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STRICTURES ON THE WONDERFUL
AGENTS BY WHICH THE WORLD IS
veniences, from which the book-form is in part of its substance. The above-named a great measure exempt. The system is gases contain hydrogen as a component simple and unembarrassed, and with a part only, and it is not a sufficient descriplittle attention may be reduced to useful tion of them to say, that they consist of practice.
hydrogen in a mixed or impure state. These gases (the fire-damp and coal gas) are, in reality, a chemical compound of hydrogen gas and carbon (or charcoal ;) in which the hydrogen gas is condensed into half its
natural bulk, and combined with three MR. EDITOR,
times its own weight of carbon. They are, Sir,-In your Number of the Imperial also, at least eight times heavier than pure Magazine for September last, there is a hydrogen gas. Hence, you may perceive philosophical piece on "The Agents by the glaring impropriety of confounding which the World is supplied with water,' these gases with pure hydrogen. They are upon which I shall venture a few remarks. very rightly called carburetted hydrogenThe author does not appear to have a a term significative of its compound nature
. sufficient knowledge of modern chemistry, But coal gas is not even pure carburetted to enable him to write correctly on the hydrogen, being contaminated with a variety subject; and he has consequently com- of impurities. mitted several blunders in the course of his In the same column, continuing his reessay, on which I shall take the liberty to marks upon hydrogen, the author says, animadvert.
“That it exists copiously in metallic subIn page 415, the writer says, (referring stances, may be inferred from its being to oxygen gas,) “Another peculiar and derived very abundantly and purely by the marvellous property of this gas is, that no decomposition of iron by sulphuric acid." substance, how inflammable soever it be, In what chemical work does the writer leam can be made to burn without its presence; that "iron” is a “compound substance?" and, consequently, it is the means of our The efforts of the alchemists through cenbeing able to produce that effect which we turies of laborious exertion, and the utmost call fire.” This is an unguarded assertion; skill of modern philosophers, have not as it is well known to chemists, that chlorine effected the decomposition of any metal; gas is, in an eminent degree, a supporter of and the probability is, that they are simple combustion. Phosphorus inflames in it substances. But the writer has inferred it spontaneously. Many of the metals burn from experiments, which we proceed to exin it vividly, presenting a beautiful ap- amine. Sulphuric acid is diluted with water, pearance, and throwing off sparks. Iodine and iron or zinc filings are added; hydroand bromine will also maintain com- gen gas is then produced in abundance. bustion.
The real source of the hydrogen in this ex. In page 416, where hydrogen gas is periment is the water used in diluting the spoken of, the writer says, that “miners acid. The oxygen of the water abandons have given it the very expressive name of its hydrogen, and combines with the metal, fire-damp.” And immediately after,- forming with it an oxide. The liberated “Most people are now also acquainted hydrogen escapes from the water, and the with it, from the attention it has attracted sulphuric acid combines with the metallic of late years, by being employed as a sub- oxide, producing a sulphate of iron or zinc. stitute for oil-lamps, in lighting streets, Thus we see the hydrogen is derived from shops, taverns, &c. Then again, “It is the water, and not from the metal. also pretty generally known to be that same My concluding criticism is upon a pas. gas employed for filling balloons, being, as sage in page 417, where it is asserted, that it is, one of the lightest substances in na- actual combustion is the means of interture ; thirteen gallons of which, when pure, flux of the two ethereal essences, oxygen not being heavier than one of common air.” gas and hydrogen gas, in the precise relaHere the writer exhibits great confusion of tive proportions that convert them into ideas, in giving the name of hydrogen water; it is thus that every drop of water (which is a pure gas) to the compound ever produced in the world has been genegases known as the miners' fire-damp, and rated !" the common coal gas used in lighting our It is very true that philosophers know shops and streets. Water, which is com- of no other mode of effecting the combinapounded of oxygen and hydrogen, may tion of the two elements, oxygen and hydrowith as much propriety be called hydrogen, gen, so as to produce water, than by the because that element forms a component combustion of the two gases. But the
Almighty Creator is not to be limited by Ancient Practice in Churches.-The following extract
from Bishop Grindall's episcopal injunction, will the feeble conceits and circumscribed show, at least, what had been the practice ia powers of Man; and your readers may
churches. “That do pedlar should be permitted to
sell his wares in the church porch in time of service. well be filled with amazement at the pre
That parish clerks should be able to read. That no
lords of misrule, or summer lords and ladies, or any sumption of this expression, which boldly disguised persons, morrice-dancers, or others, should asserts, that it is thus that every drop of
come irreverently into the church, or play any un
seemly parts with scoffs, jests, or ribald talk, in time water ever produced in the world has been of divine service." thus generated !
