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the Divine blessing, to sustain them : it was will thus acquire a different expression not until after the general deluge had de at different periods of life. It has often stroyed the old world, that man was per- been observed, for example, that drunkards mitted to eat flesh. Our next essay, which have large and red noses. Now, this most will be the last, will introduce us, as we probably arises from the accelerated circuhave already observed, to man, the very lation occasioned by the liquor, and the last and highest link in the chain of crea- viscidity of the blood being thus forced tion—the link which connects matter and through the small vessels which are plenspirit-in whom we, at once, behold matter, tifully distributed over this organ: yet it connecting him with the animals, and spirit does not follow, that all those who have red connecting him with the infinite God; and noses are drunkards, as this peculiarity may upon man hung the well-being of this arise from bodily constitution as well as inwhole sphere. Head of all, and the bond temperate habits; though the latter, from of union for all, with the living God, while the above reason, is likely to occasion it. he stood firm, all were sustained; and when Again, anger, and general irritability he fell, the whole fell with him. Alas, how of temper, will induce a constriction of changed are all things here ! To what a some of the muscles of the face, particularly depth his fall precipitated this else fair those of the mouth and chin, which often sphere, is but imperfectly known, even to cause a fixed expression to mark the counmen who have made it the business of their tenance.

Grief preying upon the mind lives, and have lived long to observe upon will also have a similar effect. These are it; while to the man who has merely to be attributed to that mysterious union skimmed the surface of things, it is which exists between the soul and body hidden in impenetrable darkness. I origi- during their co-operative action, since they nally intended, after having concluded the are often much mitigated during sleep, and history of creation, to have entered upon a sometimes they entirely subside after death. regular investigation of the operations of 2. Habit also has a considerable effect the curse throughout the sphere we inhabit; on the muscular parts of the face, in which beginning with the third chapter of Genesis, physiognomical character greatly consists. and ending with the ninth chapter, which Deep thought and mental abstraction are includes the destruction of the old world apt to produce a wrinkled forehead, and by the general deluge; but the materials I constriction of the mouth; which is often have already prepared could not be com far from the natural expression of the counpressed into less than eight or ten essays, tenance, when the mind is engaged with which would occupy the whole year; and light and pleasing thoughts; but if conI have not courage to undertake the com- stantly employed in deep reflection, this pression of this matter.

character may become as much fixed by the King Square, Sept. 5, 1832.

mere force of habit, as that arising from

anger or grief. W. COLDWELL.

3. Hereditary disposition may have a powerful influence in producing physiog

nomical character, according to the opinion INDICATIVE SIGNS OF DISPOSITION.

of some writers on this subject, though the It has been the opinion of many philoso- problem is involved in too much mystery phers, both ancient and modern, that the to admit of actual demonstration. disposition and temper of individuals may 4. Though passion, habit, and hereditary be ascertained by various indications of disposition are thus allowed their full inexternal structure. Hence has arisen the fluence in producing indicative signs of disphysiognomical system of Lavater, and the position, as far as the operation of the mind

recent but complicated theory of on the muscular structure of the face is phrenology by Gall and Spurzheim. concerned, it becomes extremely doubtful

Of the first, or system of physiognomy, whether the same causes can be allowed to considerable probability exists, respecting produce the same effects on the ossific accuracy of determination, and that from structure of the face; which constitutes, the following reasons :

what Lavater terms, the facial angle, and 1. The operation of the passions, when gives a general character to the whole counthey are habitually indulged, and suffered tenance, by which the disposition can be to rule the conduct unsubdued by the re determined. Much less can we yield to straining hand of reason, will be found, on the doctrine, that the organs of the medulinvestigation, to have a powerful influence lary substance of the brain can, by their on the muscular structure ; and conse- expansion, through the influence of sentiquently on the features of the face, which ment or passion operating at and after the

more

age of puberty, when the bone is fully detected. The poorer classes who could formed, impress its substance, and occasion write, imitated a kind of round hand; which, those external developments which form though imperfect in formation and orthothe foundation of the theory of Gall and graphy, was much more legible than the Spurzheim.

