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two thousand, we must look for the de- defection of both priests and people from liverance of Israel.

God, under Eli, when, in one day, he died, About two thousand years before the his sons were slain, and the ark of the cobirth of Christ, Abraham, a descendant of venant was taken by the armies of the PhiShem, was born. Jehovah called this in- listines, about the year eleven hundred and dividual, saying, “Get thee out of thy forty before Christ, 1 Sam. iv. Psa. Ixxviii. country, and from thy kindred, and from Jer. vii. thy father's house, unto a land that I will The most magnificent temple which the shew thee. And I will make of thee a world ever witnessed, succeeded the tabergreat nation, and I will bless them that nacle, when the state of Israel was in the bless thee, and make thy name great; and zenith of its splendour, under Solomon, the thou shalt be a blessing. And I will bless son of David, about the year one thousand them that bless thee, and curse him that before Christ. Into this temple, which curseth thee; and in thee shall all families was erected at Jerusalem, the ark of the of the earth be blessed. So Abram de- covenant, with all the sacred utensils of the parted, as the Lord had spoken unto him; tabernacle, were introduced, and therein, and he believed in the Lord; and He over the mercy-seat, abode the Divine counted it to him for righteousness; and presence, re-become the judge and the ora. he was called the friend of God.” Thus cle of Israel, and confirming to that people was the standard of truth erected amidst the all the former covenants. heathen, that all the earth might know and An awful division of the tribes of Israel fear Jehovah.

took place on the death of Solomon, when About fifteen hundred and seventy years two tribes, Judah and Benjamin, only before the birth of Christ, Moses, a descend- remained faithful to the house of David; ant of Abraham, was born in Egypt, dur- while the other ten elected a king for them. ing a severe bondage, under which the selves, commenced idolatrous worship, and descendants of that great man had become rebelled against the Judge of Israel. About very numerous, and had fallen in that the year seven hundred and twenty before country; land at the command, and by the Christ, the judgments of Jehovah came power of Jehovah, Moses became the in- upon these ten tribes, for all their wickedstrument of their deliverance therefrom. ness; and the king of Assyria took all the Having beheld the wonders wrought by cities of Israel, slaughtered their armies, Jehovah in Egypt, and in their passage destroyed the state, and carried away capthrough the Red Sea, on arriving at Mount tive the remnant of that people into distant Sinai, this whole nation were set apart to countries, from whence they have never God, as a beacon to the world, and there, returned to Canaan ; nor of these have we entering into covenant with God, they re- any authentic account in history, even to ceived laws from heaven. Here they this day. erected a magnificent tabernacle for the or- About the year five hundred and ninety dained service of Jehovah, where, over the before Christ, the glory of the temple, and mercy-seat, between the cherubim, upon with it Jerusalem, all Judea, and the two the ark of the covenant, within the most tribes which adhered to the house of David, holy place, the Divine presence abode per- after many pollutions, finally fell before petually; becoming the Judge and the the armies of Nebuchadnezzar, king of Oracle of Israel, feeding His people with Babylon, who burnt the city and the tembread from heaven, and giving them power ple, put down the state, and carried away over their enemies.

captive the remnant of the people to BabyRebellion succeeded rebellion in the wil- lon: “ By the rivers of Babylon, there we derness, where they wandered forty years, sat down; yea, we wept, when we rememuntil the whole of the men of war, except bered Zion,” exclaimed the psalmist on two persons, Caleb and Joshua, perished this mournful occasion; and after many beneath the just judgments of God. But years, Daniel, the holy prophet, “ with mercy was extended to their children, and fasting, sackcloth and ashes, cried unto the they entered, through the waters of Jordan, Lord our God, Hear the prayer of thy serwhich were miraculously divided, dry-shod vant, and his supplications, and cause thy into the land of Canaan ; the nations of face to shine upon thy sanctuary that is which fell before them, and therein they desolate, for the Lord's sake. Lord, had rest. The tabernacle of Jehovah was hear; O Lord, forgive; O Lord, hearken pitched in Shiloh, in the land of Canaan; and do; defer not, for thine own sake, and thither the sons of Abraham resorted to O my God : for thy city and thy people worship God. But the glory of the taber. are called by thy name.” nacle passed away, to rise no more, on the The Lord heard the prayer of his pro

men.

