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emaciated wife, as I gently alluded to her the world. If you spend an evening with altered situation ; her only reply was, “O her,you must dispense with all solid and im. sir, my poor husband has fallen into bad proving topics, and be entertained with an hands; but even situated as I am, we account of the latest fashions received from could do very well, for my father assists me France, and of all the courtships, broken a little, and I have learned to have but few engagements, intended marriages, and runwants, if my dear S—could only be away matches, in the town or neighbourprevailed upon to give up his unsteady hood. If you can dwell on these subjects habits. Sometimes, sir, he will keep from with delight and loquacity, you are a welstrong drink a whole day, but then one and come visiter; but if you are so awkward another of his miserable associates come and unfashionable as to be dull on these and draw him away, and it appears as if interesting and sprightly subjects, you are he became worse for his short abstinence." an unwelcome guest, and the sound of the

I parted from this deeply afflicted woman clock striking ten is music, because it anwith a broken heart, and for several months nounces the hour of separation. I heard nothing of her, or her unfortunate If a gentleman can play cards well, and partner, till a few weeks since, on taking carry himself genteelly in all polite comup a newspaper, I saw that in died pany; if he attend the theatre iwo or three suddenly aged twenty-nine. I im- times a week, has a large share of gallantry, mediately wrote to a friend to inquire into can talk nonsense with the ladies, flatter the particulars of his death, and was slyly and smoothly, and has a superficial informed that he dropped down in a grog- knowledge of history, politics, &c., he is shop, and was carried home dead to his esteemed a valuable acquaintance, though miserable and afflicted wife. Such are the he cannot solve a single problem in Euclid, effects produced by the introduction of dis- account for a solitary phenomenon in nature tilleries into the villages of our country; upon philosophical principles, tell on which and the use of ardent spirits, even in small of the planets he dwells, or the distance, quantities. They demoralize the inhabit. magnitude, or revolutions of any of the ants ; carry sin, poverty, and distress, into heavenly bodies. Or he may be able to the bosom of domestic happiness. War tell you the continent on which he lives, has slain its thousands, but rum its tens of have intelligence enough to know what thousands. War kills the body, but rum straits separate Ainerica from Asia, what both body and soul.

isthmus connects Asia with Europe, which is the most southerly cape and the most north

erly island in the world. But mathematics THE STANDARD OF RESPECTABILITY.

and metaphysics are things about which he

never troubles his head. Like the poor and Among the fashionable part of society, wealth ignorant country girl, he thinks he “has got and accomplishments are the standard of larnin enough.” Or he may be able to read respectability. For the want of these, persons and converse in different languages, and be will refuse acquaintance with those who are acquainted with all the celebrated authors really noble and virtuous; and with them, in each of them ;-he may have travelled they will receive into their friendship per- from the Cape of Good Hope, to Nova sons wholly destitute of either goodness or Zembla, and from Cape Horn to mount greatness.

Elias and the isle of God's mercy, and have If a lady can dance gracefully, paint circumnavigated the globe ;-he may have elegantly, play well on the piano-forte, a thorough knowledge of all the sciences, dress fashionably, talk fluently a whole be a good mathematician and sound philo. evening about nothing, and appear wealthy, sopher, and at the same time not have one she is a valuable and respectable person : principle of virtue in his heart-be none though she may be proud, envious, pas

ioo good to oppress

the

poor, take the name sionate, self-willed, contemptuous, and fret- of God in vain, get exasperated at trifles, ful—though she cannot put the plainest fight a duel : still he is a gentleman, and a garment together, tell the latitude of the very respectable one too. place in which she lives, or in what Now, no people have more vanity and zone, or even what continent, she resides. self-importance than these. They imagine She can mention the titles and authors of they are worthy persons, and really merit twenty novels; but if you ask her opinion all the preference they enjoy. They look concerning any of the celebrated poets and down upon virtuous labouring people with historians of the day, she is utterly at a loss, a glance of pity and disdain, while at the and is obliged to confess that she did not so same time many of those they despise pity much as know there were such authors in them for their blindness and inconsistency,

and that too with a far more rational com. “ Thou art in error, brook. Puny and miseration.

