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are such as permit no electrical action with- intensity of restoration is inversely, cæteris in their substance, and are as perfect, whe- paribus, as the cubes of the distance of the ther hollow, solid, or superficial. They surfaces or centres. conduct heat, or any excitement of motion 15. That hemispheric action and reat their surfaces, with greater facility than action, in all electrical excitements, illustrate oxygen separates from hydrogen, and there, the entire phenomena of distant inductions, fore do not admit the excitement, or ele- which are mere comprehended and included mentary disturbance, which takes place in effects of the position of electrics and nonelectrics, or bodies with inferior powers of electrics within two excited hemispheres. conducting excitements of motion from sur- Hence all those assumed mysteries about face to surface. Therefore they concentrate electrical and magnetic action passing or display the electrical action of adjoining through solids, &c. for these are merely electrics on their surfaces laterally, abstract within a sphere of action from a centre, its radiation in electrics, bound it, and limit and re-action from a distant superficies. the expansion, thereby adding force or con- If they are electrics, the forces pass through centration to the action. They are “conduc- them; if obstructors or “conductors,” the tors” simply because they receive and ab- forces are concentrated and distributed on sorb none of the excitement.
their surfaces; or if imperfectly of either 13. That in all experiments effecting class, or partly one and partly the other, definite results, the action of the hemispheres secondary complications of phenomena is thus bounded by superficial conductors, arise, which the slightest exertion of reason or plates of metal, so that by joining the may fully explain. An insulated conductor axes of two hemispheres by a conductor, whose surface is affected, may be removed the disturbance is neutralized. This is com- from its hemisphere after excitement; but monly effected by wires or discharging rods, if so, it simultaneously creates its own new the ends of which are called the poles, and and distinct sphere of contrary action, and the restoration of two disturbed hemispheres it can be neutralized only by joining the at concentrated points, by wires, rods, or distant sphere, in the manner of poles, by the hand, produces the report, flash, beat, some direct or indirect communication. and great mechanical or chemical action, 16. The phenomena of "attraction and incident to the circumstances in all va- repulsion," like all others of the same kind, rieties; and it is then only that the effects arise from competent proximate causes, and become visible, and till then the excitement not from any principle of appetite or averexists only in silent, unobserved hemispheres, sion, as was taught in ages when reason or hemispheres lengthened into cylinders, yielded to superstition, in regard to this with degrees of action fining off from the and other sciences. All electrical action is centre or conducting wire.
within electrics, as within air, glass, &c. &c. 14. That when both excitements travel but no electric is perfect as such, and no on a wire, or coated tube, uniting the poles conductor or obstructor is perfect as such, of the excitement or sphere of a central most bodies being partly one and partly the electric, the uniting wire itself propagates other. Electricity is the atomic disturbance two hemispheres in its line of direction as of a sphere within the strata of electrics, the excitement proceeds, or at the instant and the two sides or surfaces of these elecalong the whole wire: for the velocity is trics seek re-union with force. Air, the immeasurably rapid, because it is the chief electric, being a fluid, therefore, and union of hemispheric re-actions within the in a state of electrical excitement, the two hemispheres themselves, and one is as sides of its volume or stratum, bounded by worthy as the other, while every part con- conductors, seek equilibrium with force; curs in the result; and the hemispheres so that if this force, from surface to surface, themselves also move along the wire, col- is greater than the force required to move lapsing, in the whole length, at the instant a light body through the stratum, the light of the junction of the two centres in what body is moved by that force from surface to are called the poles. That as the hemispheres surface; because at either surface it acquires of the excited or primary electric, as glass, the electrical state of that surface, and being are limited to the thickness of the glass, light is then carried to the other surface by they are more concentrated and intense the assimilating forces of both the surfaces. than diffused hemispheres of air. Therefore 17. That certain mystifications about if their excitement is obstructed, and ren- aerial electricity have arisen from the misdered continuous by a metal coating, the taken forms of prime conductors, the roundrestoration is more intense than of a stratum ed form being adopted before correllative of air. Excitement and spheres (ultimately hemispheral action was understood. In fact, hemispheres) are simultaneous, and the every electrical charge is that of a plate of
air, plate of glass, plate of Auid in cells, the action proceeds in the contrary direction &c. &c. and the agency demands facilities as long as the fluid is separable by the zinc; of radiation in proximate conducting and at the same time wires are connected plates. If, therefore, a prime conductor with each plate, and the excitement trawere made of a flat board covered with versing them as the best conductors, is tin-foil or gold leaf, and above and below collapsed or neutralized at the poles. The were opposed to other covered boards, little hemisphere in the cell, is thus exconnected with chains to the ceiling and panded by the wires into hemispheres, the floor, aerial electricity would equal gal- exactly resembling those in electricity; and vanic in power, and display unexpected the hemispheres collapse in like manner at wonders at little expense.
