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It has established schools for the instruction Subsequent accounts describe this colony of youth, and erected houses of public as being in a flourishing condition, and in worship, in which divine service is regularly every respect realizing the anticipations of performed. And it has a public library of its supporters. We have seen one number 1,200 volumes, and a printing-press, which of the Liberia Herald, which is an honour issues periodically a gazette.
to the colony, considering the disadvantages “The colonists follow the mechanical under which it has been printed. It menarts, or agriculture, or commerce, as their tions, among other things, that the colonists inclinations or attainments prompt them. were industrious, their buildings increasing, The land produces rice, cassada, coffee, their lands fertile, and their crops abundant. potatoes, and all kinds of garden vegetables ; and is capable of yielding sugar-cane,
NOTE FROM MR. ELLIOTT CRESSON. indigo, and, in short, all the productions of the tropics. It is rich, easily tilled, and In immediate connexion with the preceding yields iwo crops of many articles in the account, is the following note, which more circle of a year. They carry on an ad- than confirms all that has been stated in the vantageous commerce with the natives by preceding article. exchanges for ivory, gums, dye-stuffs, drugs, Elliott Cresson's best respects to the and other articles of African origin; and Editor of the Imperial Magazine, and begs with the United States, which is annually leave to commend to his favourable consiincreasing, and which amounted last year, deration, the unbound pamphlets relative to 60,000 dollars, in the produce of the to the civilization and christianizing the colony, and in objects acquired by their coast of Africa,--a cause which deeply traffic with the natives ; receiving, in return, interests the Methodist church in the such supplies of American and other United States, especially as they embrace manufactures as are best adapted to their a larger portion of our colonial population wants,
than any other sect, and thus, while that “Partaking of that general impulse which coast is providentially fatal to the white seems to have pervaded American society man, they enter upon their missionary laboth in its civil and religious aspect during bours with safety, (only two having died the last two or three years, the Colonization out of eighty-five that sailed thirteen Society has become increasingly efficient, months since,) and tens of thousands of such although it has met with opposition from (slaves,) being offered gratuitously, can be contrary points, alike from the advocates of landed here at £7.10s. each for passage,&c. emancipation, and from the friends of Elliott Cresson, visiting England as the " things as they are ” in the southern states; representative of the Colonial Society, the former maintaining that the tendency of brought with him the most affectionate the Society was to perpetuate slavery by recommendation of the cause from the ruining the free blacks,- the latter, that the Rev. George G. Cookman, late of Hull, to Society aimed directly at some project for several of his brethren here. promoting emancipation.
Those venerable servants of Africa, Wil“The occurrences of the last year, which berforce and Clarkson, have given it their indicated a considerable tendency to insur- warmest approval,--and the latter thus rection in the slave states, have produced expresses his views,~"For myself, I freely many friends to the Society in the south; confess, that of all the things which have and the satisfactory accounts of the prospe- been going on in our favour since the year rity and happiness of the negroes on their 1787, when the abolition of the slave-trade original soil, have turned other opponents was first seriously proposed, that which is into friends. Many thousand slaves in now occurring in the United States, under Kentucky, and other states, have been of- the auspices of your Society, is the most fered their freedom, without compensation important. It surpasses any thing which from any quarter, as soon as the funds of has yet occurred. No sooner had the colony the Society would admit of their being em- of Liberia been established at Cape Mesa barked for Liberia; while several of the sinado, than a disposition appeared among state legislatures have resolved to devote a the owners of slaves in the United States to large sum, annually, to enable the free blacks give them freedom voluntarily, and, without to join their brethren in the new republic. one farthing for compensation, to allow Indeed, within the last few months, the them to be sent to the land of their ances. prospect of the unfortunate African race has lors. This is to me truly astonishing ! a brightened, in a manner calculated to excite lotal change of heart in the planters, so that the highest hopes for their future destiny." you may now have a hundred thousand
slaves redeemed without any cost for their
A WORD FOR THE SLAVES.
redemption. Can this almost universal by a helix of copper wire, the extremities of feeling, this almost universal change of which were immersed in cups containing heart, have taken place without the inter mercury, in which were the conducting vention of the Spirit of God ?”