insignificant thou mayest be; useless thou If angels witness scenes on earth, what art not, for I owe half my beauty, perhaps what must they think of rational and ac- my life, to thy refreshing waters. The plants countable beings, who know neither them- adjacent to thee are greener and richer than selves, their Creator, nor his works of creation, others. The Creator has given thee a duty, providence, or redemption; who understand which, though humble, thou must not neither their own origin nor end; who neglect. Besides, who knows what may be spend their short lives over the trifles of thy future destiny? Flow on, I beseech thee." earth, and use their tongues, which were given The brook heard the rebuke, and danced them to speak the wonderful works of God, along its way more cheerfully. On and on in idle and useless conversation. The it went, growing broader and broader. By noble faculties of the mind, they neither and by, other rivulets poured their crystal understand, value, nor improve; or if they waters into it, and swelled its deepening improve them, it is but to dignify error, to bosom, in which already began to appear adorn vice, and to add power to their evil the fairy creatures of the wave, darting influence. They make the earth, which about joyfully, and glistening in the sun. was designed as a temporary abode, their As its channel grew wider and wider, and permanent home, forget they must die, and yet other branches came gliding into it, the disbelieve the realities of eternity. In short, stream began to assume the importance of they are wholly turned aside, entirely dis- a river, and boats were launched on it, and ordered, valuing things that are worthless, it rolled on in a meandering course through and despising things that are worthy of a teeming country, freshening whatever it their pursuit. I say, if angels see all this, touched, and giving to the whole scene a what opinions must they form of them ? new character of beauty, But whether they do or do not see them, we As it moved on now in majesty and know that the all-seeing God beholds all pride, the sound of its gently-heaving billows the creatures he has made. How, then, formed itself into the following words: must they appear in His holy sight! How “At the outset of life, however humble must he despise the popular opinions of we may seem, fate may have in store for the world! How must the Author of all us many and unexpected opportunities of intelligence view the conceited worms of doing good, and of being great. In the earth, who know nothing aright, and yet boast hope of this, we should ever

pass on withof great and extensive knowledge, as if no out despair or doubt, trusting that persevebeings existed superior to themselves, and rance will bring in its own reward. How even forget “Him in whom they live, and little I dreamed, when I first sprang on my move, and have their being."— New York course, what purpose I was destined to Christian Advocate.

fulfil! what happy beings were to owe

their bliss to me! what lofty trees, what HUMILITY AND PERSEVERANCE-A FABLE. velvet meadows, what golden harvests, were FROM the side of a mountain there flowed to hail my career! Let not the meek and forth a little rivulet—its voice was scarcely lowly despair; heaven will supply them heard amid the rustling of the leaves and

with noble inducements to virtue." grass around; its shallow and narrow stream might be overlooked by the traveller. This stream, although so small, was inspired with a proud spirit, and murmured against the When we cast our eyes around, and behold decree of Providence, which had cast its lot the beauties that every where present them. so lowly.

selves to our notice, we are lost in admiI wish I were a cloud, to roll all day ration and wonder. The stability of the through the heavens, painted so beautifully, mineral kingdom; the beauty, fragrance, as those lovely shapes are coloured, and and general utility, of the vegetable; and never descending again in showers : or, at the nice lineaments of feeling and motion, least, I wish I were a broad river, perform- together with the sweet choir of the feathered ing some useful duty in the world.

race, that are discoverable in the animal ; “ Shame on my weak waves and unre- claim the attention of the philosopher, and garded babbling. I might as well have never the general observer of nature. The lowest been, as to be thus puny, insignificant, and link in the great chain is of vast utility. useless."

The surface of our globe possesses many When the brook thus complained, a attractions, to arrest the senses of sight, beautiful flower, that bent over its bosom, smell, taste, or hearing; it is the productive replied,

source of all that can charm, delight, or 20. SERIES, NO. 22.-VOL. II,

3 N

166.-VOL. XIV.