phet; and about the year before Christ priests, and the people of Israel, cast him five hundred and thirty-six, seventy years out of the temple, condemned him to die, from the first sacking of Jerusalem and the clamoured for his crucifixion to Pilate, temple, when Nebuchadnezzar carried off drove him out of Jerusalem, after scourgthe king, and the vessels of the house of ing, buffeting, and crowning him with the Lord, to Babylon, 2 Chron. xxxvi., thorns, and on Calvary crucified him beCyrus issued that famous decree, Ezra i., tween two thieves. Yea, instead of hearkunder which the captives of Judah and ening to this prophet, the Son of God, who Benjamin returned to Canaan, and built knew no sin, they said among themselves, the second temple--" The house of the “ This is the heir; come, let us kill him, Lord God of Israel (he is the God) in and let us seize on his inheritance. And Jerusalem.” Of this temple, the prophet they caught him, and cast him out of the Haggai, who flourished under Zerubbabel, vineyard, and slew him. And the Lord the governor, and Josedech, the high priest, came, and miserably destroyed these wicked during its erection, prophesied, “ The De

For the Roman armies came, slew sire of all nations shall come: and I will innumerable multitudes of the Jews, befill this house with glory, saith the Lord of sieged, took, and destroyed Jerusalem, hosts. The glory of this latter house shall burnt the temple, annihilated the state, and be greater than of the former, saith the sold the remnant of that nation for slaves ; Lord of hosts : and in this place will I dispersing them into all nations, about give peace, saith the Lord of hosts." seventy years after the birth of Christ, the

The sceptre was about to depart from Son of God. Judah, and the lawgiver from between his Thus were the husbandmen, unto whom feet, and pass to the Romans, when Shiloh Jehovah originally intrusted his vineyard, came, in the fulness of time; and unto slain, because of their wickedness; and the him is the gathering of the people, Genesis Lord's vineyard was given to others, viz. xlix. Previous to this period, the temple the Gentiles; and this is the destruction of built under the decree of Cyrus, after pass- the land of Canaan, the people, and Jeruing through hosts of spoliations and profa- salem, noted in the prophecy of Christ, nations, (of which that under Antiochus was Luke xxi. Which destruction and disperthe most awful,) amidst the inflictions of sion of the remnant of the descendants of those turbulent times, was repaired, beauti- Abraham, continue even to this day. The fied and enriched up to the most splendid Mosaic sanctuary is now no more; the edifice then in the world ; and it was in bodies of the saints are the temples of the the zenith of its grandeurs that Shiloh Holy Ghost; and wherever two or three came thereto, and therein first set up that are gathered together in his name, there the kingdom of heaven-of peace and joy in Lord is in the midst of them. Of this the Holy Ghost, which characterize the more hereafter. saints of the Most High. Thus was the

WM. COLDWELL. prophecy of Jehovah-Isebaoth, by the

King Square, January 20, 1832. mouth of Haggai,* fulfilled, viz., “The glory of this Jatter house shall be greater than of the former; and in this place will I give peace.”

Moses was inspired, when he delivered the law of Jehovah to Israel, to declare unto that people, “ The Lord thy God will It is stated, in the first five verses of the raise up unto thee a prophet from the midst first chapter of Genesis, that “In the beginof thee, of thy brethren, like unto me; ning God created the heavens and the unto him ye shall hearken. And it shall earth, and the earth was without form, and come to pass, that whosoever will not void ; and darkness was upon the face of hearken unto my words, which he shall the deep. And God said, Let there be speak in my name, I will require it of light; and there was light. And God dihim," Gen. xvjii. Jesus, the Christ, the vided the light from the darkness; and he Son of God, was the seed of Abraham, called the light Day, and the darkness he the Shiloh of Jacob, the prophet like unto called Night. And the evening and the Moses, the seed of the woman, the son of morning were the first day.” David the shepherd, the king of Israel, In the fourteenth and five following the Redeemer of mankind, the Saviour of verses of the same chapter, it is said, “God the world. He came to his own, but his made two great lights to rule the day and own received him not. Instead of receiv- the night, and set them in the firmament ing his glorious gospel, the elders, the of the heaven, to give light upon the earth,