wires of a galvanic battery, displayed conVery recent accounts state, that new ap- siderable magnetic action, and became ca. plications from the natives, to be received pable of supporting a very considerable under the protection of the colony, and weight, while under the influence of the enjoy the benefit of Christian institutions, galvanic action. have been numerous; commerce, agricul. The largest electro-magnet is that conture, and morals flourishing. Four expe structed by the American philosophers. It ditions recently sailed from the United is of a horse-shoe form, and weighs about States with emigrants ; and, if funds per- sixty pounds: around it are twenty-six coils mitted, many thousands more, who are of wire, the united lengths of which are anxiously waiting, would follow them. eight hundred feet. When excited by about The government is a republic-independent five feet of galvanic surface, it is said to of the United States, and the port free to have supported nearly two tons. We here all nations.
see that the exciting cause of magnetism is 19, Adam Street Adelphi. the action of the galvanic battery; and a
variety of other interesting experiments in electro-magnetics, tends to the conclusion,
that the magnetic and clectric fluids are It is a pleasing feature in the signs of the nearly allied. times, that the voice of the British public is
In the hope of evolving electricity from so generally lifted up against slavery; and magnetism, several persons have coiled a that the cause of the oppressed slaves is now
helix round a magnet, and connected both advocated both in the senate and in many
its extremities with a galvanometer; but other places. But there is one way of doing no current of electricity was observed. them good, which, perhaps, has not obtained Mr. Faraday, whose late researches has led so generally as might be desirable—that of to the elicitation of the electric spark, oba direct application to Heaven on their be- served, that if the magnet be withdrawn, or half. Should they not more generally have introduced into such a helix, a current of an interest in the public prayers of Ministers, electricity is produced, whilst the magnet and in the domestic and social supplications is in motion : and thus is obtained the of Christians ?
interesting result, viz. that the action of the More especially, would it not be a most magnet is due to electricity; and when a pleasing and interesting circumstance, if piece of metal moves near a magnet so as one evening in the month were set apart, in
to intersect the magnetic curves, a current all our different places of Worship, for of electricity is induced in that metal. special and united prayer for the blessing of
About the end of the year 1831, Mr. God on the means adopted for their speedy Faraday communicated a notice of this and emancipation ?
other phenomena to Mr. Hachette, who Many considerations might be adduced in transmitted them to the Academy of Scifavour of such a practice; but most likely
ences at Paris; in this notice, Mr. F. states, the hint is quite sufficient.
" that in a particular case he had obtained a spark.” This induced Signori Nobili and Antinori to repeat the fundamental experiment, and study it under its various aspects.
They found that a spiral applied to the cenThe early part of the present year has been tral part of the piece of soft iron attached to rendered memorable by the advancement of the poles of the magnet, and termed the the science of magneto-electricity; and the lifter, was in the most advantageous position result some of the philosophers of the pre to be subjected to all the influence of the sent day have obtained, in eliciting from magnetic force: and the fact of its inducing the influence of an ordinary magnet an
the electric current in a greater degree than electric spark, thus opening a new and in when the spiral surrounds the magnet, as teresting field for philosophical research. observed by Nobili, perfectly agrees with
Mr.W. Sturgeon had found by experiment, the observations of Sturgeon, as stated above. that the magnetic energies of a galvanic Nobili and his companion, considering that conducting wire, were very conspicuously the currents circulated only for the moment exhibited by exercising them on soft iron : in which they receded from or approached and that a bar of such iron, properly bent the magnet, concluded, that if they opened into the horse shoe form, and surrounded the circuit in one of those two moments,
ON THE ELECTRIC SPARK BEING ELICITED
FROM AN ORDINARY MAGNET.
BRITISH ASSOCIATION FOR THE ADVANCEMENT OF SCIENCE.
BRITISH ASSOCIATION FOR THE ADVANCE-
they might obtain a spark. They accord- stated above, Sig. Nobili pursued his expeingly selected a good horse-shoe magnet, riments in consequence of Mr. Faraday's the lifter of which they surrounded with a communication to Mr. Hachette. copper spiral; they also immersed the extremities of the spiral in a cup
mercury; and when one lifted a wire out of the mer
OF SCIENCE, HELD YORK, cury, at the precise moment when the lifter
SIXTH DAY, OCTOBER 1, 1831. was attached to, or detached from, the magnet, a spark appeared.