PHENOMENA OF THE WORLD.

animate the mind. It is from this source the same effect, and from what source the that the eye is gratified with the view of beauties that arrest our attention in this the surrounding landscape : from it is de- department of nature are derived. To what rived the ever-pleasing verdure of immortal is the British female indebted for one of the green, variegated with the stately oak, the most beautiful articles of clothing ? The lofty poplar, the spreading beech, the so labours of an insect which derives all its lemn cyprus, and a variety of other trees. nourishment from the vegetable world. The mineral domain here renders its assist- And when in the early morn we bend our ance, through the medium of the ingenuity steps to the sequestered grove, and our ears and industry of man, and breaks the ver. are saluted by the music of the feathered dant landscape with the spire of the village choir; from what source do we derive this church, and with here and there a rustic gratification of our faculty of hearing ? dwelling interspersed among the foliage. From one of the most delightful classes of Nor is the eye only delighted with behold. animated nature; which in its turn is priing such a scene the ear also is gratified marily indebted for its support to the vegeby the merry peal of evening bells, wafted table kingdom; and which exhibits to our on the bosoms of the mild and gentle view the most glowing colours that adorn zephyrs; and, while listening to their pleas- the plumage of individuals. It is to the ing music, we shall be ready to say with animal kingdom that we are indebted for our poet,

the swiftness and strength of the horse, the “ Ever charming, ever new,

sagacity and fidelity of the dog, the valuWhen will the landscape tire the view." able class of cattle used both as beasts of But we will now leave the contem- burden, and for the purpose of supplying plation of the landscape, and see what mankind with food, and a variety of other gratifications the pasture will afford us. animals that are of the greatest utility to Here our sight is again arrested by the man, but which the extent of the present great variety of hues that surround us on article will not allow us to mention. every side, from the gaudy tulip to the We may here notice as we pass, that the humble violet : nor is the sense of smell distinguishing character between the vegeless attracted; the fragrance of the full- table and animal kingdoms consists in the blown rose, the sweetness of the jessamine, power of locomotion, or the means of the peculiar and delightful odour of the removing from place to place, combined clematis, with an infinite variety of other with the beautiful and delicate sensations of scents, have a tendency to gratify our olfac- feeling, taste, smell, hearing, and sight, tory nerves in a most exquisite manner. which are observable in the latter. And, And shall we ask—whence are all these while the vegetable draws its nourishment hues, from what is all this fragrance de- from the soil in which circumstances have rived? A careful observation of the growth placed it, the animal, with the exception and culture of these plants will inforın us, of some in the higher classes, selects from that it is from the soil in which they grow, the vegetable kingdom those portions that and in proportion to the richness of the are best suited to support its nourishment, surface of the earth, the colours of the growth, and strength; the exceptions, just flowers are more beautiful, and their odours noticed, feeding on the smaller kinds of more fragrant.

animals. Here our attention cannot fail of If we visit the orchard; in addition to the being arrested by the order, beauty, and delights already enumerated, the mellow- utility of the great chain of nature, and the ness of the apple, the juiciness of the pear, nice gradations by which each link is conthe lusciousness of the grape, and the deli- nected with both those above and those cious flavour of the nectarine, with the great below it. The mineral domain, including variety of fruits that are the produce of the earth, contributes to the existence and bounteous hand of nature, tend to gratify beauty of the vegetable; this again is the the sense of taste. And are these derived principal support of the animal; and both from the

already mentioned ? contribute, by the decay of the bodies of Doubtless, they are the end for which the their respective individuals, after fulfilling trees that produce them had existence, and the end of their existence, to recruit those obtain nourishment from the surrounding portions of the soil that have been expended earth.

