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is now fixed at the rate of 191,515 miles portions are those which 'render visible the per second. Other observations would lead surfaces of bodies to eyes situated any how us to suppose that the velocity of light is with respect to them, and are therefore of uniform, for it has been found that the light the utmost importance to vision. Of those from the sun, the planets, and all the fixed portions which enter the medium, a part stars, travels with one and the same velocity, inore or less is absorbed, stifled, or lost, though these bodies are at different and without any further change of direction; and variable distances from us: hence we may that not at once, but progressively, as they conclude, that the velocity of light is inde penetrate deeper and deeper into its subpendent of the particular source from which stance. In perfectly opaque media, such it emanates, and the distance over which it as the metals, this absorption is total, and has travelled before reaching our eye. takes place within a space less than we can

Some idea may be formed of the aston. appreciate; still there are good reasons for ishing velocity of light, when it is considered supposing that it is gradual. that a cannon-ball would require seventeen Transparent bodies, on the contrary, allow years, at least, to reach the sun, supposing the rays of light to pass freely through their its velocity to continue uniform from the substance, or, it

may be, between their parmoment of its discharge. Yet light travels ticles; and the transparency is said to be over the same space in seven minutes and a more or less perfect, according as a greater half. The swiftest bird, at its utmost speed, or less portion of the light which enters would require nearly three weeks to make them, finds its way through. Among pon. the tour of the earth. Light performs the same derable bodies, we know of none whose distance in much less time than it required transparency is perfect. Whether it be that for a single stroke of his wing. Astronomers some of the rays in their passage encounter have demonstrated that light cannot possibly bodily the particles of the media, and are arrive at our earth from the nearest of the thereby reflected; or, whether they are fixed stars in less than five years, and tele- stopped or turned aside by the forces which scopes disclose to us objects probably many reside in the molecules, or ultimate atoms thousand times more remote.

of bodies, without actual encounter, or otherWhen a ray of light proceeds through wise detained or neutralized by them; cerempty space, or in a perfectly homogeneous tain it is, that even in the most rare or tranmedium, its course, as has been mentioned sparent media, such as air, water, and glass, above, is rectilinear, and its velocity uni- a beam of light intromitted, is gradually form; but when it encounters an obstacle, or extinguished, and becomes more and more a different medium, it undergoes changes; feeble as it penetrates to a greater depth and is separated into several parts, which within them, and ultimately becomes too pursue different courses, or are otherwise faint to affect our organs. Thus, on the differently modified.

tops of very high mountains, a much greater These changes are termed, reflexion, multitude of stars is visible to the naked eye refraction, absorption, dispersion, and po- than in the plains at their feet; the weak larization.

light of the smallest of them being too much Reflection is when a ray of light falling reduced in its passage through the lower upon a polished surface is repelled by it

, atmospheric strata, to affect the sight. Dr. and pursues its course in a right line wholly Olbers has even supposed the same to hold exterior to the reflecting medium. The in- good with the imponderable media (if any) tensity and regularity of reflexion at the of the celestial spaces, and conceives this to external surface of a medium, is found to be the reason why so few stars (not more depend not merely on the nature of the than about ten millions) can be seen with medium, but very essentially on the degree the most powerful telescopes. of smoothness and polish of its surface.

(To be concluded in our next.) Refraction is where a ray of light passes obliquely through media of different den. sity, and is thus bent or attracted out of its

METEOROLOGICAL OBSERVATIONS. course: it is from this property of light that The mean temperature, from November a stick partly immersed in water, appears 20th to December 31st, 1831, was 44 debroken.

grees of Fahrenheit's thermometer. The Some portions of rays of light become maximum, which was 56 degrees, took scattered in all directions, one part being place on November 23d and December 9th, intermitted into the medium, and distri- when the direction of the wind on both days buted over the hemisphere interior to it, was south-westerly; the maximum, which while the other is in like manner scattered was 30 degrees, took place on December over the exterior hemisphere. These two 25th, when the direction of the wind was

south-easterly. The range of the thermo. meter, during the above period, was 26 degrees; and the prevailing wind southwest. The direction of the wind has been south-westerly, fifteen days; westerly, nine; north-westerly, six ; north-easterly, five ; southerly, three; south-easterly, two; and northerly, two.

The mean temperature of November was 42 degrees, and of December 44 degrees ; the prevailing wind being west during the former month, and south-west during the latter.

Fog was prevalent on the following days, November 28th, December 3d, and 24th to 27th. During the latter days, it occurred with scarcely any intermission; and was very dense on the evenings of the 24th, 25th, and 26th.