scrawl of their betters. Some persons have imagined, that indi About the latter end of the reign of cations of disposition may be collected George III., a new system was adopted from hand-writing. This, however, admits by Lewis, and others of the same of much doubt; for though there can be school; which was universally taught both no question that the mind, acting upon the to young and old, at their writing acadeanimal machine, has considerable influence mies. This, which is now common, has over the motions of the hand in writing, had the effect of reducing most, if not all through the medium of the nervous system, hands, lo the same general character; so in moments of passion, excitement, or ill. that though the disposition of the individual ness; yet these are transient in their effects, could be guessed at when the hand-writing and cannot operate with certainty on the depended upon his own ideas and habits, hand under a state of bodily health and the case it materially altered, and the test mental composure. In considering the sub- rendered nugatory, when it depends, as at ject of hand-writing we may observe—that present, on a fixed and determined system. it has been an art cultivated for its utility in all ages and countries. It is a perfectly The following very curious Theory of imitative art, like drawing ; and of its most discerning Temper by the Tones of the ancient state, the Hebrew, Egyptian, Baby- Voice, is from an anonymous Manuscript lonian, Persian, Arabic, and other Oriental among the Birch and Sloane Manuscripts, engraved and written characters, now in No. 3080.—The author, after speaking of existence, afford specimens. In later times, the principles of speech, and general tones in our own country, court-hands prevailed; of the voice in different individuals, proand though somewhat different in the ceeds thus : various reigns, as may be seen in “Wright's “I know no reason why many observaCourt-hand restored,” they had all the same bles as pertinent, if not more, may not be essential character of being an imitation of deduced from ye musick of tones in ordiprint.

ary speech.” He then goes on to state the The modern "join-hand,” as it is some

various characters of the moods among the times called, appears to have arisen either Greeks; which he thus specifies : in France or Italy, but most probably the

Gravity and sobriety.

The Lydian latter, as the professors taught what they

The Eolique Sweet stillnesse and quiet comtermed the Italian hand (if I mistake not)

posednesse. as early as the reign of Elizabeth ; but The Phrygian. . Jollity and youthfull levity.

The Ionque.

A stiller and allayer of stormes previous to this period, the manuscripts

and dirturbances arising from are awkward attempts at modifying the old

passion. court-hands; and being filled with con “Now why may not we conclude, yt such tractions, are scarcely legible.

persons, whose speeche is accustomed to From this period writing began to be ye notes peculiar to either of these moodes, more cultivated; but as all did not learn yt they ymselves are of such and such a of a master, the writing was unequal, and nature ?' Tis true, none knowes particular the formation of the letters often regulated thoughts of ye heart (if theire should be a by the caprice of the writer. During the serious composure of body) besides God; interval from the reign of James I. to yet if thoughts are bred and nourished by George III., the hand-writing of individuals any affection, or passion, ye meanest will, varied, according to their own taste; and and may presume to guess att ym in genein this case the temper and disposition, and ralls, by alterations of ye outward man.” general habit of thought, might, and probably As this will be sufficient for a specimen did, have its effect: thus the literary student of the style and orthography of the original, was either precise and round in his letters, I shall give the remainder of this curious or small and cramped; both which charac- manuscript in modern language. teristics are to be found in the manuscripts He proceeds to argue thus :of the 18th and 19th centuries. The middle If, according to the testimony of scripand higher classes exhibit a careless run ture,“ out of the abundance of the heart ning style, in which the pen seems to bave the mouth speake!h," we may, by the tone moved over the paper in horizontal lines, and manner of the delivery, form some mingled with dots and slanting strokes, judgment of the thoughts passing in the in which little distinction of letters is to be mind; and not only by the words them

"The Doric

Buxome freedome.

selves as significant of the ideas, but by the govern the swift nurse of Antepetrus ; not key, and other particulars, of the musical that Kerastes, who was formerly fed by tones in which they are conveyed. For the daughters of the buli, but he whose example :

heart was scorched by the border of a He that speaks in the key of C, is a man buckler, which wants the letter pi. His of ordinary capacity and good disposition :

name is All. in G, peevish and effeminate, if not peevish, According to heathen mythology, Pan is of a weak and timid disposition. He who the son of Mercury, and Penelope, the wife has a voice that will in some measure agree of Ulysses.

