« ForrigeFortsæt »
From the wires the fluid passed to the EFFECTS
OF A STROKE OF LIGHTNING, wire attached to the edge of her bonnet, WHICH OCCURRED ON THE 13TH OF
the cotton thread twisted round the wire APRIL, 1832.
being burnt off at the place of entrance One of the most awful, and at the same over the left eye. From this part the fluid time grand phenomena of nature, is exhi- crossed the back of the head, and passed bited, when the electric fluid has accumu down into the neck above the left shoullated in the upper regions of the atmo der : it singed the hair it came in contact sphere, and darts with destructive and with in its passage; made a hole in a deadly violence to the earth. A thunder- handkerchief that was round her throat; storm scarcely passes over any part of the and zigzagged along the skin of her neck country, but we hear of buildings de- to the steel busk of her stays, leaving a stroyed, stacks burnt, or lives lost : and painful wound, and affecting the hearing of such is the rapidity with which the fluid the left ear. The busk was enclosed in a approaches and passes through the human brown-paper case, which was perforated on body, in most cases depriving the indivi- the outside, and the busk fused for about a dual of life, that before he can even think quarter of an inch on the upper surface, of guarding against the stroke, he is hurried where it presented a blistered appearance. into an eternal world. Any facts, there. Its passage down the busk could not be fore, relating so this direful phenomenon, traced in any way ; but its exit at the botmust be at all times interesting, not only tom was as clearly indicated as its entrance to the philosopher; but also to the general at the top; the steel was fused in the same reader : we shall, therefore, without further manner, and the paper perforated in the remark, introduce an accurate statement of same way, but on the opposite side. facts, relative to a stroke of lightning which The fluid, in passing through the busk, occurred on the 13th of April last, a little communicated to it some curious magnedistance from Tenbury; written by Benja- tic properties : both ends were found min Boddington, Esq. of Badger Hall, and strongly to attract the south pole of the which Mr. Faraday has communicated to needle, and the upper part, for some conthe world through the medium of the Phi- siderable way down. The point of northlosophical Magazine.
ern attraction was about one-third of the It appears from the statement, that Mr. length of the busk from the bottom; the and Mrs. F. Boddington were riding in greatest portion of the busk had consethe barouche seat of their post-chariot ; quently acquired southern attraction. The when rain beginning to fall, and distant passage of the fluid through the gown and thunder being heard, Mr. Boddington petticoat was distinguished by marks of put up an umbreļla ; but perceiving it was burning; and upon its leaving the busk, it an old one, and somewhat torn, he gave it pierced the inside of the stays, and all the to his wife, to hold over her bonnet, while garments under them; and penetrated both he put up another. While extending the thighs, where it left deep wounds. It next latter, a flash of lightning struck them both perforated every article on which she sat, senseless, threw the horses on the ground, and tore the cloth which covered the and cast the post-boy to a considerable cushion very extensively : the passage of distance : the servants who were inside the the fluid through the cushion, which was carriage were unhurt. Mrs. Boddington stuffed with horse-hair, could not be traced; stated, that she neither saw the flash, nor but the cloth edge of the cushion imme. heard the thunder ; but her first conscious- diately behind where Mrs. Boddington sat, ness was the feeling of suffocation : she felt, was torn outwards, and the leather that however, that they had been struck by covered the iron was forced off in the same lightning.
spot, clearly marking its egress from the The passage of the electric fluid, as con cushion, and entrance in the iron. nected with Mrs. Boddington, was traced The above are the facts connected with most distinctly. It struck the umbrella Mrs. Boddington, and the statement proshe held in her hand, which was made of ceeds to notice the facts connected with cotton, and had lost the ferule that is usu Mr. Boddington, previous to tracing the ally placed at the end of the stick ; so that further progress of the fluid. Mr. Bodthere was no point to attract the spark. dington, it appears, was insensible for This it literally shivered to pieces, the about the space of ten minutes, and when springs in the handle were forced out, the he revived he was perfectly unconscious of wires that extended the whalebone broken, what had occurred: he felt his eyesight and the covering rent into a thousand affected, and pain all over him. The umshreds.