the poles in degree, and laterally in the entire 18. That primarily electrical excitements line of the wires. are local, and secondarily are extended to 21. That as a magnet is in the direction the air, owing to its containing in diffusion of the axes of hemispheres which is indi. the very same elements that exist in the cated by its two ends, if the uniting wire local excitement in concentrated propor- of an electric current, with hemispheres right tions, Our sensible phenomena in air, and left, were passed over it, the magnet therefore, are expansions or diffusions from would be in one hemisphere of the wire, positive and negative foci, in the amalga- and the axes of both be at right angles. mated rubber and glass cylinder, or in the If, therefore, the intensity of the wire was copper and zinc, and these expansions are greatest, the magnet would vary, and its made in COEQUAL CORRELLATIVE HEMI contrary poles be directed to hemispheres SPHERES. These collapse when the central in opposite states, i. e. it would be placed action is neutralized, or when the centres at right angles to the wire. But if the wire are brought together by poles of wires issu were under the magnet, or in the other ing from them; but wherever the contrasted hemisphere of the wire, the other pole of action of the centres or wires from them the magnet would be affected by this other extend, the aerial hemispheres of air is pre- hemisphere of the wire, and the poles of sent, like their necessary shadows, and ex. the magnet would change sides as to the panded terminating powers.
electric hemispheres. The relative positions 19. That the elements which are separated of these hemispheres and the varied direcand disturbed as to their fit harmonious tion of their axes and surfaces, would neutral action in gases or fluids, or in the therefore produce all that diversity of phepores or on the surfaces of bodies, are those nomena which has been so ingeniously concerned in combustion, oxygen, hydro- detailed by Oersted, Ampere, Barlow, gen, and certain degrees of carbon. Every Faraday, Arago, De la Rive, and Davy, fact, both in excitement and restoration, and produce the tangential law deduced by proves this theory; and it is opposed only them, and all its deviations. by assumptions about fluids sui generis, 22. That as the connecting wire, or a invented by the early electricians to account helix, or spiral, or double of it, passes at for double effects in air, which they mis- the same time in opposite hemispheres of takenly considered as a simple element. the wire, or of the direct line joining it,
20. That the electricity produced by towards the poles, all those phenomena of Galvani's and Volta's mode of excitement, "attraction and repulsion” in the wires would are essentially the same as that produced be observed, which Ampere and others have by the friction of the electrics, glass and called Electro-Dynamic; and, in fact, all silk, with an amalgamated cushion. This is the apparent caprices and eccentricities of oxydated by the friction of the glass, and, the mutual actions of different currents seem so to speak, it gives out positive electricity, to be directly referrable to the rigid governwhich passes to the prime conductor, to ment or mutations of the two hemispheres wards the correlative negative plate at a by the inflexibility of their axes, and by the distance, or an hemisphere of re-action on composition or intermingling of spheres of that side, while the cushion generates a contrary or oblique power within or near negative action and positive hemisphere on each other. its side. Air is a bad conductor, and rods, 23. The theories of lateral currents, as perfect conductors, join the two sides, circular currents, &c. &c. are therefore and restore neutrality. It is exactly the altogether gratuitous, incongruous, and same in a galvanic combination, the acid unnecessary; at the same time the hemior fluid is as the glass; the oxydated zinc spheric action on each side of a restoring gives out positive electricity, the action wire, would, as the currents pass, render extends to the copper, and would return iron or steel magnetic, and would vary the through the imperfect conducting fluid; but magnetic poles on either side, owing to the
ELECTRO - WIRE
needle on one side being in one hemisphere points. The greatest action prevails in of the wire, and on the other side in its them, but it extends along the whole line opposite hemisphere. This theory, in fact, of the wires, as is proved by their intense meets every condition of the phenomena, heat during the double collapse of restowiihout any hypothesis, and it accords with ration. our constant experience in regard to hemi 27. That in all cases of restoration with spheric action and re-action, for there can white light, atoms or particles of carbon be no electricity, small or great, or in any seem to be connected, and it not unlikely form, but in spherical action in opposed that the primary charge may be an atomic hemispheres.