in supporting them. We have thus briefly noticed the manner Each kingdom of nature possesses disin which the vegetable kingdom contributes tinguishing characteristics peculiar to itself; to the gratification of our senses; let us this induced one of our most celebrated now endeavour to ascertain in what manner naturalists to observe, that “ stones grow; the animal world is capable of producing vegetables grow and live ; animals grow,

source

ensues,

live, and feel.” As we pass on, we may of a geranium be detached, and placed in notice these distinguishing marks : and the a phial of water, kept near a window for first that we observe in this description, is, the benefit of the light; by carefully watchthe mineral kingdom. Here we beholding it for some days, it will be seen that at motion in its lowest degree ; for, unless the the foot of each leaf below the surface of particles of the increasing substance be in the water, small white bodies are promotion, there can be no addition to its truded, which ultimately are found to be bulk. The distinguishing feature between the radicals above spoken of; and new the mineral and vegetable worlds is, the leaves are observed to be produced on the vital principle. If we break a stone, the upper part of the branch. aggregate suffers nó diminution of bulk Hitherto we have briefly contemplated from the fracture, nor are any of the pro- the gratification which the mineral, vegeperties of the mineral destroyed ; but if we getable, and animal kingdoms are capable break a vegetable, the portion that is sepa- of affording us ; and the peculiar features rated from the root, and deprived of the which distinguish each kingdom. It will, benefit of the circulating Auids, soon loses however, require but a cursory glance at its freshness and beauty, the sap is gradu- the innumerable products of nature, to conally exhausted, the branch withers, and, vince us, that there are substances existing finally, the state which is termed death which cannot be arranged in either of the

above divisions. Among these, we find the The distinguishing feature between the interesting class of gases; and, although vegetable and animal domains consists in the gaseous elements are never presented sensation. When we separate a branch to our notice in an uncombined state, but from a vegetable, it betrays no symptoms are obtained by various chemical processes, of feeling; but if we detach a limb from an yet they are so extensively diffused through animal, the individual expresses, by certain nature, and enter into so many combinasounds, and various motions of its body, tions with other substances, that we may that it feels considerable pain. Hence, we pronounce them the most useful of all. may notice an essential difference between To them we are indebted for the air we the separation of a branch from a vegetable, breathe, and the refreshing draught from and the removal of a limb from an animal the crystal fountain, with which we quench of the higher classes. In the former in- our thirst. The world of waters, too, is stance, if the detached branch be placed in produced by their combination !- and what the earth, the orifices of its sap-vessels will, a magnificent and varied scene does this in many cases, absorb nourishment from the

open to our view, from the pearly dew surrounding soil, and those portions of the that is gently deposited on the exhausted stem situated beneath the surface, to which herbage during the tranquil hours of the the leaves are attached, and from which, night, when the moon walks in brightness, had it not been separated from its parent, and a thousand suns irradiate the vast fresh branches would have sprung, will expanse of heaven, to the mighty ocean, throw out radicella or rootlets; while the which forms a communication between the corresponding portions above the surface most distant lands, and supports within its will produce branches, and thus the sepa- extensive bosom the various finny tribes. rated branch will become a perfect plant.

Between these extremes, how numerous But not so with the limb of an animal, are the links that unite them! Sometimes, when separated from the body: place it instead of the pellucid dew.drop, we obin whatever situation we please, it still serve the gentle showers descending on the resembles the branch of a vegetable de- plain, and irrigating the smiling pastures. tached from its root, and cast forth to At others, we are astounded with the roarwither and to die; deprived of the circu- ing tempest; the rain descends in torrents ; lation of the vital fluid from the heart, it po the wind whistles fearfully among the trees longer derives nourishment therefrom ; its of the forest ; and the loud, tremendous nerves separated, and their communication claps of thunder, together with the vivid with the sensorium broken, the nice sensa- glare of the forked lightning, strikes us with tion of feeling is no more discoverable ; it terror and amazement. But if our minds is consequently resigned to the chemical are agitated with the awful grandeur of the action of the substances by which it is sur- storm—the purling brook, meandering rounded, and reduced to a mass of putrid among the meadows, its softest murmurs and offensive matter.

striking on the ear, and its glassy surface The case of the branch becoming a per- reflecting the sylvan beauties around, tend fect plant, may be beautifully illustrated to restore unto them tranquillity, and hush in the following manner.

