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is prevented from reaching the retina, or closing one eye, and directing the other to from reaching it in a proper state of regular a very narrow, well-defined luminous obe concentration, being stopped, confused, and ject, not too bright; such as the horns of scattered, by the opaque or semi-opaque the moon, when a slender crescent, only portions it encounters in its passage. The two or three days old. By turning the image, in consequence, is either altogether head about in various directions, the line obliterated, or rendered dim and indistinct. will be doubled, tripled, and variously disIf the. opaque lens be extracted, the full torted, according to the peculiar conformperception of light returns; but one prin ation of the refracting surfaces of the eye, cipal instrument for producing the con- which causes the appearances. vergence of the rays being removed, the As we have two eyes, and a separate image, instead of being formed on the image of every external object is formed retina, is formed considerably behind it, in each, it may be asked, why do we not and the rays being received in their uncon- see double? It may be answered, that it is verged state on it, produce no regular pic- an act of the judgment; two images are unture, and therefore no distinct vision. But doubtedly presented to our sight, but habit if we give to the rays, before their entry has taught us to bring them into one. Ininto the eye, a certain proper degree of fants undoubtedly see double; present anyconvergence, by the application of a con- thing to a young child, and it invariably, vex lens, so as to render the remaining at its first attempt to seize the object, lenses capable of finally effecting their stretches out its hand too much to the right exact convergence on the retina, restoration or the left of the thing offered. Those of distinct vision is the immediate result. who have an eye distorted by a blow see This is the reason why persons who have double, till habit has taught them anew to undergone the operation for the cataract, bring both objects to the same focus, (which consists in either totally removing, though the distortion of the optic axis still or in putting out of the way, an opaque subsists; and the double sight of men in crystailine,) wear spectacles of compara- a state of intoxication has become a protively very short focus. Such glasses per- verb. form the office of an artificial crystalline. That a separate image is formed in each
A similar imperfection of vision to that eye any one may prove by the following produced by the removal of the crystal, simple experiment. Place a wafer, or a line, is the ordinary effect of old age, and candle on à table, and looking at it with its remedy is the same. In aged persons,
both eyes, only one wafer or one flame is the exterior transparent surface of the eye, seen ; but if while looking at it, one of the called the cornea, loses somewhat of its eyes be pressed with the finger so as forconvexity, and becomes flatter. The power cibly to throw the image on another part of the eye is therefore diminished, and a of the retina of that eye, double vision is perfect image can no longer be formed on immediately produced, and two wafers or the retina. The deficient power is however two flames become distinctly visible, which supplied by a convex lens, and vision ren- appear to recede from each other as the dered perfect, or materially improved. pressure is stronger, and approach, and
Short-sighted persons have their eyes finally blend into one, as it is lessened. too convex, and this defect is, like the other, Dr. Wollaston has supposed that a phyremediable by the use of proper lenses of siological cause has some share in produan opposite character. There are cases, cing the effect of single vision ; he conthough rare, in which the cornea becomes cludes, that a semi-decussation of the so very prominent as to render it impos- optic nerves takes place immediately on sible to apply conveniently a lens suffi- their quitting the brain, half of each nerve ciently concave to counteract its action. going to each eye, the right half of each Such cases would be accompanied with retina consisting wholly of fibres of one irremediable blindness, but for that happy nerve, and the left wholly of the other, so boldness, justifiable only by the certainty that all images of objects out of the optic of our knowledge of the true nature and axes, are perceived by one and the same laws of vision, which in such a case has nerve in both eyes, and thus a powerful suggested the opening of the eye, and re- sympathy and perfect unison are kept up moval of the crystalline lens, though in a between them, independent of the mere perfectly sound state.
influence of habit. Immediately in the Malconformations also of the cornea optic axis, it is supposed, that the fibres are much more common than is generally of both nerves are commingled, and this supposed, and few eyes are, in fact, free may account for the greater acuteness and rom them. They may be detected by certainty of vision in this part of the eye. This, though an ingenious theory, has not meetings in this country, was Dr. Brewster, yet been proved by anatomists.
the boast of modern Athens. That highly gifted There is one remarkable fact which ought philosopher was anxious that his native land not to escape mention : it is, that the spot, should not fall behind in the use of means at which the optic nerve enters the eye, to promote the best interests of science. is totally insensible to the stimulus of light, Accordingly, some months ago, he and for which reason it is called the punctum other friends of science arranged to hold сесип. . The reason is obvious: at this their first meeting in the ancient city of point the nerve is not yet divided into York, as being the most central situation. those almost infinitely minute fibres, which “Pratinus Eboraci veteris stirgebat imago ; are fine enough to be either thrown into Mænia cum tectis, turres, ac templa." tremors, or otherwise changed in their
First Day, Monday, September 26. mechanical, chemical, or other statė, by a stimulus so delicate as the rays of light.