brella, which he was extending, was made
of silk, and it appears the fluid principally the tires of the wheels, as four holes were passed down the handle to his left arm, as made in the road at the points they touched it was but slightly damaged. A portion of at the moment of the shock. They were it, however, made a hole in the brim of his about fifteen inches in diameter, perfectly hat, and burnt off all the hair below it, to- round, and nearly as deep as they were gether with the eye-brows and eye-lashes. wide : the stones appeared to be thrown The electric stream shattered the left hand, out as if done by a miner's blast. fused the gold shirt-buttons, and tore the The horse which the postilion rode was clothes in a most extraordinary manner; found to be dead, but no wound was visi. forcing parts of them, together with the ble, nor any apparent cause for his death : buttons, to a considerable distance : it in the brass front of the bridle was indented flicted a deep wound on the wrist, and laid inwards, as if struck with a hammer, and a the arm bare to the elbow; which is pre- corresponding mark was found on the bone sumed to have been, at the moment, very of the head ; from this spot to the terminear his left waistcoat-pocket, in which nation of the spine, the flesh was quite there was a knife; as this was forced from black and putrid for about the space of its situation, every article of dress torn three inches, and there were diverging away, and a severe wound made on his marks of the same nature on each side of body : it also made a wound on his back, the head, which passed under the throat : and set fire to his clothes in its passage to similar but much wider ones were observed the iron of the seat.
on the flanks.* Another portion descended to the right The spot on which the accident occurred hand which held the lower part of the stick was elevated ground; but by no means the of the umbrella : this was attracted by the summit of the surrounding country : on the sleeve-button, where it made a wound, contrary, there were many higher hills in passed down the arm, (which it disco- the neighbourhood, and the road was so loured, and broke the skin off in two small much hollowed oui, that the banks must places,) to a gold pencil-case in the right have been nearly equal to the height of waistcoat pocket. The great coat which the carriage. he wore was very thick ; this was torn to In a field to the right, within a few yards pinces, and the coat immediately above the of the hedge, and exactly opposite to where waistcoat pocket much rent : but the waist the shock took place, was a very high pearcoat itself was merely perforated in two tree, which bore no trace of injury. The places, where the Auid approached the statement concludes with a few collateral pencil case, and where it receded from it: facts. The landlord of the inn at Tenbury at this part it set fire to his trowsers and was sitting in his parlour talking to another drawers; and inflicted a deep wound person, when he saw the flash of lightning round his back, (the whole of which was that must have caused the accident; he literally flayed,) in its passage to the iron observed to his companion, that he had of the seat. It is worthy of notice, that never before seen so singular a flash, as it when the fluid arrived at the pencil-case, it appeared to divide into four parts when it had accumulated so much intensity, as to came within about thirty yards of the earth. melt one end thereof, and displace a cor From this circumstance, and the traces of nelian seal at the other extremity : and it the different strokes being so distinct, Mr. may also be remarked, that a very striking Boddington considers that they were not difference was observable in the wounds of struck by a single discharge of electric Mr. and Mrs. Boddington : her's were matter, but were enveloped in a mass of fractures of the flesh; and his, on the con electricity. The fluid appears to have pertrary, whether deep or shallow, were all vaded the atmosphere, as many things were burns, and had a white and blistered ap- magnetized that were not in the line of any pearance.
of the tracks that could be traced. Parts of After passing over Mr. and Mrs. Bod- Mr. Boddington's watch were highly magdington in the manner above described, the netized, especially the balance-wheel : this whole shock was collected in the iron that was shown to Mr. Faraday when at Oxford, formed the back of the barouche seat : the who set it afloat on a cork, and found the leather attached to it was torn off; the iron poles so well defined, that Mr. Boddington broken in two, immediately opposite the has since had it mounted as a compass. spring; and the ends of the fractured parts Mr. Boddington in conclusion regrets bent forward, so as nearly to touch it. By that more minute researches were not made this conveyance it is supposed the electric fluid diffused itself over the whole of the
It appears that the fluid passed through the
brain, and along the spine; and thus the death of under-carriage, and passed to the earth by the animal may be accounted for.
at the time, as to these facts; but states another flesh of beasts, another of fishes, and that whoever has watched over the sick bed another of birds." For there we have, in the of a beloved son, with but faint hopes of order of being, the beasts which were this day kis recovery, will not be surprised that phi- created, ranked next unto man, who is the losophical investigations were all absorbed head of the creation; and, indeed, the shade in the deeper interest of the affections. of difference between the structure of certain
of these animals, which approach nearest to the corporeal frame of man, is only perceptible to a nice examiner.