charge of carbon, and the gross effect may 24. That the change in the direction of be produced by an aggregation of its atoms. the magnetic needle, as it is under or over This accords with what we may imagine of the wire, is, therefore, not owing to any the construction of a magnet, the poles of circle performed or generated around the which seem to be a positive and a negative restoring wire, but is thus owing to the accumulation from end to end each way of united wires being necessarily the axis of the atoms of carbon and more decidedly two hemispheres of opposed or contrasted in carbonates of iron or steel. Hence it is power, so that as the wire is above, or is that a divided magnet has constant poles at below the needle, the contrary hemisphere the broken ends, that great heat destroys acts on the electricity of its N. and S. poles the magnetism, (just as great heat destroys or their hemispheres, and, by the assimila- the power of electrics,) that air generates it tion or the contrariety, changes their direc- in magnetic ore, that the force is as the tion; and it is the varied relations of these surface, &c. respective hemispheres to their axis in the 28. That, considering the rapid expanwire, and to the variously posited needle, sion of electrical action and of light, and which beget all the phenomena of THE their simultaneous developement by similar
elements; it seems highly probable that NEEDLE, and the resulting TANGENTIAL both are modified disturbances of plenums DIRECTION to the sphere of action in the of atoms produced by untraced differences two united and restoring wires.
of combination in the very same tools or 25. That, though we are indebted to elements. Hundreds of facts, besides the Oersted for complete proof of the identity intense combustion of charcoal in a vacuum of electrical and magnetic action, to Ampere, by positive and negative electricity, prove Barlow, and De la Rive, for the most acute that we may call positive electricity, oxygen analysis of sundry perplexing relations, and in action, seeking its equilibrium with hydroto Faraday for original transfers of magnetic gen, and both involving carbon, &c. in electricity to the galvanometer; yet mis- their progress, and hence the varied colours taken theories, incidental confusion about of sparks in their connection with various fluids sui generis, &c. &c. leave much bodies. Now these two are also the very more to be effected by them and others; conditions by which all light is generated in and no subject under a rational theory combustion, hydrogen evolved by heat in merits more diligent investigation, and connection with carbon, and oxygen compromises more renown to science.
bining and fixing at the spot. The only 26. That the power at the poles, on point of question is as to the modus opeforeign interposed bodies, is that of dis- randi. In electricity, both the oxygen and persion, from intense motion of heat, owing hydrogen seem to be in their relative state to the simultaneous collapsing of the two as volumes in velocity, but in incandeshemispheres, rendered more effective in cence the hydrogen and carbon are highly galvanism by the continuity of the action: excited by heat previously to the combinaBut since the energy is that of oxygen and tion of oxygen, which then sustains the heat. hydrogen, so these elements, in the passage 29. That in this speculation, in regard of the hemispheres, or resulting cylinders to the common origin of light and electriaround the restoring lines, decompose city, it is impossible to avoid recurrence bodies of like elementary nature, which, to the transparency of the best electrics, nor however, being unconnected with the pri- to the chemical character of the prismatic mary disturbance, are deposited at the spectrum which the author has for years poles. The decomposition of the alkalis, the proclaimed to be a mere decomposition of transference of these elements, &c. &c. the very same and other elements of the are other, among a thousand proofs, that atmosphere. False and imperfect theory electrical action is merely the separation of on this and a thousand subjects perverts the elements of oxygen and hydrogen, and both facts and men's judgments, and a dethe collapsing of extensive volumes through graded generation or two must perha:
pass away, before this and other truths are My mother planted in the garden bound
of our first home, from whence the fragrant peach understood, or allowed by pride to be re
Fell in its ripening gold, was fairer sure cognized. In regard to light, the magnify. Than this dark forest shutting out the day.” ing power of lenses have mystified many, “ What, ho! my little girl,"-and with light step and it is at present in vain to tell the world A fairy creature hasted toward her sire,
And setting down the basket that contain'd that a lensmagnisies and enlarges angles The noon's repast, look’d' upward to his face merely on the mechanical principle of the With sweet confiding smile. multiplying toy, by an infinite number of