A Curious Watch.-There is at this time in the pos
session of Mr. Thackwell, watch-maker, of this town, The inaccuracies exposed above are so a very curious antique watch, which is said to have
belonged to Lady Jane Grey. The case is of crystal, very glaring, that I think you should not
very curiously cut and set in gold, with a gold dial. suffer them to pass without correction; for
It was made long before the invention of fusee
chains, a piece of fine cat-gut being used instead. which purpose you are welcome, if you It has no pendulum spring, or minute hand; and,
though near three hundred years old, is in as perfect please, to publish these strictures, and I a state as when it came from the maker, and is even remain, Sir, with much esteem, your con.
pow a very elegant article and a great curiosity. It
is enclosed in a black leather case, lined with red stant reader and well-wisher,
velvet, and studded with gold. - Monmouthshire J. D.
Beaumont and Fletcher.-Those who are amused by 39, Tavistock St., Covent Garden,
the discovery of what are termed "curious coinci. Sept. 26th, 1832.
dences,” will think it worthy of notice, that the Rev. J. E. Beaumont and the Rev. A. Fletcher were lately associated in the task of preaching on behalf of a chapel recent built Chingford, Essex; and
will probably be of opipion, that their combined METEOROLOGICAL OBSERVATIONS.
talents were more usefully employed than those of
the ancient dramatic firm of the same dame. The mean temperature of September, was
Law and Physic.- In the State of New York there 587 degrees of Fahrenheit's thermometer. are two thousand five hundred and eighty regalarly
licensed physicians, one thousand pine hundred and The maximum of 66 degrees occurred on sixteen practising attorneys, and three thousand and the 30th, with a southerly wind. The mi eighty-nine justices of the peace, to a population of
1,913,500 souls. nimum, which was 48 degrees, took place
More Cats than Mice.-At the late Exeter sessions, on the 20th, when the direction of the there were six prisovers, forming four cases; during
the forenoon fifteen barristers dropped in ! wind was south-westerly. The range of the Imprisonment for Debt.“ In 1829 there were comthermometer was 18 degrees, and the pre
mitted to Whitecross-street prison on process, out of
the Court of Requests, for debts under 40s. 1563 vailing wind south-west. The direction of persons, the amount of whose debts were £2071, and the wind has been south-westerly 9f days;
costs £746. To Horsemonger Lane, there were com.
mitted in the same year 932 persons, whose debts north-westerly 7}; westerly 4; south-easterly amounted to £1900, and costs to £574."— The Legal
Observer, February, 1831. 2}; north-easterly 2; southerly 2; northerly Debtor Laws in England.-The fraud, impoverish13, and easterly 14.
ment, and desolation, resulting from the administra
tion of the debtor laws, are almost incredible. From Rain has fallen on 9 days, and 5 have returns of affidavits of debts, it appears, that in two been accompanied with wind. Thunder years and a half, 70,000 persons have been arrested
in and about London, the law expenses of which occurred on the evening of the 6th : heavy amount to po less than half a million sterling. dew fell on the nights of the 11th and 22d,
William the Fourth.-It is rather a singular fact, that
our present Majesty should be at one and the same and on the evenings of the 4th and 5th the time King William the First, Second, Third, and clouds were tinged with a beautiful pink First; that country giving the title of Elector Ouly to
Fourth. As King of Hanover, he is William the and red hue. From the 23d to the 29th its rulers, previously to George the Third. As King
of Ireland, he is William the Second, for that kingthe weather was particularly fine, the ther dom was not added to the British crown until the
reign of Henry the Second, and consequently Wilmometer rising considerably during the
liam the Cooqueror and William Rufus were pot middle of the day, and the four first days sovereigns of Ireland; and, as there were no native being cloudless, nothing occurred but a was the First of Ireland, and our present monarch
is of course William the Second. As King of Scotmistiness, which was principally observed
land, he is William, the third ; the only monarch of towards the north : the prevailing wind dur that name, previously to James the First, (who united ing this period was south-west.
the two kingdoms,) being the celebrated William the Lion. And as King of England, he is William the Fourth.-Crosby's Life and Times of George the Fourth.