December 7th and 12th were distinguish. ed by considerable gales of wind.

"T," said the Tulip," on these banks

In varied-colour'd vest am geen-
Behold I we stand in martial ranks--

Of all these vassals I'm the queen!
Above them all I rear my head,
I nod, and lo, I am obey'd !
" While you upon an hateful thorn

Are doom’d to hang your drowsy head,
You ope your gaping eye at morn--

At night you're number'd with the dead-
That stench again you waft this way;
Dear sister, have some mercy, pray!"
O Pride! thou base perfidious guest,

That thou couldst from thy throne be hurld! And thou, rank Envy, from thy nest

Be booted round a clamorous world!
That jarring discord thence might cease,
And friendship live, and love increase.
So high the contest rose at length,

Between these flowers of high pretence,
That each had almost spent its strength

In ire and vaunting eloquence ; While Boreas heard each hot dispute, And vow'd he'd strike at Envy's root. "I'll end this warm debate,” he said ;

Then swell’d his ample cheeks, and blew
A sudden blast across the bed

All where the gaudy Tulip grew
The Tulip bow'd its trembling head,
It snapt-'twas number'd with the dead!
The Rose beheld its fatal fall

With half a laugh and half a speer ;
In mockery at its fate withal,

She waved her head above its bier ;
Stern Boreas saw the shameful deed,
And vow'd that she the next should bleed.
Again his ample cheeks he filld,

And through the rose-bush rudely pass'd; The deed was done--now he beheld

Her leaves all scatter'd in the blast,
Which to the Tulip form’d a bed
Whereon to rest its dying head.
Near Halifax.




A TULIP, which is prized by most,-

A scentless flower of lovely hue,
Which some pronounce the garden's boast,

Upon a blooming flower-bed grew,
And on its tall and slender stem
Display'd its gaudy diadem.
One morn, as she unclosed her eye,

And look'd abroad in haughty pride,
Near to her bed she did espy

A Rose, full-blown, and throwing wide
A fragrance to the morning air,
Which the proud Tulip could not bear.
Ah me! she cried, what scent is here,

Which thus pollutes the breath of morn?Nay, nay, dear sister Rose, forbear!

Tben tossed ber gaudy head in scorn ; And then, the noisome smell to stop, She closed her crimson petal up. The Rose, who could not brook the taunt,

Replied, wbile anger stung her breast, “Thou foolish, envious thing, avaunt!

That sneer'st at merit unpossest By thee, and all thy wortbless tribeGo to! I scorn thy harmless gibe.' "Nay, nay,” the Tulip straight exclaim'd,

"No harm, dear sister Rose, is meant; Why is your breast with gall inflamed ?

You boast some beauty! but this scent Is here a nuisance-pray attend To decency, and I'm your friend." "Some beauty!" said the Rose," yes-la!

Such as the sweetest kiss insures. You boast a little, too; but, ah!

What's beauty, with a breath like yours? Where, if a suitor touch your lip, The breath of poison he will sip. And now, good madam Tulip, list;

By fairest hands I'm oft carest, Am by the lips of beauty kiss'd,

And find a throne on Čelia's breast ; While you are view'd with scornful browYour all consists in outward show."


MISS B., ON HER BIRTH-DAY. SINCE life is but a vapour, and time is on the wing, Forgive me if I take my barp, and touch a solemn

string. For while we all are hastening, each to his closing

day, I dare not waste a moment, or throw an hour away. Full well I know that albums, too often do contain Such lines as puff the heart with pride, and make

the careless vain. And many of the writers have made it all their care, To lavish empty flattery, and praises light as air : But whilst Ioccupy in thine a pure unblemish'd page, My counsels shall be serious, though not the words

of age.

This day thou wilt commemorate, thy long past day

of birth ; And surely, then, thy musings should tarry not on

earth: For God'the Lord invites thee, to send thy thoughts

above; And while he stoops to notice, he proffers thee his

Jove. Ob! seize the hand held out to guide to yonder

world so bright, Where all is heaven and bappiness, where all is

joy and light. Thus let this birth-day bear thy mind to glory's

high abode, And seal thee here in covenant and union with thy

God. How long thou wilt continue a pilgrim here below, It is not mine to guess, for God alone can know. But this my earnest wish,my earnest prayer shall be, That thy spirit may be fitted for a bless'd eternit

And then, should birth-days o'er thy head in quick

succession roll, They will but urge thee onward, to the birth-day

of thy soul. And when thine earthly birth-days shall here for

ever cease, May bands of angels waft thee to everlasting peace.