SOME OBSERVATIONS ON THE NATURE OF

LIGHT AND COLOURS.

nous.

and divide the light from the darkness; other in the intensity of the attractive and and the evening and the morning were the repulsive forces which reside in them, and fourth day."

in their relations to the other bodies of the It would seem from the preceding verses, material world, and also in their actual that Moses, or whoever was the author of masses, or inertia. the book of Genesis, was aware of a fact, 3. That these particles, impinging on the the discovery of which, is in general sup- retina, stimulate it, and excite vision : the posed to be due to philosophers of the particles whose inertia is greatest, producing present day; i. e. that light is a real ma- the sensation of red; those of least inertia of terial substance, existing per se, and trans- violet; and those in which it is intermediate, mitted to us through the medium, or by the intermediate colours. the action, of certain bodies termed lumi- 4. That the molecules of material bodies,

On the first day, God created the and those of light, exert a mutual action on light, but it was not reflected upon the each other, which consists in attraction and earth, through the various media of the sun, repulsion, according to some law or function moon, and stars, till the fourth day, when of the distance between them; that this law a necessity had arisen for it, on account of is such, as to admit, perhaps, of several the earth having brought " forth grass, the alternations, or changes from repulsive to herb yielding seed, and the fruit-tree yield attractive force; but that, when the distance ing fruit."

is below a certain very small limit, it is alThe nature of light has been a subject ways attractive up to actual contact ; and of speculation from the earliest ages of that, beyond this limit, resides, at least, one philosophy. Some of the most ancient sphere of repulsion. This repulsive force sages doubted whether objects became is that which causes the reflexion of light at visible by a kind of emanation proceeding the external surfaces of dense media; and from them, or from the eye of the spectator. the interior attraction, that which produces The fallacy of this opinion must soon bave the refraction and interior reflexion of become apparent, because, in that case, light. men ought to see as well in the night as in 5. That these forces have different abthe day; and, it is evident that something solute values, or intensities, not only for all more than the mere presence of an object different material bodies, but for every difis necessary to render it visible : it is as- ferent species of the luminous molecules, tonishing that such men as Empedocles, being of a nature analogous to chemical Plato, and Pythagoras could have disputed affinities, or electric attractions, and that upon such a subject. All objects, to be hence arises the different refrangibility of visible, must be in a certain state, that is, the rays of light. either self-luminous, as the sun, moon, stars, 6. That the motion of a particle of light, red-hot metal, &c., or, in the presence of á under the influence of these forces, and its self-luminous body, so that the substance own velocity, is regulated by the same mecalled light may form a communication chanical laws which govern the motions of between the eye and the objects viewed. ordinary matter, and that, therefore, each

Among moderns, there are two principal particle describes a trajectory capable of opinions—the Newtonian, so called from its strict calculation, so soon as the forces illustrious inventor; and the Undulatory, which act on it are assigned. supported by Huygens, Euler the mathe- 7. That the distance between the molematician, and others equally celebrated. cules of material bodies is exceedingly A third has been brought forward by Pro small, in comparison with the extent of fessor Oersted, who considers light to be their spheres of attraction and repulsion on produced by a succession of electric sparks, the particles of light. And, or a series of decompositions and recompo- 8. That the forces which produce the sitions of an electric fluid, filling all space

reflexion and refraction of light are, neverin a natural or balanced state; this last theless, absolutely insensible at all measuropinion has met with few advocates. able or appreciable distances from the

The following are the postulata assumed molecules which exert them. in the Newtonian or Corpuscular theory. 9. That every luminous molecule, during

1. That light consists of particles of mat- the whole of its progress through space, is ter possessed of inertia, and endowed with continually passing through certain periattractive and repulsive forces, and pro- odically recurring states, called by Newton, jected or emitted from all luminous bodies fits of easy reflexion and easy transmission, with nearly the same velocity, i. e. about in virtue of which (from whatever cause 200,000 miles per second.