The chair was taken about half-past twelve These two philosophers obtained the o'clock, by the Rev. W. V. Harcourt. Mr. spark previous to Mr. Faraday, in conse- Thomas Allan of Edinburgh gave a de. quence of that gentleman being much en- scription of a very fine aqua marine which gaged in the investigation of other pheno- had been recently brought to this country mena connected with magneto-electricity. by Don Pedro. He states, that he has great pleasure in A paper by Mr. Dalton, of Manchester, bearing witness to the accuracy of their on the specific gravity of the human body, reasoning, and also to the success of the was read by Mr. Phillips. This was a very result. His mode of operating is different elaborate composition, and upon a very from that ultimately adopted by them, but interesting subject. Its design was, to the result is the same.
ascertain the means by which the human The spark has not yet been obtained, body is enabled to support the immense except from a temporary magnet, i.e. from pressure of the atmosphere upon it; which, a magnet in the act of being made or de- on a middle-sized man, is not less than stroyed. The first spark was obtained by from fifteen to twenty tons. After detailing Mr. Faraday from a soft-iron magnet, made a variety of experiments by himself and by the influence of electric currents, as de- others, Mr. Dalton came to the conclusion, scribed by Mr. Sturgeon. The second spark that the quantity of air in the lungs, and the was obtained by Sig. Nobili and Antinori, various internal parts of the human body, from a soft iron magnet, made so by the enabled it to resist the pressure from without. influence of a common artificial steel mag- He also noticed some experiments by net. And Mr. Forbes, of Edinburgh, first Mr. Robertson, for ascertaining the specific obtained a spark from a soft-iron magnet, gravity of the human body as compared made so by the influence of the natural with water. The results were, that out of loadstone.
a given number of men, some were specific By comparing the experiments of Mr. cally heavier than water, some the same, Sturgeon, with those of Mr. Faraday and and some lighter. From these results, Mr. Sig. Nobili, we see, that the magnetic and Dalton made several remarks upon the electric fuids are very nearly allied, if not absurdity of the commonly received opinion, actually identified; and there remains but that all men could swim, if their fears would little to be done before they are completely permit them. Now, as the gravity of some
Some of Mr. Faraday's experiments men is greater than that of water, and of prove, that the magnetism of the earth is of others lighter, a piece of deal might as well itself sufficient to develop currents of elec- reproach a piece of lignum vitæ with its tricity; and a wire carried to and fro alacrity in sinking, as the latter reproach the through the air, so as to intersect the mag- former with not being able to swim. netic curves, will produce them. Sig. Nobili Mr. Scoresby expressed himself as being noticed, that a frog placed in the circuit of much pleased with Mr. Dalton's elucidation the spirals, was powerfully convulsed each of atmospheric pressure ; for he thought that time the lifter was separated or attached. many persons were misled by the accounts of And Mr. Faraday believes he has obtained the pressure of so many tons of air on the the acrid and acidulous taste on the tongue, human body. In fact, it is only the presand the light before the eyes, so well known sure of one elastic Auid on another. He in the common electric currents.
made several observations, and detailed It is highly interesting to consider, that some highly interesting facts, on the nature this splendid and important discovery should of the pressure of air in fishes, particularly be made by three philosophers, removed at in whales. He observed, that when these a distance from each other, nearly at the are struck by a harpoon, they frequently same period. But it is undoubtedly due descend perpendicularly for nearly a mile. to Mr. Faraday; for, as Mr. Forbes states, When they rise again to the surface of the “ it is, of course, upon the recent discoveries sea, they are always much exhausted, and of Mr. Faraday, that any experiments on blood is expelled from their mouths. This this important point must rest :" and, as effect, he said, is produced by the pressure
376 BRITISH ASSOCIATION FOR THE ADVANCEMENT OF SCIENCK. of water, which is of much greater density their transit over the face of that planet. than that of air; and forces the blood out The satellites were generally considered to of its proper vessels into the cavities of the be invisible, except when near the limits of lungs, from which it is expelled on reaching the planet; but in several observations the surface. Fishermen, he observed, always which he had made, the last on the 10th of like to see a whale descend perpendicularly; September, he observed the satellite like a because they know that when he appears black spot passing over the middle of the again he will be much exhausted, though planet. He wished to know why it was not they do not pretend to explain the cause. always visible. He also called their atten.