Chelmsford, April 25, 1831.

'Tis wisdom's part, since man is born to die,
The lasty sojourner of life's short day,
To seek a permanent abode on bigh,
That heavenly clime which smiles beyond decay.

Carlinghow New Hall, near Leeds.

T:At smile affords a transient gleam,
Of purity and bliss supreme,

That once in Eden bloomed ;
Ere bright perfection Bed from earth,
And sin and sorrow marked our birth,

Or death his power assuined.
if thou should'st basten to the tomb,
Sweet jynocent! who'd dare to doom

Thy soul to endless wo ;
When Christ declares, in words of love,
“Of such consists the world above,”

Enough for us to know.
It would be hard indeed to part
With thee, sweet treasure of my heart !

To me so kindly given ;
Yet, if that smile in death should sleep,
I would not in despondence weer,
It must awake in heaven !




Time was, wben you adorn’d the corallip,
And grac'd, perhaps, lov'd beauty's winning smile,
While some enraptur'd swaip might sigh to sip
The nectar'd tribute Celia breath'd the while.
Did you employ the fair-one's daily care,
While on her toilette, tinctures' brushes lay,
Eager those fading charms still to repair,
Which time more certain sought to rend away?
And was yonr once possessor, haughty, proud ?-
Scorn'd she the meaner forms which nature gave,
Alas! the face where beauty's radiance glow'd,
Has no attractions in the gloomy grave.
Perchance, some ghastly beggar's lips between
You stood ;--the child of misery and wo,
Where want and sickness rul'd the awful scene,
And where the grinders had not much to do.
Did you to some harsh overseer belong,
Who mutter'd curses on the vagrant poor ;
And have you sneer'd upon the hapless throng,
That, pinch'd by hunger, sought the parish door!
Claimed by some shrew, did you assist the tongue
In wordy warfare and the noisy strife,
While to her spouse full many a peal she rung,
The eternal rattle that disturb'd his life?
Or did some epicure once call you his,
Who lov'd the smoking board, and groaning spit,
Who ask'd no higher heaven, or nobler bliss,
Than midst the hecatombs of meats to sit ?
Some gay Lothario might these relics bear,
The man of bows, of compliments, perfume,
With honied speech, wbo charm'd the list'ing fair,
And, like the siren, lur'd them to their doom.
Or have you lent the pious preacher aid,
The crowded list'ning audience to move,
While drest in siniles his face, his tongue displayed

The rich exuberance of a Saviour's love?
Whose once you were-wbat your possessor's lot,
Fair, plain, richi, poor, wise, or despotiche,
I cannot tell; the mortal now is not,
And you so valued, useless now I see.
From what you are, and what you once have been,
These serious lessons learnt, may I retain,
Humility becomes this fading scene,
And pride is hateful in corruption's train.

Review.- The Complete Works of Philip

Doddridge, D.D. in two Vols. Royal 8vo. pp. 1038—1259. Westley and

Davis. London. 1831. DR. IODDRIDGE is so well known in the theological world, that to mention his name is to call forth a great variety of pleasing associations. With his valuable works, every student for the ministry, and every profound inquirer after truth, we presume to be well acquainted. Though published at different times, they have been more than half a century before the world ; and so long as intrinsic worth shall prove a passport to patronage, they are in no danger of being withdrawn from circulation.

In most former editions, the writings of this eminent man were sold in an expensive form, and, as a natural consequence, were rather treasured up in the libraries of the wealthy, than dispersed among the reading community, for whose edification they were so admirably adapted: On the present occasion, this once insuperable barrier is broken down, and the entire works of this pious, learned, and indefa. tigable author, are presented to the public in two volumes, at a price which, in former years, would not have purchased his Family Expositor. From the number of pages which each contains, it will be seen that they are of no diminutive bulk; and we may add, that each page extending over a large surface of paper, and, without notes, containing about eighty lines, an attentive perusal of the whole will furnish employment to many days of close and unremitting application.

The first volume contains a “ Life of the Author," his Family Expositor," “A Dissertation on Sir Isaac Newton's Chronology," and a copious index. The “Memoir,” by Job Orton, may be justly ranked among the best specimens of biography in the English language. The “Family Expositor” gives the sacred text in the margin, and then combines it with a paraphrase, in harmonious order, on all the books of the New Testament, divided into short sections, each of which is followed by a devotional improvement of the doctrines and precepts which it contains. This is a work of inestimable value, and, without any other, would have been sufficient to immortalize its author's name.