Rum Sellers, look at this. We have good authority GLEANINGS.
for stating, that in a town in Massachusetts, the fol
lowing affecting incident occurred. Agrocer visited Gas in London.-The Gas which lights London, is his own brother, on his dying bed, and arousing him calculated to consume 38,000 chaldrons of coal per from the lethargy of death, said, Brother, do you annum ; lighting 62,000 lamps in shops, houses, &c., remember me! The dying man opened his eyes, and 7,500 street lamps. In 18.30 the gas pipes in aud and, fastening them attentively upon him, answered, round London were above 1,000 miles in length. “Yes, I remember you, I shall always remember you Gas lights of half an inch in diameter supply a light and your store, where I contracted habits which equal to 20 candles; of one inch in diameter, equal
have ruined me both for this world and the next: to 100; two inches, 420 : three inches, to 1,000.
and when I ain dead and gone, and you shall have Gin, versus Life.-At the late meeting of the Tem
taken from my widow and fatherless ones the shatperance Society, in London, the Rev. G. Evans
tered remains of my property, to satisfy my rum called the attention of the Meeting to a Bill which
debts, they too will remember you. Yes, brother, had been put into his hands for that purpose ; it was
we shall remember you to all eternity Con. sent by a publican to a tradesman, and demanded the
Observer. sum of £3. 6s. 8d., for gin supplied to his wife during Portsmouth, July 25.-A person has obtained the the last thirty-three days of her life, by which it ap sanction of the Admiralty, to descend, by means of peared that the unfortunate woman had drunk three air pipes, to the wreck of the Boyne, late of ninetyhalf-pints of gin daily during that period, and so eight guns, which, it may be in the recollection of killed herself.-Herald.
many, caught fire, by accident, at Spithead, on the
1st of May, 1795, at eleven in the morning, drifted Gorton's New Topographical Dictionary of Great from her moorings, and finally blew up, about six in Britain and Ireland, with Fifty-four Maps. 3 Vols. the evening of the same day, opposite Southsea Castle. The Obligations of the Pastoral Office, and the At low water, the wreck is approached at about two Glorious Results of their Faithful Discharge. A or three fathoms. A ladder of sufficient length Charge intended to be delivered at the Ordination of reaches the wreck from a vessel moored over. The a Son. By the late Rev. W. Williams, of Norwood. person descends, his head enveloped in a large leaden The Sacred Musical Offering; the Poetry by Ber. mask, with glass eyelets, protected by small brass nard Barton, Miss
Caroline Bowles, Rev. J. Cunning. bars, his body covered with an Indian rubber dress, ham, Delta, Maurice Harcourt, Bishop Heber, Mrs. leaving his baods perfectly free, as also bis legs and Hemans, James Knox, R. & J. Monigomery, Mrs. feet. By this means he traverses the wreck, and has Opie, Miss A. M. Porter, Rev. J. Young, &c.--The been able to suspend a few twenty-four pounders, Music by T. Adams, Beethoven, Dr. Carnaby, which were hoisted into the vessel above.
Gluck, W. H. Holmes, Mozart, Chevalier Neükomm, afternoon he discovered what it is supposed was the E. J. Nielson, C. H. &T. Purday, L, Spohr, E. J. captain's (the late Sir George Grey, Bart.) wine & H. Westrop, C. M. Von Weber, &c. store. He first brought up one boule, the two; A Portraiture of Modern Scepticism ; or, a Careat he then took down a basket, which he filled, and against Infidelity: including a Brief and Practical finally brought up twenty-one bottles - claret and View of the principal Evidences which show the port, which of course have been immersed in salt Scriptures to be a Revelation from God. Intended water for the last thirty seveu years. He refused, on as a present to the young. By J. Morison, D.D. 12mo. the deck of the vessel, twenty shillings a bottle for Address at the Opening of the Medical Session in it, but handsomely tapped one by way of laster for the University of London. By J. Elliotson. the by-standers. His agreement with government is Gibbon's French, English, and Latin Vocabulary. to have all he causes to be brought up, except the Narrative of the Conversion of James Cook, the copper, which is to be deposited in the Dock-yard, murderer of Mr. Paas. By Mrs. Lacklan. for which he will be allowed the usual salvage. An Ilustrations of Political Economy, No. IX. Ireimmense number of boats, chiefly filled with ladies, land, a Tale. By Harriet Martineau, attend every day. The bottles are covered with im. The Worthies of Yorkshire and Lancashire, being mense barnacles.
lives of distinguished persons. By Hartley Coleridge. Pyramids of Egypt.-The pyramids of Egypt always
A Letter to Lord John Russell. By Captain For
man, R. N. ranked aroong the wonders of the world. Three of them still remain, at the distance of a few leagues
Daily Incense - Prayer and Praise. Religious
Tract Society. from Grand Cairo ; where the ancient Memphis
Initia Latina in Usum Scholæ Grammaticæ." stood. It has been calculated by a French engineer,
Grammatical Exercises on the Moods, Tenses, and that the stone in the largest of the three, called the
Syntax of the Latin Language. By G. Ferguson. great pyramid, is six millions of tons; and would be sufficient to build a wall round the whole of A Letter to John Murray, Esq. from Lord Nugent. France (about eighteen hundred miles,) ten feet high
Essay on Tubercles. By Nathaniel Rogers, M. D. and one foot broad. It forms a square, each side of
Advice to a Young Christian, &c. By a Village
Pastor. whose base is seven hundred and forty-six feet, and covers nearly fourteen acres of land. The perpen
Daily Prayers and Promises. Religious Tract Sodicular height is about five hundred and sixty feet.
ciety. The summit, which when viewed from below appears
Daily Verses. Religious Tract Society.