The former part of this day was distinThe effect, however, is curious and striking. guished by the influx of numerous strangers,
On a sheet of black paper, or other dark several of whom were illustrious for their ground, place two white wafers, having scientific discoveries. In the evening, the their centres three inches distant. Verti- splendid suite of rooms in the Yorkshire cally above that to the left, hold the right Museum, were thrown open for a scientific eye, at twelve inches from it, and so, that conversazione. The rooms were illuminated when looking down on it, the line joining with gas, whose brilliant light presented to. the two eyes shall be parallel to that join- view every object which they contained. ing the centre of the wafers. In this situ- Groupes of elegant females, attended by ation, closing the left eye, and looking full their beaux, paraded promiscuously. The with the right at the wafer perpendicularly charms of beauty, and the stores of philosobelow it, this only is seen, the other being phy, which united to attract the attention of completely invisible. But if removed ever the most careless observer, could not fail to so little from its place, either to the right prove both interesting and pleasing. or left, above or below, it becomes im
The vestibule of the Museum, through mediately visible, and starts, as it were,
which the company passed, was ornamented into existence.
with specimens of some of the most beautiful tropical plants, from the stores of John Smith,
Esq.,Huggate, York; and they added much to FIRST MEETING OF THE BRITISH ASSOCIA
the diversified beauty of the scene. Amongst
the specimens were, the musa paradisiaca, ENCE, HELD AT YORK, SEPTEMBER 26, (the plantain,) musa sapientum, (the bana1831.
na,) musa rosacea, (the date palm,) dra"Distat opns nostrum, sed fratribus exit ab iisdem
cæna ferrea, (the dragon tree,) all natives Artis et ingenus cultor uterque sumus." OviD.
of the Indies. Their verdant hues were a
delightful contrast with the sombre appearThe month of September saw the termina- ance of the fossil specimens. tion of the commonwealth in England, and About nine in the evening, tea and coffee the commencement of republicanism in served up in the theatre of the Museum. France. The same month has also seen At ten, Mr. Phillips, the secretary of the philosophy inviting her sons to relinquish Yorkshire Philosophical Society, delivered the boisterous element of party politics, and an animated lecture on the geology of accompany her to her calm retreat at York. Yorkshire, got up on the spur of the moAncient Ebor has had a fresh laurel added ment, without any premeditation ; a demonto his brow by the circumstance--a chaste strative proof of the secretary's intimate bandmaid to administer to his wants in his acquaintance with the subject. The lecture declining years.
was illustrated by various specimens of fos. The first idea of a British association for sils and minerals. Among the number, the advancement of science, was suggested was a fossil animal, dug out of a coal-pit in by those of a similar nature which have the West Riding. It has been shewn to been held for the last nine years upon the different geologists, both in England and continent. The first meeting was at Leip- France, but they by no means agree in sic; others afterwards at Halle, Wurtzburg, their opinion, whether the animal's element Frankfort, Dresden, Munich, and Berlin; had been land or water. The majority are where the celebrated Humboldt, in Septem- inclined to think that it might have been a ber, 1830, presided over nearly 500 of the fish. In the course of the lecture, Mr. P. most distinguished individuals of the age. took the opportunity of expressing his con
The individual who first suggested similar viction, that Great Britain had formerly 20. SERIES, NO, 13.- VOL. II.