The second volume comprises the “Life now find their way into the hands of many of Colonel Gardiner,” Theological Lec- readers, by whom they were previously tures,” “Sermons,” “Hymns," ** Letters," unattainable. We scarcely know any work “ Lectures on Preaching,” and some mis- in which £1. 18s. can be more advantacellaneous articles. The life of the pious geously laid out, than in the whole works colonel is too well known to require any of Dr. Doddridge. observations. On perusing it, the reader will be ready to exclaim, “ Is not this a brand plucked out of the fire?" The lec- Review.- Sermons, by the late Rev. Ed. tures put on a very formal aspect, and, from the alterations in arrangement which

ward Payson, D. D., Pastor of the Se. more modern times have introduced, ap

cond Church in Portland, in the United

States. 8vo. pp. 508. Holdsworth. pear in a kind of antiquated dress. They

London. 1831. seem to assume a mathematical character, and to aim at a species of demonstration, of It has frequently been observed, respecting which moral, ethical, and revealed subjects the celebrated George Whitefield, that his are not always susceptible. But notwith- oral discourses contained a pathos, a substanding this somewhat obsolete garb, they limity, and an almost superhuman corrusdisplay the author's talents and researches cation of thought, which in his written to a high degree of advantage ; nor is there şermons can no where be found. In a a topic connected with the great subjects less eminent degree, we apprehend that of which they treat, on which something of similar remarks will apply to Mr. Payson, considerable importance may not be ga- and to his discourses which appear in this thered from them. The sermons are plain, volume. In both preachers there was a practical, and edifying, and may be sur- commanding eloquence, arising from occaveyed as lively transcripts of their author's sions and evanescent circumstances, which mind. The hymns are well known, many manner, attitude, tone, and impassioned among them having been transplanted into energy might express, but which no lanalmost every collection that has been pub. guage can embody in life and form. A lished. His letters display a great diversity painter may catch the colour of lightning, of talent, and an intimate acquaintance but he cannot pencil its motion, nor comwith the subjects on which they are municate to his canvass the power of prowritten,

ducing an electric shock. These two large octavo volumes, embo- We have no intention, by making these dying all the works of this excellent author, remarks, to insinuate any thing to the disappear to be correctly and neatly printed. advantage of these discourses. They are It must have been an undertaking attended evangelical in principle, practical in tenwith considerable expense, which nothing dency, and, founded upon some of the but their sterling worth and long-established fundamental truths of the gospel dispensacharacter could have justified. But, from tion, enter deeply into what may be justly the well-known literary and theological denominated the essence of Christianity. reputation of Dr. Doddridge, and the se- Without being philosophically profound, rious respect with which they have uni- they display much intellectual acuteness, formly been received, the publisher can blended with a becoming zeal, and evince have little doubt of an bonourable reim- exemplary diligence in the Redeemer's bursement. His sale may not be so rapid cause. as ephemeral publications acquire, which It appears from an advertisement preblaze for a moment, and then disappear for fixed to this volume, that the author, who ever-but it will be permanent; and for died in 1827, was among the most popular ages yet to come, they will be in continued preachers of the United States, where his requisition,

ministerial labours were blessed in a very It would perhaps be going too far to remarkable manner. There was, we are place Doddridge by the side of Baxter, told, in his delivery,“ an unaffected earnestthough the name of each is immortal ; and ness, a glowing intensity of feeling, a pecuwhen the “Rise and Progress of Religion liarity of expression and utterance, a manin the Soul” by the former, shall cease to ner wholly original and undescribable, be remembered, “The Saint's Everlasting which will not attend the perusal of his Rest” of the latter, may be considered as discourses. The reader will not feel the trembling on the margins of oblivion. We immediate influence of those

which rejoice to find the works of Dr. Doddridge disarmed criticisin, and awed the most thus compressed, and thus reduced in thoughtless, which brought them directly price, from a full persuasion that they will before Infinite Majesty, and made them


and you

feel that they had business of greater im what has been long before the world.