arising, whether from a rotation of the 2. That these particles differ from each molecules on their axes, and the consequent

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alternate presentation of attractive and re or mirrors, has never been found to propulsive poles, or from any other conceivable duce the slightest mechanical effect on the cause) they are more disposed, when in the most delicately-contrived instruments, durformer states or phases of their periods, to ing experiments made expressly to detect it. obey the influence of the repulsive or re The Undulatory theory, whose chief flective forces of the molecules of a me supporters are Huygens, Descartes, Hooke, dium; and, when in the latter, of the at- Euler, Young, and Fresnel, requires the tractive.

admission of the following postulata : It is evident, from the foregoing postu 1. That an excessively rare, subtle, and lata, that in the Newtonian theory, a ray of elastic medium, or æther, as it is called, light is understood to mean a continued fills all space, and pervades all material succession or stream of molecules, all mov bodies, occupying the intervals between ing with the same velocity along one right their molecules; either by passing freely line, and following each other close enough among them, or, by its extreme rarity, of. to keep the retina in a constant state offering no resistance to the motions of the stimulus, i. e. so fast, that before the im- earth, the planets, or comets, in their orbits, pression produced by one can have time to appreciable by the most delicate astronomisubside, another shall arrive. It appears, cal observations; and having inertia, but by experiment, that, to produce a continued not gravity. sensation of light, it is sufficient to repeat a 2. That the molecules of this æther are momentary flash about eight or ten times in susceptible of being set in motion by the a second. For example, if the point of a agitation of the particles of ponderable stick be heated to redness, and it be then matter; and that when any one is thus set whirled round in a circle, with a greater in motion, it communicates a similar movelocity than eight or ten circumferences tion to those adjacent to it; and thus the per second, the eye can no longer distin motion is propagated further and further in guish the place of the luminous point at all directions, according to the same meany instant, and the whole circle appears chanical laws which regulate the propagaequally bright and entire. This shews, tion of undulations in other elastic media, evidently, that the sensation excited by the as air, water, or solids, according to their light falling on any one point of the retina, respective constitutions. must remain almost without diminution till 3. That in the interior of refracting the impression is repeated, during the sub- media, the æther exists in a state of less sequent revolution of the luminous body. elasticity, compared with its density, than

Now, if uninterrupted vision can be pro- in vacuo, i. e. in a space empty of all other duced by momentary impressions, repeated matter; and that the more refractive the at intervals so distant as the tenth of a se medium, the less, relatively speaking, is the cond, it is easy to conceive that the indi- elasticity of the ether in its interior. vidual molecules of light in a ray, will not 4. That vibrations communicated to the require to follow close on each other, to æther in free space, are propagated through affect our organs with a continued sense of refractive media, by means of the æther in light. For, as the velocity of particles of their interior, but with a velocity correlight has been ascertained to be nearly sponding to its inferior degree of elasticity. 200,000 miles per second, if they follow 5. That when regular orbratory motions each other at intervals of 1000 miles apart, of a proper kind are propagated through 200 of them would still reach our retina the æther, and, passing through our eyes, per second in every ray: This considera- reach and agitate the nerves of our retina, tion removes all difficulties on the score of they produce in us the sensation of light, their jostling, or disturbing each other in in a inanner bearing a more or less close space, and allows of infinite rays crossing analogy to that in which the vibrations of at once through the same point of space, the air affect our auditory nerves with that without at all interfering with each other, of sound. especially when we consider the minuteness 6. That as, in the doctrine of sound, the which must be attributed to them, that, frequency of the aerial pulses, or the nummoving with such swiftness, they should not ber of excursions to and fro from its point of injure our visual organs. If a molecule of rest, made by each molecule of the air, light weighed but a single grain, its inertia determines the pitch, or note; so, in the would equal that of a cannon-ball upwards theory of light, the frequencies of the pulses, of 150 pounds weight, moving at a rate of or number of impulses made on our nerves 1000 feet per second. What, then, must in a given time by the æthereal molecules be their tenuity, when the concentration of next in contact with them, determines the millions upon millions of them, by lenses colour of the-light; and that as the absolute