The power of extracting heat from the (Second Series.)
atmosphere is an attribute of a hot-blooded We have at length arrived at the morning animal, such as this day received being : of the last day occupied by Elohim in the for this power, by which the whole animal creation of the universe, and find it noted: frame, and especially the vital parts thereof, “And God said, Let the earth bring forth maintain a temperament higher than the the living creature after his kind, cattle, and surrounding air, is essential to the being of creeping thing, and beast of the earth, after these animals; and whenever this power behis kind : and it was so. And God made comes extinct, the animal dies. The extracthe beast of the earth after his kind, and tion of heat from the atmosphere takes place cattle after their kind, and every thing that in the act of breathing; atmospheric air, creepeth upon the earth after his kind : and which contains latent heat, is inhaled; and God saw that it was good. And to every in the high temperature of the lungs, this beast of the earth, and to every fowl of the latent heat is suddenly rendered active; and air, and to every thing that creepeth upon the incessant repetitions of the act of breaththe earth, wherein there is life, God said, ing, supplies the heat in perpetuity, so as to I have given every green herb for meat : keep up the temperament from day to day. and it was so.” Or, as it may be rendered, The act of breathing, while it is incessant, Elohim commanded, Let the earth become is involuntary, and even unconscious. The prolific, bearing life, the creatures of mo- act of breathing, in an animal not amphition, according to their varieties : cattle and bious, is incessant; hence the exclamation, prone animals, and the beasts of the earth, “Man, whose breath is in his nostrils... according to their varieties. And it was For in its passage to and from the lungs, established. Elohim formed the beasts of the breath is perpetually passing through the earth according to their varieties; the the mouth or nostrils, and of course, alcattle according to their kind, and every though it is not stationary, it is always there ; crealure prone upon the earth according to yet there fleeting, as is his passage through his variety And Elohim surveyed the time. The act of breathing is involuntary. whole, and behold it was beautifully per. The breath does not depend upon incessant fect. And to every animal of the terrene, recurrences to acts of will, in the animal to every winged of the ethereal, and to breathing. Happy is it for the creature that every creature prone upon the earth pos- this is not the case : for the whole attention sessing life, Elohim pronounced, I have of the animal would be completely engiven even every green herb: to them it is grossed, did every act of breathing depend sustenance. And it was established.
upon a distinct act of the will, during its In this last day of creation, we behold, waking hours; and during the hours of rest, as we have during every preceding day, a such incessant acts of will would banish steady progression in the great work, and sleep. If we attempt, indeed, to amend also a forward movement, as to the dignity the breathing by recurring to acts of will, of the subjects formed. We have before our efforts are abortive; for we soon disus, in the former part of this day's work, cover that we breathe more freely in the the last link in the chain of creation, which natural way, than by our artificial mode. connects man with the clods of the earth ; Breathing is, also, an unconscious act. and in the latter part thereof, we shall be- Unless we turn our attention to the subject, hold man, himself, the very last link in that we do not perceive the several acts; but chain, connecting matter and spirit; and in the process of breathing continues as rethis spirit we behold the bond of union gularly as if we directed the whole. Thus between the created atoms, and the un- are the whole of the animal, as well as created, eternal Elohim. The dignity of mental, powers in man, left perfectly unenthe animals, called on this day into exist- cumbered and undistracted, to the free ence, is obvious, from the written word, exercise of whatever functions or duties the which declares : « All flesh is not the same wants or the pleasure of the animal require. flesh; but there is one kind of flesh of men, What wisdom, what power, what perfection in the Creator, is here displayed I Had down to the squirrel, and even to the fieldthe act of breathing