We portance than lo criticize or cavil.”

learn from the preface, that “ Luther's TaThat such feelings would be produced ble Talk” was first published in 1571; by an energetic eloquence, delivering the that it was translated into English in 1651, exalted sentiments which the following under the sanction of a committee of parliawords convey, on the ascent of our Lord ment; and that this is an abridgment of into heaven, we can easily conceive the original work. It further appears, that "As we rise, the earth fades away from our

the materials of which this volume is com- . view ; now we leave worlds, suns, and systems be posed, were taken from Luther's lips in hind us, Now we reach the utmost limits of crea

common conversation when in company, tion ; now the last star disappears, and no ray of created light is seen. But a new light begins to and preserved until a sufficient quantity dawn and brighten upon us. It is the light of hea. had been collected, to furnish out a repast ven, which pours in a food of glory from its wide

for his numerous admirers and friends. open gates, spreading continual meridian day, far and wide through the regions of ether and space. “ Luther,” the preface observes,“ seems, in Passing onward through this flood of day. the songs

short, to have had his Boswell; some humof heaven begin to burst upon your ears, and voices of celestial sweetness, yet loud as the sound ble admirer, who, like the entertaining bioof many waters, and of mighty thunderings, are

grapher of Johnson, thought every thing of heard exclaiming, ‘Alleluja! for the Lord God omnipotent reigneth.' A moment more,

value which fell, or might have fallen, from bave passed the gates, you are in the midst of the the lips of so great a man.” city, you are before the eternal throne, you are in

From the preceding remarks, it must be the immediate presence of God, and all his glories are blazing around you like a consuming tire. obvious that this volume embodies a colFlesh and blood cannot support it; your bodies dis

lection that is highly miscellaneous. The solve into their original dust, butyour immortal souls remain, and stand naked spirits before the great

articles are very numerous, and much di. Father of spirits. Nor, in losing their tenements versified. They have all, however, a bearof clay, have they lost the powers of perception.

ing, in a greater or less degree, on the imNo, they are now all eye, all ear, nor can you close the eyelids of the soul, to shut out for a moment portant subjects of popery and reformation, the dazzling, overpowering splendours which sur in which the author's whole soul seemed to round you, and which appear like light condensed, like glory which may be felt. You see, indeed, no

be totally absorbed. Scattered throughout form or shape; and yet your whole souls perceive, these pages, we find the sentiments of this with instinctive clearness and certainty, the immediate, awe-inspiring presence of Jehovah. You great man on many topics of occasional see no countenance; and yet you feel as if a coun occurrence, which could not with propriety tenance of awful majesty, in which all the perfec be introduced into his regular Works. They tions of Divinity shone forth, were bearing upon you wherever you turn. You see no eye; and yet appear to have been called forth by the a piercing, heart-searching eye, an eye of omni; contingencies of the moment, and to have scient purity, every glance of which goes through your soul like a flash of lightning, seems to look

been arrested as the fugitive emanations of upon you from every point of surrounding space. a gigantic mind. In every sentence, the You feel as if enveloped in an atınosphere, or commanding inflexibility which appears, plunged in an ocean of existence, intelligence, perfection, and glory; an ocean of which your labour.

evinces that his character was formed for ing minds can take in only a drop; an ocean. the the great work which God raised him up to depth of which you cannot fathom, and the breadth of which you cannot fully explore. But, whileyou feel accomplish. utterly unable to comprehend this infinite Being, The reader is not, however, to suppose your views of him, so far as they extend, are per.

that these extemporaneous and momentary fectly clear and distinct. You have the most vivid perception, the most deeply-graven impressions, of effusions are to be all measured by one an infinite, eternal, and spotless mind, in which common standard. They rise or sink in the images of all things past, present, and to come are most harmoniously seen, arranged in the

value, as the occasion was more or less most perfect order, and defined with the nicest imperious, and as the mind of this christian accuracy: of a mind which wills with intinite ease,

Hercules was either animated or depressed but whose volitions are attended by a power omni. potent and irresistible, and which sows worlds,

with his subject. Few passages, however, suns, and systems through the fields of space, with

appear, that we could wish the selector had far more facility than the husbandman scatters his seed upon the earth: a mind, whence bave fowed suppressed, all being instructive, spirited, all the streams which ever watered any portion of and full of vigour. the universe with life, intelligence, holiness, or

Stern and inexorable as Luther was, when happiness, and which is still full, overflowing, and inexhaustible.”—p. 89.

viewed as a reformer, in the society of his

friends he was capable of unbending, and REVIEW.-Luther's Table Talk, or some

of entertaining them with anecdotes which choice Fragments from the familiar Dis- through life, and of mingling pleasantries

he had picked up in his turbulent journey course of that godly and learned Man, of his own, when occasions allowed their Dr. Martin Luther. 12mo. pp. 348. introduction. Luther's Table Talk, is thereLongmun. London. 1832.

fore, a book, which instruction, information, The name of the author will furnish con and rational entertainment combine to renclusive evidence, that this is a reprint of der interesting.

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