Those who have read the with all keys, is of good parts, and suited Odyssey will remember, that Ulysses, to a variety of employments; but fickle and when taken prisoner by the giant Polyphe. inconstant.

mus, and asked his name, replied Ouric, Then as to time: He who uses semi- that is, Nobody; Penelope is therefore breves in his speech, may be judged to be called the wife of Nobody, and mother of heavy, dull, and phlegmatic. Minims Macroptolomeus, or Telemachus. Jupiter denote gravity and seriousness. Crochets, is by the poet called Antepetrus, because wit and fancy. Quavers indicate passion- his mother Rhea gave his father Saturn a ate persons; as scolds use them. Sharps, stone to swallow instead of the child, Sa. bespeak a man effeminately sad. Flats, turn having determined to destroy all his man and melancholy sad. Semibreve children; he having been informed by the rests, denote a man to be either full of oracle, that one of them should dethrone more matter than he can utter, or to be him. Jupiter was suckled by the goat troubled with a natural hesitation. Minim Amalthea, here called his swift nurse, and rests, shew thought and deliberation. fed with honey; the bees are said to be Crochet, and lesser rests, passion.

daughters of the bull, because the ancients Thus, by the several musical marks, we supposed the only way to produce bees may collect indications of disposition. But was to kill a young bull, stop up the nosthe effort of nature, in thus modulating the trils and mouth, and leave the carcase musical character of the speech in accord- exposed ; that in a few days bees would ance with the feelings of the mind, is almost be produced from the putrefaction of the incorrigible; and though by custom and entrails, and burst in swarms from the watchfulness we may in some degree body. Pan is well known to be the god remedy its influence, the best method is to of shepherds, and is always represented correct the mind, and there will then be no with horns, and so is Jupiter under the necessity for affected attempts to disguise name of Amon, so that both are properly the voice by artificial modulation.

called kerastes, that is, horned. The cirAugust 25, 1832.

E. G. B. cumference of a buckler in the Greek is

called itve; add the letter p to it, and it

becomes Pitus, the name of a nymph who EXTRACTS, CHIEFLY FROM THE GREEK AND

was much beloved by Pan. Both Olon and Pan signify all, and the name is said

to have been given to this god because he An Ancient Greek Riddle.

presides over all nature : the more scandaThe following lines on the birth of the god lous legend is, that Pan was the son of Pan, are a curious specimen of the ancient Penelope, and one of the numerous suitors enigma, and are, perhaps, the oldest in- who besieged her during the ten years' stance of that species of composition in absence of her husband at the siege of Troy; existence, with the exception of the riddle and as it was uncertain which of them had proposed to the lords of the Philistines, by the best claim to name the child, it was Samson; they are to be met with in the determined to call him after the whole of Syrinx of Theocritus.

them; he was therefore named Pan, that 'Ουδενός ευνάτειρα, Μακροπτολέμοιο δε

parnp Μαίας Αντιπετρoιο θοον τέκεν ιθυντήρα

The Pagan Account of the Destruction of 'Ουχί Κεράσαν, όν πoκα θρεψατο ταυρο

Sennacherib's Army. πάτωρ,

Herodotus, in the 141st section of the Αλλ' ου Πιλιπές αίθε πάρος φρένα Τέρμα ing account of the destruction of the army

2d book of his history, gives us the followσάκους. "Ουνομ"Ολον.

of Sennacherib king of the Assyrians : it is

a remarkable corroboration of the history The wife of Nobody, the mother of Ma- given in the 19th chapter of the 2d book of croptolomeus, has conceived a son, who shull Kings, and proves that such a discomfiture

ROMAN HISTORIANS.

is, all.

did take place by the evidence of a heathen to resemble rats. It is to this king that the writer, who never could have seen the Jew- prophet alludes, when he tells Sennacherib ish account.