Lives of British Reformers from Wickliffe to For. & point, is found to be a platform, each side of which is eighteen feet long. T'he slopes with which this
Religious Tract Society. enormous edifice is built, are thirty feet long. These
A Commentary on the Holy Bible from Henry and
Scott-Job to Solomon's Song. stupendous works of man were originally designed as tombs for their kings : from which we may infer
The Records of Providence; or, the Government the grandeur and resources of the nation.-Companion
of God displayed in a series of interesting Facts. By
the Rev. John Young. to the Bible, p. 86.
Gems for Christian Ministers. Religious Tract Schools in France.--It appears that the present num- Society. ber of elementary schools in France is 30,796, of The Family Temperance Meeting. which 29,618 are Catholics, 904 Protestants, and 62 The Reign of Grace, &c. By Abraham Booth. Jewish. The aggregate number of children instruct- Society for Promoting Religious Knowledge. ed, is stated to be 1,372,296 in winter, and 681,005 in The Travels of True Godliness, &c. By B. Keach. summer.- Nat. Gaz.
Society for Promoting Religious Knowledge. The Oldest Sunday Scholar .--At the coronation of The Elgin Annual for 1833. Edited by J. Grant, his present Majesty William the Fourth, twenty thou- of the Elgin Courier. sand Sunday-school children graced the celebration. The Comic Offering; or, Ladies' Melange. Among the banners, in the procession at Manchester, Juvenile Forget Me Not. Edited by Mrs. S. C. Hall. one bore the inscription, " The man who follows The Messiah. By R. Montgomery. A new edition. this banner, was one of Mr. Raikes' scholars, in the
In the Press. first Sunday-schools ever established.”
'The man above referred to was a fine-looking old man, above My Village, versus Our Village. By the 'Author seventy years of age. He was greeted by the popu. of Barney Mahoney. lace, had the pleasure of shaking hands with many The Second Series of “Traits and Stories of the highly respectable individuals, and greatly enjoyed Irish Peasantry;" in 3 vols. Post 8vo. By the author the proceedings of the day.
of the First Series.
The Life of Sir Walter Scott, Bart. ; to be pube DR. ADAM CLARKE
lished in Monthly Parts. Arrangements are making in London for the erec- The Elements of Plain and Spherical Trigonometry, tion of a suitable Monument to the memory of this and their Application to Astronomy, Dialling, and distinguished individual.
Trigonometrical Surveying. With plates. By M. R.
By Mr. Curtis, Aurist to His Majesty, a Second
Edition of his Essay on the Deaf and Dumb; also, a
Treatise on the Diseases of the Eye.
Hints on Picturesque Domestic Architecture; in a
Series of Designs for Gate Lodges, Game Kerpers' Part XXI. of Baines's History of Lancashire, iş Cottages, and other Rural Residences. By 1. F. Hant, enriched with a superb Engraving of the Earl and Architect, 4to. Countess of Derby, from a Painting by Vandyk. A Periodical is about to appear in Edinburgh,
Portrait Gallery, Part XLIII.; Duchess of Kent; under the management of Mr, Aitkin, late Editor of Bishop of Gloucester; and Marquis of Londonderry, “Constable's Miscellany," the “Cabinet," &c. &c.
The Lives of the Reform Ministers, 1 Vol. 8vo.is ready for delivery. The Reform Act, Boundary Act, &c. for England,
Errata.-lo our Number for September, p. 424, ou Ireland, and Scotland-a bulky law.book condeused
“Napoleon in Exile," for the lines, as they now ap into an 8vo. pamphlet.
pear, read as ollows: Part II. of Westmoreland, Cumberland, Durham, “ The glassy ocean, stretched below, and Northumberland ; containing eight Views; the
With day's last radiance shone : four - shilling Part comprising, sixteen Engravings,
The sun, just setting in the sea, being benceforth to be divided into two, for the con.
Shook him from his bright tresses free, venience of purchasers.
And plunging in the ocean's swell, Drawing Room Scrap-Book for 1833 : containing
He bade the exile king farewell." 36 superb Engravings.
In the second line which follows the above, for No. IX. of the Nautical Magazine : for November. spring read string.
LONDON: PRINTED AT THE CAXTON PRESS, BY H. FISHER, SON, AND CO.