TION FOR THE ADVANCEMENT OF SCI
been covered with the ocean; and that the Macdonald, London; Geo. Johnson, M.D., science of geology was making such rapid Berwick; Professor Rennie, King's College, advances, that, in a few years, geologists London ; H. Denny, Leeds; Dr. Travis, would be enabled to lay down a map of the Malton; E. S. Cayley, Wydale ; Captain different strata, with their ages, and the pe- Newberry, Malton; W. H. Lloyd ; B. Midriods of their formation.
dleton; W. Etty, R. A., Loudon ; Captain The company seemed highly delighted, Elliot, R. N. ; Captain Hoppner, R.N.; H. both with the lecture and the lecturer, and H.Cheek, Edinburgh; Rev.T.Dury, Keighseparated about eleven o'clock. Thus ended ley; Dr. Ayre, Hull; F. J. Williams, Trin. the first day's meeting, which may be con- Col.,Cambridge; Colonel Williamson, Shinsidered as merely introductory.
, Lancashire; Rev. Dr. Geldart, KirkThe following is a correct list of the visit. Deighton ; Dr. J. W. Geldart, Professor of ers who attended on the occasion; though Civil Law, Cambridge; F. H. Fawkes, many of them could not enjoy the pleasure Farnley; R. Northern, Hull; T. Longman, of spending the whole week in York: London; Rev. T. Rankin, Huggate; Rev.
Viscount Milton, president, Y.P.S.; Rev. B. Bailey, Travancore ; Rev. W. Jowett, W.V. Harcourt, acting vice-president ; Vis- London, &c. count Morpeth ; Lord Dundas; Hons. Wil- It must, at the same time, be understood, liam and Charles Howard; Hon. and Rev. that the majority of the nobility, clergy, and H. Howard ; Sir Philip G. Egerton, Bart.; gentry, in and near York, attended; some Archdeacons Harcourt and Wrangham ; Sir occasionally, and others the whole of the T. M. Brisbane, K.C.B.; Hon. Mr. Justice meetings. His Grace the Archbishop of Park; Dr. Brewster; R. J. Murchison, pres. York honoured some of the meetings with geol. soc.; Dr. Daubeny, prof. of chim., his presence, and occasionally entertained Oxford ; J. Robison, sec. roy. soc.,
Edin- most of the scientific visiters, with his accusburgh; Hon. Withum Lurtington; J. D. tomed hospitality, at Bishopthorpe. Forbes; T. Allan; J. Astley; R. Allan ; J.F. Huggate.
T. R. Johnson, from Edinburgh ; Rev. Dr. Lloyd, Provost of Trin. Col. Dublin; J. Dalton, F.R.S., Manchester; J. C. Pritchard, M.D.
AN AMERICAN SCENE, FROM AUDUBON'S Bristol ; J. Booth, M.D. Birmingham; Rev. W. Turner; J. son; William Hutton, Newcastle-upon-Tyne; John Marshall; John As the author of this interesting volume is Marshall, jun.; and James Marshall, Head- well known to many in England and Scotingley; Rev. William Scoresby, F.R.S.; T. land, the following romantic narrative will Lane, M. D., Liverpool; Luke Howard, probably prove highly gratifying to such of Ackworth; R. Potter, Smedley-Hall, Man- his friends as have not had an opportunity chester; Rev. Jas. Hunter, F. S. A., Bath; of perusing his book. Rev. J. Yates, London; Rev. Dr. Pearson, On my return from the Upper Mississippi, vice-pres. ast. soc.; W. H. Charlton, and E. I found myself obliged to cross one of the Charlton, Hesleyside, Northumberland ; T. wide prairies, which, in that portion of the Meynell, jun., Yarm; W. West; John Hey; United States, vary the appearance of the Dr. Williamson, Leeds; Sir C.Ibbotson, Bart., country. The weather was fine; all around Denton-park; Benj. Rotch, London; w. me was as fresh and blooming as if it had Gilbertson, Preston ; J. Gould, geol. soc., just issued from the bosom of nature. My London; R. Havell, London; J. G. N. Ar knapsack, my gun, and my dog, were all I mitage, Huddersfield; Rev. J. Radcliffe, had for baggage and company. But, alOxford ; J. Cooke, Doncaster; M. White, though well moccassined, I moved slowly Newbury, Berks; J. Emerson, Bristol; W. along, attracted by the brilliancy of the Earle, London; W.H. Gilby, M. D., Wake- flowers, and the gambols of the fawns around field; J. Dunn, Scarborough ; W.H. Dykes; their dams, to all appearance as thoughtless J. E. Lee, Hull; H. Fate, Portsmouth; H. of danger as I felt myself. Warwick, M. D., Manchester; Rev. J. My march was of long duration : I saw Drake, Kirkthorpe; W. L. Wharton, Dur- the sun sinking beneath the horizon long ham; A. Strickland, Boynton ; Dr. Black, before I could perceive any appearance of Bolton ; W. Allen, Peal, Lancashire; E.T. woodland, and nothing in the shape of man Tracy, Tąddington, Gloucestershire; J. K. had I met with that day. The track which Watkinson, Bolton; A. Faulds, Worsbro'; I followed was only an old Indian trace, W. Smith, Hackness, (author of the geolo- and, as darkness overshaded the prairie, i gical map of England ;) T. Embleton,
Mid- felt some desire to reach at least a copse, in dleton : E. N. Alexander, F.S. A., Halifax; which I might lie down to rest.