depended upon the mouse, seem to be included here : supwill of the animal, and had the circulation of posing the next class, the cattle, to consist the blood, consequent thereon, been other- only of animals domesticated by man. If wise than serenely regular, what annoyance to the fluids teemed with life, the earth, bethe feelings, what disturbance to the whole come prolific, bears life also in abundance. animal system, and perturbation of the Here the majestic lion, the tiger arrayed in whole mental faculties, would have occu. grandeur, and with beauty,the leopard tribes, pied and harassed the animal throughout in all the varieties of fur, even to the cat of ihe unenviable period of its existence ! the woods, range at large and in numerous
Perhaps the breathing of an animal may districts possess the earth : while the bear, the be thus defined : Cold air is suddenly in- wolf, the hyena, the jackal, the fox, and a troduced into the cavity of elastic lungs, host of others, independent of man, are, where the temperature is higher than the “like the wild ass, used to the wilderness, atmosphere; this cold air is as suddenly rare- that snuffeth up the wind at her pleasure, fied, and, of course, expanded : but the and in her occasion who can turn her cavity being already full of air, this expan- away?” The teeth, the tongues, the vitals, sion acts upon the elasticity of the lungs, the blood, the juices, the arteries, the veins, and contracts their volume. The reaction the sinews, the bones, the skin, the hair, of the elastic lungs expels the air ; but as the nails, and all their several members, the air, thus acted upon, escapes freely included in the head, the neck, the body, through the mouth or nostrils, the lungs, by the feet, and tail, are so curious, so admithe force of the spring of contraction, ex- rably adapted to their several uses, and so pand beyond the natural volume; and then fitly joined each to each, that infinite wisa second re-action of the lungs leaves a dom here shines equally conspicuous in all cavity for, and inhales air from, the atmo- the parts of these multịfarious animals as it sphere, to fill up the vacuity: this air, in does in the whole. On this class, which its turn, is rarefied and expelled; and thus includes the whole of the wild animals, in succession may the acts of breathing in volumes have been written in every age; a hot-blooded animal perpetuate its breath. we are, therefore, in possession of the The reverse of all these may perpetuate this recorded wisdom and experience of all the in a cold-blooded animal.
ages of the world upon this interesting “ Elohim formed the beasts of the earth subject, amounting to a mass of informaaccording to their varieties, the cattle ac- tion, which it is impossible to epitomize cording to their kind, and every creature into the narrow limits of these essays. prone upon the earth according to his Whoso runneth, may read ; and while he variety. The Great Creator here notes reads, may he adore the Creator ! three distinct classes of animals; each of The second class of animals on this day which, in the order in which they stand, de- created are the cattle. Of these we note a mands our attention. As the amphibious, rich variety, from the huge ox to the aqueous, and airy animals, were created for pigmy antelope, whose lowing and whose the air and waters—to swim and fly-so bleating are familiar to our ears. Every are the animals on this day called forth by nation and every clime has its variety of the Omnific Word intended to stock the this class of animals, domesticated for the land—to run, walk, and creep, upon, or uses of man and for his pleasure, whose near, the earth's surface. Rich are the habits are restrained by culture, and discivarieties of these, equally with those created plined to subserve his purposes, to which on the preceding day ; unwearied by pre- their docility bows, and to which their vious labours, vast as they were, creation is strength is turned, ministering to him from not cut short, much less abandoned; for on day to day. For man to have been alone this eventful day, the superiority of the work would not have been well, therefore manrises as transcendently over the former day's kind are each to each social and fraternal ; work as any one of these do over the other: but for man to have been alone, excepting so true it is, that “ Jehovah, which made only his brother man, would not have been heaven and earth, neither slumbereth nor good, for where all are equal, an object is sleepeth.”