"See, dearest, see images produced by the circular form. At Yon bright-wing'd parroquet, and hear the song
Of the gay red-bird echoing through the trees, the same time, the identification of light and
Making rich music. Did'st thou ever hear electricity will so connect the former with In far New-England such a mellow tone ?" the latter as to lead to simple mechanical "I had a robin that did take the crumbs solutions of the intricate phenomena of
Each night and morning, and his chirping voice
Did make me joyful, as I went to tend polarization, &c. If solar light is an elec- My snow-drops. I was always laughing there, trical action and re-action of these ele. In that first home. I should be happier now
Methinks, if I could find among these dells ments, and has its poles and spheres in the
The same fresh violets." atmosphere, we may in due time subject its
Slow Night drew on, definite motions to rigid analysis and induc- And round the rude hut of the emigrant, tive laws, explaining the intricacies of many Spake bitter things. His wearied children slept,
And he, with head declin'd, sat listening long 30. That although scientific generalizations To the swoln waters of the Ilinois, are often hazardous, yet we seem to be Dashing against their shores. Starting, he spake– warranted by facts, abstracted from expe- Say, was it so? Thy heart was with the halls
“ Wife !-did I see thee brush away a tear!-riments made under adverse theories, in
of thy nativity. Their sparkling lights inferring that there exists a very striking Carpets and sofas, and admiring guests, coincidence between the causes of heat, of
Befit thee better than these rugged walls
Of shapeless logs, and this lone hermit-home.” electrical and magnetic action, of light and -“ No--no-All was so still around, methought, colours, of combustion, of various vege
Upon my ear that echoed hymn did steal table and animal fermentation, and vitality; So tuneful peal’d. But tenderly thy voice
Which 'mid the church where erst we paid our vows the instruments of nature being primarily Dissolved the illusion."and the gentle smile oxygen and hydrogen, and the means their Lighting her brow,—the fond caress that sooth'd
Her waking infant, reassur'd his soul correllative actions, as displayed in elec- That wheresoe'er the pure affections dwell tricity, in subservience to other more exten
And strike a healthful root, is happiness. sive motions of their own, and to fixed rela
-Placid and grateful, to his rest he sank,
But dreams, those wild magicians, which do play tions of the actions and re-actions to other Such pranks when Reason slumbers, tireless wrought
Their will with him. Up rose the busy mart bodies. Davy's division of all bodies into
Of his own native city,--roof and spire electro-positive, and electro-negative, is All glittering bright in Fancy's frost-work ray. therefore entitled to respectful consider
Forth came remember'd forms--with curving neck
The steed his boyhood nurtur'd, proudly neighed, ation.
The favoured dog, exulting round his feet Kensington, Aug. 9, 1832. R. P. Frisk'd with shrill, joyous bark-familiar doors
Flew open-greeting hands with his were link'd
From congregated haunts, where mind with mind
Doth blend and brighten--and till morning rov'd 'Mid the lov'd scenery of his father-land.
THE WESTERN EMIGRANT.
"(A Prize Poem.)
“Boy, thou hast never seen
“Father, the brook
NAPOLEON IN EXILE.
A prisoner, and alone;
With day's last radiance shone
Had struck a tender spring;
Upon her eagle wing:
With hoarse-resounding cry,
To those of slavery.
THE ORPHAN BOY.
A tear stole down his sun-burnt cheek,
On fields of battle won,
O'er deeds of slaughter done;
Had faded one by one;
The planets dimly shone;
Till all were gone away,
They vanished in a day;
A calm, unseen, and lowly grave.
DEAR are the cries of merit in distress,
June 6th, 1832.
LINES OCCASIONED BY ATTENDING THE
EIGHTY-NINTH CONFERENCE OF THE
HELD IN LIVERPOOL, 1832.
A thousand hearts it moves,
Review.— Tour in England, Ireland, and
France, in the Years 1828 and 1829; with Remarks on the Manners and Customs of the Inhabitants, fc. By a German Prince. 4 Vols. 12mo. Effing
ham Wilson. London, 1832. THESE volumes, having been for some months before the public, whose patronage they have obtained, it will be needless to expatiate on the reputation which they have both deserved and established, They are evidently the production of an acute observer of passing occurrences, of a mind that familiarizes itself with every object worthy of notice, and is capable of inferring from a combination of incidents, the varying features which, concentrated, constitute a national characteristic.
It must not, however, be supposed, that, in all his theories and estimates, the opinion of the tourist is strictly correct. In some instances, he has presumed various customs and manners to be general, which the inhabitants know to be only local, or peculiar to the town, district, or province through which he travelled. For the momentary operation of adventitious causes, the transient traveller cannot be expect