The nightŞir George Cayley, Bart., Brompton ; L. hawks were skimming over and around me,
attracted by the buzzing wings of the beetles, and presented it to her. She was allecstacy, which form their food; and the distant spoke of its beauty, asked me its value, and howling of wolves, gave me some hope that put the chain round her brawny neck, saying I should soon arrive at the skirts of some how happy the possession of such a watch woodland.
would make her. Thoughtless, and, as I I did so, and almost at the same instant a fancied myself in so retired a spot, secure, I fire-light attracting my eye, I moved towards paid little attention to her talk or her moveit, full of confidence that it proceeded from ments. I helped my dog to a good supper the camp of some wandering Indians. I of venison, and was not long in satisfying was mistaken :-I discovered by its glare the demands of my own appetite. that it was from the hearth of a small log The Indian rose from his seat, as if in cabin, and that a tall figure passed and re- extreme suffering. He passed and repassed passed between it and ine, as if busily me several times, and once pinched me on engaged in household arrangements. the side so violently, that the pain nearly
I reached the spot, and, presenting myself brought forth an exclamation of anger. I at the door, asked the tall figure, which looked at him. His eye met mine; but his proved to be a woman, if I might take shel- look was so forbidding, that it struck a chill ter under her roof for the night. Her voice into the more nervous part of my system. was gruff, and her attire negligently thrown He again seated bimself, drew his butcherabout her. She answered in the affirmative. knife from its greasy scabbard, examined its I walked in, took a wooden stool, and quietly edge, as I would do that of a razor suspected seated myself by the fire. The next object dull, replaced it, and again taking his tomathat attracted my notice was a finely-formed hawk from his back, filled the pipe of it young Indian, resting his head between his with tobacco, and sent me expressive glances hands, with his elbows on his knees. A whenever our hostess chanced to have her long bow rested against the log wall near back towards us. him, while a quantity of arrows and two or Never, until that moment, had my senses three racoon skins lay at his feet. He moved been awakened to the danger which I now not; he, apparently, breathed not. Accus- suspected to be about me. I returned glance tomed to the habits of the Indians, and for glance, to my companion, and rested knowing that they pay little attention to the well assured that, whatever enemies I might approach of civilized strangers, (a circum- have, he was not of their number. stance wbich, in some countries, is considered I asked the woman for my watch, wound as evincing the apathy of their character,) I it up, and, under pretence of wishing to see addressed him in French, a language not how the weather might probably be on the unfrequently partially known to the people morrow, took up my gun, and walked out in that neighbourhood. He raised his head, of the cabin. I slipped a ball into each pointed to one of his eyes with his finger, barrel, scraped the edges of my flints, renewed and gave me a significant glance with the the primings, and, returning to the hut, gave other. His face was covered with blood. a favourable account of my observations. I The fact was, that, an hour before this, as he took a few bear-skins, made a pallet of was in the act of discharging an arrow at a them, and calling my faithful dog to my racoon in the top of a tree, the arrow had side, lay down, with my gun close to my split upon the cord, and sprung back with body, and in a few minutes was, to all apsuch violence into his right eye as to destroy pearance, fast asleep. it for ever.
