapter in the New Testament. His personal appearance was as singular as his mode of addressing his audience was extraordinary. His forehead, broad and high, was almost wholly covered by his long uncombed black hair, and its base was bounded by a massive ridge, jutting far outwards, and surrounded by thick shaggy eyebrows. His eyes were so deeply sunken, and concealed by his half-closed eyelids, that neither their colour nor their form was discernible. His nose and his mouth were rudely shaped, and his complexion was of that dark, dry, sallow cast, that mark years of intense study and reflection. His form was thin, bent, and loosely knit, and his carriage and attitude the most careless and graceless possible. He had on a white cravat, and a greyish frock coat reaching below his knees. Fancy such a man, standing on a slightly elevated platform, his left arm resting on the corner of a desk four feet high, his left hand shading his eyes from the light, his right hand holding within three or four inches of his face a large-typed Greek Testament, from which he never withdraws his intense look-and further, fancy him with the whole upper half of his person bent over in an angle of nearly forty-five degrees, balancing the desk upon its two back legs, and with his left foot kept constantly crossed over his right, except when occasionally, either through caprice or to restore the equilibrium of the desk, he suddenly retracts it as if about to take a desperate leap, and as suddenly replaces it-and still further, fancy him perfectly absorbed in his subject, and speaking with a slow monotonous utterance, interrupted only by a pause when he has to ask from one of the students a word which he cannot recognize on account of imperfect sight-and you have a faithful picture of the most philosophical his

torian and perhaps most profound theologian living, in rapportement with his young disciples. When his instructions are not exegetical, and do not require a book, you will have to vary the picture by imagining him lecturing extemporaneously, and all the while engaged in pulling to pieces a quill previously given him by one of his attendants for this special purpose. I mention these things to interest but not to divert you; for it is only a narrow and vulgar mind that can find in the infirmities or eccentricities of a great man matter for ridicule. Notwithstanding all of his peculiarities, the students, of whom there were some sixty or seventy present, seemed to regard him with a reverence approaching to homage, and to catch as treasure every word that fell from his lips.

'After dinner, in company with one of the students, I called upon Neander at his residence. We found him in his study robed in his study gown, and surrounded with a large library of well-worn books. He received us with the most unaffected kindness and warmth, and directly began to talk with me in my native tongue. He spoke English with tolerable correctness and facility, but as is the case with most foreign scholars, he had a much better command of the Latin than of the Saxon element of our language. He highly commended Professor Robinson's American work on Palestine, and also our Andover Quarterly, the Bibliotheca Sacra, several numbers of which I noticed in his library. He spoke in terms of high praise of Coleridge and Dr. Arnold, and referred with great satisfaction to the little progress that Pantheism has made in the western world. His whole soul seemed to be wrapped up in the great struggle now going on between faith and unbelief, between supernaturalism and rationalism-a battle, he said, fraught with more momentous consequences than any other of the age. Vast as are this great man's acquirements, and capacious and profound as is his intellect, every word and every movement evinced complete unconsciousness of self, and a perfectly child-like gentleness and simplicity of heart. Uncultivated as are his manners, and odd as are his ways, by his greatness he commands your reverence, and by his goodness he wins your love.

'Neander is sixty years of age; he is a bachelor, and his sister is housekeeper. Two years ago, he suddenly and without any apparent immediate cause, almost entirely lost his eyesight; he now sees so indistinctly that it is imprudent for him to venture into the street alone. Yet he daily delivers at the University three lectures, each an hour in length, one on Church History, another on Christian Ethics, and the third of an exegetical character. He pursues his studies and researches with the help of a little knot of students he keeps around him, and he dictates all of his written productions to an amanuensis. His Church History, the first part of which has been so admirably translated by Professor Torrey of the University of Vermont, has not yet been brought down later than the fourteenth century. Had his eyes continued good, it would before this time have been fully completed. It is now uncertain, as I was told by the author, when the work in its entire form will be given to the world. Neander lives a very retired life in Berlin, and yet he is exceedingly popular. Tobacco-pipes bear his likeness, an important street in the city is named after him, and his last birthday was celebrated by a torchlight procession.

While in Halle, I spent an hour or two with Professor Tholuck. On a bright spring morning I found him wrapped in his overcoat, and walking in the long sheltered promenade that bounded one side of his garden. Returning my letters of introduction unopened, he at once received me with that unceremonious familiarity that German scholars so uniformly exhibit towards strangers. He spoke with interest of the many dear friends he had in America, and soon showed himself very conservant with our national institutions and characteristics. He remarked that during the late political disturbances he long expected to be obliged to take refuge in the United States or England, from revolutionary violence. He thought the revolutionary party of Germany unworthy of confidence or sympathy, believing that it was generally made up of infidels and socialists, and that it was actuated not so much by hostility to any particular form of government as by opposition to every reasonable kind of government whatever. He feared that its success would result in the destruction of the Universities, and in the prostration of everything religious and redeeming in the land. The complete divorce of the Church


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