that “he shall hear a rumour.” Libnah, “ After Anysis, a priest of Vulcan, where this awful destruction of the Assyrian named Sethos, mounted the throne of army took place, is the same that HeroEgypt. He had no respect for warriors, dolus calls Pelusium, and is now called and treated them with contempt, as if he Tineh; it was while besieging this town expected never to require the assistance of that Sennacherib heard the rumour, that soldiers. Among other outrages, he took Tirhakah had joined his forces to those of from them that portion of land which had the king of Egypt, and here “ that the been assigned to each individual of the angel of the Lord went out and smote in tribe of warriors, by the kings, his prede- the camp of the Assyrians, an hundred cessors, for their support. But in process fourscore and five thousand.” Whether of time, when Sennacherib, king of the this angel of the Lord was the king of Arabians and Assyrians, marched to Æthiopia, as some think, or a pestilential attack Egypt with a numerous army, the blast, as others contend, is of little consemilitary tribe refused to muster for the quence; Jerusalem was delivered, Senna. defence of their country. The priest, find- cherib confounded, and the prophecy fuling himself very much embarrassed by this filled. mutiny, retired into the temple, and throwing himself at the feet of the statue of Vul- The Altar at Athens dedicated to the can, began with sighs and groans to lament

Unknown God. his unhappy lot. While he thus deplored It is stated in the 17th chapter of the his misfortunes, he fell asleep, and in a Acts of the Apostles, that St. Paul, during dream thought that the god appeared to him, his sojourn at Athens, took an opportunity to encourage him, assuring him that if he of declaring many important truths to the marched against the Arabians, no ill should assembled multitude on Mars' Hill, from befall him, for that he himself would come the circumstance of his having observed to his assistance.

an altar in the city inscribed to the Un“Full of confidence in this vision, Sethos known God. It has been supposed by took with him all of the nation whom he found some writers, who are fonder of making well affected to his cause, placed himself assertions than of inquiring into facts, that at their head, and went and encamped at this was an altar which in some miraculous Pelusium, which is the key of Egypt. manner had been, in the midst of a heathen This army was formed only from the nation, erected to the honour of the true tribe of merchants, and that of artisans, God; a little research will put the matter and from the lowest of the people : not a in a different light, and the following is the single man of the tribe of warriors accom- account given by Herodotus, Diogenes panied him. These troops being arrived Laertius, Pausanias, and Strabo, of the at Pelusium, a prodigious number of field- origin of these altars. rats spread themselves through the enemy's In the 35th Olympiad, or about A.M 4102 camp during the night, and gnawed in of the Julian æra, Cylon of Athens having pieces all the quivers, the bows, and the been proclaimed conqueror at the Olymleather thongs, which serve as handles to pic games, became so filled with ambition the bucklers; in so much, that in the morn. as to aspire to the absolute government of ing, the Arabians, finding themselves with- Athens. In order to succeed in his enterout arms, took to flight, and the greater prize, he engaged some of the chief men part of the army perished. There is to the of the city to unite with him, and they enpresent day, in the temple of Vulcan, a deavoured to seize the citadel, but were statue of stone representing this king, and defeated, and obliged to take refuge at the having a rat in the hand, with the following foot of the statue of Minerva. From this inscription : Whoever you are, learn, in asylum they were induced to depart under seeing me, to honour the gods.'

the most solemn promises of the magistracy It is probable that the above legend was that their lives should be spared ; but no invented by the priests, to conceal their ig- sooner had they left the temple, than they norance of the true meaning of the hiero- were all put to death. What may have glyphic, and that the statue holding the rat been the reason for this breach of faith we in its hand, was meant to represent Tirha- know not, history leaves us quite in the kah, king of Æthiopia, who came to the dark on this 'subject; all that we know is, assistance of the Egyptians. The Æthi- that it gave rise to a very dangerous com. opians were called Troglodytes because motion in Athens, and the citizens were so they inhabited caverns, and were thus said much divided, that a civil war in the city