wanting whereto to bow the mind. But The first class of animals here enu- the inferior animals, ministering to his merated are the beasts of the earth. The wants, returning his caresses, learning wiselephant and rhinoceros of the land, in the dom at his voice, and obeying the intima. vast, may rank with the whale and the hip- tions of his will, while they bow the man, popotamus of the waters; and quadrupeds they lead him up to his munificent Head, of every grade, from these to the lion, and who hath thus given him. life, and all things. In volumes of natural history, last-no one day in this respect differed and in the journals of travellers, we read from another ; indeed, how could it posdescriptions of wild animals, and are sibly be otherwise ? The great Creator treated with anecdotes illustrative of their was, is, and for ever will be, holy, just, and manners, but the domestic animals are a good, and therefore good alone can propart of the volume of creation, spread wide ceed from Him. It is in Infinite Wisdom open before us from day to day, wherein to conceive good, and it is equally in Infiwe cannot but read, whether we will learn nite Power to execute the good when it was or not, to acknowledge the hand that feeds once determined-the will and the work us and them. This class of animals are, are one. What a lesson are those daily in several instances, endowed with the surveys made by the Creator, of all that was powers of rumination, whereby the food, done in the day, to man! when imperfectly masticated, is returned “And to every animal of the terrene, to into the palate and rechewed, which we every winged of the ethereal, and to every term, chewing the cud; horns also and creature prone upon the earth, possessing hoofs crown many of their heads, and life, Elohim pronounced, I have given even defend their feet; while a familiarity of every green herb: to them it is sustenance.” manner, aloof from the fears betrayed by The bodies of all these animals were comwild animals on the approach of man, ren- posed of earth, and their fluids of water, ders them rather associates with, than foes, united to gas, whole being tempered even to the tender branches of his house- with caloric; and the director implanted hold.
in each, is the most subtile principle The third class of beings on this day of which matter is capable, namely, incalled forth, are the creatures prone upon stinct. This principle directs the animal, the earth. The whole of that beautiful, hut, and when hungry it eats, when thirsty it to man, hateful tribe of animals, denomi- drinks, when weary it sleeps, when blithenated serpents, which, by the undulations some it frolics, and when deprived, agof their 'Alexible bodies glide over the grieved, or afflicted, it moans. A creature earth's surface, and hiss away their ene- that moves, digests, and evacuates, conmies, belong to this class. Some of these sumes its substance, and must, therefore, are of the most enormous size, while others, feed, or be fed. The vegetable finds its even deadly vipers, are not larger than a own food within the scope of its location,
The earth-worms, also, and of and if within these limits it cannot secrete worms varieties abundant, class here, toge. enough of genial matter to sustain its ther with insects having feet, all but innu. waste, and maintain its substance, it must merable. It is to these that the inspired languish, decay, and die : but the animal, volume, minute as they are, sends man to being a locomotive being, can roam at receive a lesson on diligence and foresight; will, and if a small district does not afford when it says, “Go to the ant, thou slug- him genial supplies, he lays a larger under gard; consider her ways, and be wise : contribution. To instinct, the senses are which, having no guide, overseer, or ruler, subservient; the animal sees, smells, provideth her meat in the summer, and touches and tastes, and whatever offends gathereth her food in the harvest.” We be- his senses, unless sore pressed with hunger, hold the labours of these indefatigable he rejects. Thus the animal which must insects, which swarm around their ant hill, seek his food, and is endowed with a will at once their store-house and their home, to choose it, is provided with organs suited with astonishment at the evident vigour of to his wants; while the vegetable, which is their bodies, and the no less conspicuous fed by the genial matter which surrounds instinct, which, in their judicious and me- it, provides for itself by its own affinities thodical labours, carries them up to that the one feeds, the other is fed; but both point in the chain of being, which so nearly are furnished with the requisites of life, and approaches mind. Here, as heretofore, live. How beautifully diversified, how rich even to enumerate would overcharge our in life, is creation ! paper; such is the abundance, for we can- The declaration here made on the gift of not say redundance, seeing nothing is cre- every green herb to the animals on this day ated in vain, which every where presents it- created, namely. “To them it is susteself in the creation of God.
nance," must be attended to in its course. “And Elohim surveyed the whole, and, This was the day of creation, the day of behold, it was beautifully perfect :” All primeval purity, of innocence and peace, were pronounced to be perfect, rich, and and I doubt not, the food then assigned to good, on the day in which they were seve. the animals was adapted to their wants, rally created, from the first survey to the genial to their frame, and calculated, under 2D. SERIES, NO. 23.-Vol. II.