Mr. Robison, of Edinburgh, explained tion to Saturn's Ring, an opportunity for his method of constructing a barometer with observing which would soon be afforded. linseed oil; but having no diagram to eluci- Mr. Scoresby thought the appearance date his remarks, he was not so intelligible might be accounted for, upon the supposias could have been wished.
tion that Jupiter had an atmosphere varied Dr. Brewster explained bis method of con. and changing like our own. The meeting structing prisms from mineral substances,pare adjourned till the evening. ticularly from rock salt; a discovery of the greatest importance, as prisms are constructed
The Evening Meeting. so imperfectly by the English opticians, that About eight o'clock, the chair was taken those upon which reliance can be placed, by the Rev. W. V. Harcourt. are to be obtained only from Germany. The Dr. Daubeny commenced the eve ing Doctor exhibited one which had been pro- proceedings by explaining the principle of cured from Bremen and presented to him, some experiments made by the Rev. W. the cost of which, he conjectured, would be Taylor, honorary member of the Yorkbetween five and ten guineas; also another shire Philosophical Society, on certain modes constructed by himself, of rock salt, at a of increasing the intensity of gas light, trifling expense, which was much superior without an increased consumption of gas. to the foreign one.
The Rev. W. V. Harcourt then exhibited To a question by Mr. Scoresby, Dr, to the meeting, and explained at considerBrewster replied, that he had no doubt the able length, the principle of a new lamp, discovery might be applied to the object- which he had invented for the purpose of glasses of telescopes.
economical illumination, by the consumpDr. Brewster next explained his opinion tion of the cheaper kinds of oil. as to the non-existence of dark rays at the Mr. Phillips read a very elaborate and extremity of the spectrum, in opposition to valuable memoir, by Dr. Brewster, “On a Herschell. This produced a colloquial dis. New Analysis of Solar Light;" which the cussion on colours, in which Dr. Daubeny, learned author illustrated by diagrams. Mr. Potter, Mr. Dalton, Mr. Scoresby and Some very interesting conversation, on the several other gentlemen, engaged. Dr. peculiarity of vision, followed the reading Brewster, in opposition to Newton, holds of this paper. the opinion, that all colours arise from Mr. W. Gray, jun., read the translation structure, and not from the admission of of a Memoir, by Professor Gazzeri of colouring matter. Thus a union of iron Florence, « On a Method of rendering with glass alters the colour, but it is from an Visible the Traces of Erased Writing." In alteration in the molecules. It might be the conversation which followed, Dr. said, that without iron there would be no Brewster mentioned a similar evolution (by colour. This is true, but the colour does the application of heat) of the worn-out not arise from colouring matter, as chemists coins and medals, and observed that he suppose, for iron has no colour of its own.
was much surprised at first reading on a Mr. Johnson had no doubt that the doc- medal, when placed on hot iron, in flame, trine of chemical colour would soon be the legend Benedictum sit nomen Dei. exploded ; and that it would be universally Thescientific business being ended, mutual admitted, that colour is produced by an congratulations took place ; when the thanks alteration of particles.
of the meeting having been voted to the Mr. Forbes of Edinburgh read a paper Archbishop, and other inhabitants of York, on the horary oscillation of the barometer. for their liberality and kindness, and also to
Mr. Phillips then read a letter from Sir many scientific gentlemen who had honoured James South, Astronomer Royal, which was the occasion with their presence ; . the Rev. written for the purpose of calling the atten- W. V. Harcourt concluded by declaring tion of the astronomers present to an ano. the meeting adjourned to Oxford. maly which he, Sir James, had observed in “ Jussa viri faciunt, intermittuntque laborum." the appearance of Jupiter's satellites, in Huggate, June. 1832.