itself was very near breaking out: to add out much gold, that so much dazzles the to the distress, a pestilential disorder devas. eyes of poor mortals, it was impossible for tated not only Athens, but all Attica. In him to gain her. this dilemma, the Athenians, being a very The unfortunate Inamerato, finding noreligious people, (and here the historian thing but gold would do, doating more makes use of the very same term, which in upon her than regarding his own soul, our version and the Vulgate, is translated cared not what courses he took to make superstitious, Aeloidaipwv,) had recourse himself rich enough to obtain her favour. to the gods, and sent to consult the oracle. The lady, on the other side, like many of The answer was, “ If you wish to put an her sex, let him come by wealth as he end to these plagues, lét Epimenides purify might, it mattered not, so he had it; she your city.”

cared not what the man is or was, if he had Epimenides of Phæstos, in the isle of enough to satisfy her wishes. The youth, Crete, then enjoyed the highest reputation; in his despair, met, with a great charge of he was a celebrated magician, who was in money, at a place not far from the pool, the habit of making expiation for nations a carrier, whom he not only robbed, but or individuals, by means of certain cere- murdered ; and buried in the place, for fear monies and mysterious words. To do this of a discovery. man honour, the Athenians sent one of Afterwards, going to his darling saint, he their most illustrious citizens, Nicias, son of told her he had gold enough: the lady, inNiceratus, to invite him to Athens. On his credulous, would not believe him till she arrival, hé purified the city, and the plague had seen it; and then would not marry stayed, and peace was restored. The fol- him, till he discovered to her how he lowing were the means he used to purify came by it. The youth, to satisfy her, and the city.—He collected a number of black fearing no discovery, having enjoined her and white sheep at the Areopagus, or Mars' to secrecy, told her the unhappy story. Hill, and then ordered them to be scattered Then was there a report of a spirit troubling in all directions, setting people to watch the place where the murdered was buried. where each animal lay down; and upon At this the lady, being somewhat surprised, this spot it was sacrificed, and an altar resolved again not to marry him till he went erected to the NAMELESS UNKNOWN GOD. to the grave in the night, to appease the The words made use of by Pausanias are ghost, and to hear what he had to say. remarkable, as being the same used by the Love fearing no dangers, and having a conApostle : the historian says, in memory of science seared after his foul deed, to satisfy this expiation, the Athenians erected, his mistress, he undertook this last task to Bwuoi DEūv te ovouaSouévwv åyvúrtwv, please her. When at midnight, he heard that is, altars of unknown and nameless à voice cry aloud, “Is there po vengeance gods; most likely where each sheep was

for innocent blood ?" and another to answer, sacrificed, a separate altar to an unknown “ Not till the ninth generation;" at which, god. The Apostle says, “For as I passed presuming upon the mercy and patience of by, and beheld your devotions, I found an the Almighty, and thinking himself free altar with this inscription, ayvwotw Oɛw, from the heavy vengeance, he was not to the UNKNOWN GOD,” Acts xvii. 23. moved or terrified in the least at this judg

ment; but, without remorse of conscience, he resolved to prosecute his amour; and

going to the lady, he told her the dreadful The following curious tradition is extracted judgment. She, on the other side, caring from the collections of Hugh Thomas- not for the eternal punishment, so as she Harleian MSS. No. 6831.

could escape the temporal sbame, most The great pool called Llinsavathan, is in audaciously answered him, “Before that a pleasant country, surrounded on all sides time, we shall be rotten in our graves ; with high hills. It is about two miles in therefore, we will enjoy ourselves while we length, and above one in breadth, and be- may, and take our fill of the pleasures of tween five and six miles round. It is very this world." deep and is full of fish, and has several Behold! how these poor miserable mor. parishes and fine houses on its banks. tals satisfied their brutal passions at the

The inhabitants of this country have a expense of their souls. They married, and, general tradition, that there was once a the tradition assures us, had a numerous fagreat and beautiful lady, who was heiress mily; who first uniting themselves with the of all the land covered by this vast lake; inhabitants of the city, their children married of whom a young man of mean or no for- among themselves, like the dwellers in tune was very much enamoured; but with- Sodom and Gomorrah, till all the people

WELCH TRADITION.

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