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extent of the motion to and fro of the par- shadows of bodies, when fairly received on ticles of air determine the loudness of the smooth surfaces perpendicular to the line in sound, so the amplitude, or extent, of the which the luminous body lies, are similar in excursions of the ætherial molecules from figure to the section of the body which protheir points of rest, determine the brightness duces them, which could not be, except the or intensity of the light.

light were communicated in straight lines These last postulata necessarily are liable from their edges to the borders of the to considerable obscurities; as the doctrine shadow. of the propagation of motion through elastic That light radiates from every point of a media is one of the most abstruse and diffi. luminous body, may be proved by the folcult branches of mathematical inquiry, and lowing experiment. If a ray of the sun be we are therefore perpetually driven to in- admitied through a small round hole into a direct and analogical reasoning, from the darkened room during a solar eclipse, and utter hopelessness of overcoming the mere received on a white screen, the spot of light, mathematical difficulties inherent in the instead of appearing round, will present the subject. The fact is, that neither the New- appearance of the body of the sun; i. e, it tonian, nor the Undulatory, nor any other will be horned. Now, if a hole be made in system which has yet been devised, will the screen which receives the image of the furnish that complete and satisfactory ex- sun, and the ray of light be permitted to planation of all the phenomena of light pass through it to a second sereen, the spot which is desirable. Certain admissions must of light will no longer present the appearbe made at every step, as to modes of me- ance of the body of the sun, but that of the chanical action, where we are in total igno. hole made in the first screen. Again, take a rance of the acting forces; and we are called sheet of pasteboard, and drill a small hole on, where reasoning fails, occasionally for an through it with a needle, put a white screen exercise of faith.

behind it, and let the light of a candle pass The two systems may be briefly summed through the small hole to the screen; in this up as follows:

case we shall have not a small round point According to the Undulatory theory, of light, but an exact image of the flame of light is an invisible fluid, present at all times the candle, inverted : if the light from two, and in all places, but which requires to be four, or six candles, be suffered to pass set in motion by an ignited, or otherwise through the same minute hole, we shall not properly qualified body, in order to make have a brighter, or larger spot of liglit, but objects visible to us. Huygens believed as many distinct flames as there are candles: that the sun when it rose agitated this fluid, thus proving that every physical point of a and that the undulations gradually extended luminous surface is a separate and indepenthemselves till they struck the eye of the dent source of light. spectator who then beheld the sun.

Light requires time for its propagation, The Newtonians maintain, that light is or takes time to travel over space. Two not a fuid per se, but that it consists of a spectators at different distances from a vast number of exceedingly small particles luminous object suddenly disclosed, will shaken off in all directions from the luminous not begin to see it at the same mathema. body with inconceivable velocity, by a re- tical instant of time; the nearer will see it pulsive power; and which, most probably, sooner than the more remote. In like mannever return again to the body from which ner, if a luminous object be suddenly exthey were emitted.

tinguished, a spectator will continue to see Light emanates, radiates, or is propagated it for a certain time afterwards, as if it still from all luminous bodies in straight lines, continued luminous, and this time will be and in all directions, but, perhaps, not longer the farther he is from it. equally in all directions. A succession of The interval in question is, however, so these particles is called a ray of light, and excessively small in such distances as occur that this ray must proceed in a straight line on the earth's surface, as to be absolutely is evident from the following facts.

insensible; but in the immense expanse of If an opaque body be interposed between the celestial regions the case is different. the sun and a sheet of white paper, or other The eclipses and emersions of Jupiter's object, it casts a shadow on such object; satellites become visible nearly a quarter of i ē. renders it non-luminous. A ray of light an hour sooner, when the earth is at its least will not pass through a bent metallic tube, distance from that planet, than when at its or through three small holes in as many greatest. Recent observations have enabled plates of metal, placed one behind the other astronomers to assign, with great precision, at a distance, unless the holes be situated the numerical amount of this inequality, and exactly in a straight line. Moreover, the thence to deduce the velocity of light, which 20. SERIES, NO. 14.- VOL. II.

158.- VOL. XIV.

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