a broken lock, which he discharges by METEOROLOGICAL OBSERVATIONS.
by means of a match; but by patient The mean temperature of June was 65 Zo watching under the trees, he contrives, by degrees of Fahrenheit's thermometer. The such defective means, to vary his diet as maximum, which was 71 degrees, was ob- often as he wishes. served on five different mornings; the 13th, About nine months since, the Indians 18th, 19th, 20th, and 29th; the winds with hearing of his desolate situation, though which these temperatures occurred, were not at all disposed to join in community, southerly, westerly, south-easterly, south- landed two of their native girls on the westerly, and north-easterly. The mini- island. Richardson instantly made choice mum of 58 degrees was noticed on the of one of them as his consort, and pro8th, when the direction of the wind was claimed her queen of the island, and the south-easterly. The range of the thermoother he calls his cook. The distinction meter was 13 degrees, and the prevailing between these two individuals was quite wind north-west. The direction of the wind perceptible on the present visit. Richardhas been north-westerly 8f days ; south- son having no means of amusement, be. westerly 5f; south-easterly 4; northerly 3}; side the necessary employment of obtaining southerly 3; westerly 2j; easterly 2; and subsistence, at his own request, Lieutenant north-easterly 14.
Hopkins supplied him with a Bible and Rain has fallen on 17 days, and six have Prayer-book. Lieutenant Hopkins offered been accompanied with wind. On the 7th, to take him off the island, but he refused about one in the afternoon, a considerable to leave it, declaring his determination of storm of thunder and hail took place. Also passing his life in his own government. on the afternoon of the 9th a storm of thun. He had commenced erecting a fort, to proder and heavy rain occurred; the lightning tect himself from the Indians. There was on the last occasion was very vivid. Heat- no present appearance of any increase to lightning was noticed on the evening of his subjects. -Sydney Gazette, February the 12th.
ANOTHER ALEXANDER SELKIRK.
What! he himself? and is old Dibble dead?
OLD JOHN BROWN, THE SEXTON-OF The Thetis transport, Lieutenant Hopkins,
HEXHAM, NORTHUMBERLAND. which arrived here a few days since from
“Go; of my sexton seek, whose days are sped: the Pacific Ocean, had occasion to touch at the island of Mocho, for water, the only
Yes! he is gone; and we are going all; inhabitant on which was an English sea.
Like flowers we wither, and like leaves we fall."
Crabbe, man, of the name of Joseph Richardson, a native of Aldington, near Ashford, in Amongst the almost infinite variety of Kent, who, like another Robinson Crusoe, characters which present themselves to our or Alexander Selkirk, had made choice of daily observation, there are some so much such a solitary houseless spot, upwards of influenced by their pursuits, and so identithree years since, for a residence, when he fied with their professions, as continually was landed, at his own urgent desire, from to remind us of them. We cannot behold a patriot ship of war, commanded by Cap- their persons, without thinking of their tain Robertson.
occupation, and feeling those sensations, The island is about sixty miles in cir- whether agreeable or repulsive, which the cumference, and about sixty miles from the recollection is calculated to excite. Of coast of Chili, in latitude 39 south. It is this description of character was old John very seldom visited by ships, as it does not Brown, the Sexton. afford necessary supplies of wood, but it It mattered not on what occasion, or at does of water, in abundance. It is remark- what time or place, you saw him, he was ably fertile, and abounds with hogs and still the sexton. As to place, the church horses. Richardson has cultivated two was his centre of gravity; he lived in its gardens, on the vegetable produce of neighbourhood, followed his occupations which, with pork, young horse-flesh, and under its shadow, and seldom went beyond wild pigeons, he lives. He hunts the the precincts of his charge. Morning, former animals down with dogs, a fine noon, or night, if you met him, he was still breed of which he has broken in; the about his business; commonly with the pigeons are so numerous, that he has little huge keys of the church-doors in his hand, difficulty in obtaining them, and a few or sticking out of his pocket. Ringing other kinds of birds, though the only fire- the morning-bell had naturally produced a arms he possesses is an old musket, with habit of early rising ; and the principal 2D. SERIES, NO. 20.-Vol. II,