Let the branch them to repose.

Not only is the glittering drop of early waters, we observe here and there a student; dew, beautiful to the eye, and of consider- fit situation for the mild retreats of learn. able utility in nourishing the vegetable cre- ing, where, retired from the busy scenes of ation; the irrigating shower, of immense the world, the philosopher may search into importance in bringing to maturity the ten- the vast operations of nature, and view with der herb; the appalling tempest, exceed- admiration and wonder the mighty proingly beneficial in restoring the equilibrium cesses that are continually going forward in of the atmosphere, so necessary to animal her immense arcana. and vegetable existence; and the meander- As we proceed onwards with the coning rivulet, extremely beneficial in supplying tinuous stream, we are entertained with the with moisture the enamelled pastures which gambols of the scaly tribes, as they sport in contribute to the growth of the useful class the pellucid medium in which they live; of cattle designed as food for man; but even and as we behold the villas on each side the stagnant pool is capable of affording become more numerous, and the grounds amusement and instruction to the attentive about them more tastefully laid out, the observer of nature. It is in these reservoirs boundaries of the stream also considerably that we behold the insignificant mona, the increased, and the various conveyances on lowest link in the great chain of animal life, its bosom, both for pleasure and traffic, a mere inflated bladder, floating among augmented; we are led to conclude that we myriads of animalculæ, some of which are are approaching an immense city, and soon of the most complicated forms. Here also its various buildings present themselves to we become acquainted with the polypi, the our notice; the stream swells to a magnifi. connecting link between the animal and cent extent, and as well as the small vegetable kingdoms, and which possesses wherries and barges which before met our properties peculiar to each ; and here our view, we now behold the swift-sailing eyes may be gratified for hours in watching vessel, and the more rapid steamer, the the varied movements of the various tribes, stately merchant-man, and the stupendous the gradations by which they rise one above East-Indiaman floating on its silver bosom. another, and the voracity with which the Here are ships from every nation, and the larger devour the smaller species, and this produce of every clime are by their means too in the small space of a single drop. brought to our shores. How various are How overwhelming is this consideration the reflections which this prospect suggests What vast extents of animal existence does to the mind; but to indulge them at prethis open to the imagination; for if myriads sent, would swell this paper to too great a of these minute beings exist in a single length. drop of water, how numerous must be the If we take our stand on an eminence, individuals that inhabit the immense num- how grand, how magnificent the scene beber of reservoirs that may be found in the fore us: in the distance we observe the world!

splendid city with a thousand spires; The view of a magnificent river is calcu- around us we notice the variegated landlated to afford us considerable gratifica- scape interspersed with bill and dale, and tion. If we trace it from its source, how the mighty river rolling in magnificent various are the beauties we successively splendour at our feet. Upon its wide. behold! At one period, the sylvan glories spread bosom, the flags of every nation are around us attract attention ; at another, we displayed, while the continual inotion of are conducted by its ever-rolling waters the vessels that glide along its silvery sur. through a busy town, and are animated face, adds considerably to the beauty of the with the bustling scene presented to our appearance. If the river is thus grand, notice. On the banks we perceive the how superb must be the ocean, that vast active tradesman attending to the busy con- reservoir of waters, that liquid world, in cerns of the day, and every one who is which the immense whale sports with passing appears to be intent on the busi- amazing facility, and ness in which he happens to be engaged.

“Where the dim ships like shadows ride," On the smooth and tranquil surface are seen the vehicles that have conveyed from when illumined by the faint twinkling of distant cities various articles of merchan- the starry host. How smooth and tranquil dise, and this circumstance may lead us to is the vast surface, when nought terminates contemplate the great utility of the flowing the view, but the mingling elements of air stream. Having passed the town, our

and water ! how beautiful the appearance, attention is arrested by the stately buildings

when the shades of darkness are chased we behold on its banks; and wandering away, and the glorious orb of day rises as among the groves which skirt its peaceful an immense reservoir of radiancy from its

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