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the cuticle, with cocoa-nut husk, or some sort of plait, wound round the hand.
Foa Ooloo: wounding the head, and cutting the flesh in various parts, with knives, shells, clubs, spears, &c. in honour of the deceased, and as a testimony of respect for his memory and fidelity to his family.
All these have been accurately described in the ceremony of burying the late king. There is one remark, nevertheless, to be made in respect to the four last, particularly Foa Ooloo; which appears,
however inhuman, to be a very ancient and long established custom in the history of mankind. On turning to Leviticus, Chap. xx. verse 28, we find this command, “ Ye shall not make any cuttings in your flesh for the dead, nor print any marks upon you.”
The above-mentioned five ceremonies are common at all burials, and are conducted with more or less pomp, according to the rank of the individual deceased : in saying all burials, however, we must make one exception, viz. that of Tooitonga, on which occasion the ceremony of Foa Ooloo is never performed; but the reason of this Mr. Mariner was never able to learn. At the funeral of the greatest chiefs, in general, this outrage is usually exercised with the utmost readiness and enthusiasm ; but at that of Tooitonga, who is far higher than any other, it is altogether omitted : the natives have no law for this, but custom.
Langi, or the ceremony of burying Tooitonga : this word is also applied to signify the grave of this chief during the whole of the funeral ceremonies : it literally means the sky; but there appear's no connection between these different meanings. When Tooitonga is ill, the intercessions with the gods for his recovery are the same, though perhaps in a greater degree, as are made on the illness of other high chiefs': prayers are offered up; priests are inspired ; some children have their little fingers sàcrificed; others are strangled, &c. When he is dead, his body is washed with oil and water, as usual'; his widows come to mourn over him, &c.; and, according to the former custom, his ehief widow should be strangled, but whether on the day of his death or of his burial Mr. Mariner does not know. His fytoca, or burialplace, is of the same form as that of other chiefs. The day after his death, (which is the day of his burial) every individual at every island, man, woman, and child, has his head closely shaved : this is a peculiarity, and so is the custom of depositing some of his most valuable property along with the body in the grave, such as beads, whales' teeth, fine Ha
moa mats, &c.; so that his family buryingplace, at the island of Tonga, where all his ancestors have been buried, must have become very rich ; for no native would dare to commit the sacrilege of theft. The ceremony of interment is exactly the same as that of the king. The mourning is also the same, viz. old ragged mats, with leaves of the ifi tree round the neck : but for Tooitonga the time of mourning is extended to four months; the mats being generally left off at the end of nearly three, whilst the leaves are still retained for another month. The Táboo, for touching his body, or any thing that he had on when he died, extends to at least ten months, and for his nearest relations fifteen months. (See Vol. I. p. 150.) Every man neglects to shave his beard for at least one month; and during that time merely oils his body at night, but not his head. The female mourners remain within the fytoca about two months, night and day, only retiring occasionally to the neighbouring temporary houses, to eat, &c. It will be seen, that what we have already related of these ceremonies differ in many respects, some in kind, and all in degree, from those attending the burial of the king : but those we are about to describe are altogether peculiar to Tooitonga's funeral.
In the afternoon of the day of burial, the body being already in the fytoca, almost every man, woman, and child, provided with a toʻmë *, and a piece of bola'ta t, sit down at about eight yards from the grave : in the course of an hour the multitude collects, probably to above three thousand, all clothed in old mats, &c. and seated as just stated. One of the female mourners now comes out of the fytoca, and advances in front, where she calls out to the people, saying, mo too bea ofi my, Arise ye, and approach; whereupon the people get up, and advancing about forty yards, again sit dowņ: two men behind the grave now begin to blow conch shells, and six others, with Jarge lighted torches, about six feet high, and six inches thick, (made of bundles of toʻmës), next advance forward from behind the fytoca, descend the mount, and walk round one after another several times, between the fytoca and the people, waving their flaming torches in the air ; they then begin to ascend the mount, at which moment all the people rise up together, and suddenly snap their bola'tas, nearly at the
* A certain part of the cocoa-nut tree, of which torches are made.
+ Part of the stem of the banana or plantain tree, used to receive the ashes falling from lighted torches.
same time, producing a considerable crash : they then follow the men with the torches, in a single line, ascending the mount, and walking round the fytoca, as they pass the back of which the first six men deposit on the ground their extinguished torches, and the rest their to'mës and bola'tas, the mourners within thanking them for providing these things : thus they proceed round, and return to their places and sit down. The mataboole, who has the direction of the ceremonies, nov advances in front of the people, and orders them to divide themselves in parties, according to their districts; which being done, he gives to one party the business of clearing away the bushes, grass, &c. from one side of the grave, and to another to do the same in regard to another part, a third to remove such and such rubbish, &c. so that the whole neighbourhood of the fytoca becomes perfectly clear : this being done, all the people return to their respective temporary houses.
Soon after dark, certain persons stationed at the grave begin again to sound the conchs, while others chaunt partly in an unknown language *,
* The natives can give no account of what this language is, nor how they originally came to learn the words. It has been handed down from father to the son, among that class of people whose business it is to direct burial cere.