A short time had elapsed, when some Feeling hungry, I inquired what sort of voices were heard ; and from the corner of fare I might expect. Such a thing as a bed my eyes I saw two athletic youths making was not to be seen, but many large untanned their entrance, bearing a dead stag on a bear and buffalo hides lay piled in a corner. pole. They disposed of their burden, and, I drew a fine time-piece from my breast, asking for whiskey, helped themselves freely and told the woman that it was late, and to it. Observing me and the wounded that I was fatigued. She had espied my Indian, they asked who I was, and why the watch, the richness of which seemed to devil that rascal (meaning the Indian, who, operate upon her feelings with electric they knew, understood not a word of Engquickness She told me that there was lish) was in the house. The mother—for so plenty of venison and jerked buffalo meat, she proved to be-bade them speak less and that on removing the ashes I should find loudly, made mention of my watch, and a cake. But my watch had struck her fancy, took them to a corner, where a conversation and her curiosity had to be gratified by an took place, the purport of which it required immediate sight of it. I took off the gold little shrewdness in me to guess. I tapped chain that secured it, from around my neck, my dog gently. He moved his tail, and
with indescribable pleasure I saw his fine warrior, and proceeded, well pleased, to-
The lads had eaten and drunk themselves which my life was in danger from my fellowinto such condition, that I already looked creatures. Indeed, so little risk do travellers upon them as hors de combat ; and the run in the United States, that no one born frequent visits of the whiskey bottle to the there ever dreams of any to be encountered ugly mouth of their dam, I hoped would on the road ; and I can only account for soon reduce her to a like state. Judge of this occurrence, by supposing that the inhamy astonishment, reader, when I saw this bitants of the cabin were not Americans. incarnate fiend take a large carving-knife, Will you believe, good-natured reader, and go to the grind stone, to whet its edge. that not many miles from the place where I saw her pour the water on the turning this adventure happened, and where, fifteen machine, and watched her working away years ago, no habitation belonging to civilized with the dangerous instrument, until the man was expected, and very few ever seen, cold sweat covered every part of my body, large roads are now laid out, cultivation has in despite of my determination to defend converted the woods into fertile fields, tamyself to the last. Her task finished, she verns have been erected, and much of what walked to her reeling sons, and said, “There, we Americans call comfort is to be met that'll soon settle him! Boys, kill you with. So fast does improvement proceed in and then for the watch."
our abundant and free country. I turned, cocked my gun-locks silently, This enthusiastic naturalist, the narrator of touched my faithful companion, and lay this adventure, is gone again to the woods. ready to start up and shoot the first who He left Edinburgh, in April, 1831, and, might attempt my life. The moment was after visiting Paris, intended proceeding to fast approaching, and that night might have New Orleans, in August. It is his purpose been my last in this world, had not Provi- to spend eighteen months or two years in dence made preparations for my rescue. exploring the western side of the valley of All was ready. The infernal hag was ad- the Mississippi, up towards the Rocky vancing slowly, probably contemplating the Mountains. Should he survive, he intends best way of despatching me, whilst her sons returning to Edinburgh, and spending the should be engaged with the Indian. I was rest of his days in arranging his collection, several times on the eve of rising, and and publishing a continuation of his Ornishooting her on the spot :--but she was not thological Biography. to be punished thus. The door was suddenly opened, and there entered two stout travellers, each with a long rifle on his shoulder. The mean temperature, from November I bounced up on my feet, and, making them 1st to 19th, 1831, was 42 degress of Fahmost heartily welcome, told them how well renheit's thermometer. The maximum, it was for me that they should have arrived which was 55 degrees, took place on the at that moment. The tale was told in a 1st, when the direction of the wind was minute. The drunken sons were secured; southerly; the minimum, which was 30 deand the woman, in spite of her defence and grees, took place on the 18th, when the vociferations, shared the same fate. The direction of the wind was north-westerly. Indian fairly danced with joy, and gave us The range of the thermometer during the to understand that, as he could not sleep for nineteen days was 25 degrees; and the prepain, he would watch over us. You may vailing wind west. During the above period, suppose that we slept much less than we the direction of the wind has been westerly talked. The two strangers gave me an ac- eleven days; north-westerly, four; southcount of their once having been themselves westerly, three ; and southerly, one. in a somewhat similar situation. Day came, The morning of the 9th was rather foggy; fair and rosy, and with it the punishment of but towards noon the fog dispersed, and our captives.
the afternoon was peculiarly fine; and, as They were now quite sobered. Their feet the sun descended towards the horizon, the were unbound, but their arms were still appearance of the webs of the gossamersecurely tied. We marched them into the spider on the herbage was particularly inwoods off the road, and having used them teresting. As the observer looked towards as Regulators were wont to use such delin- the sun, the surface of the verdant carpet quents, we set fire to the cabin, gave all the at his feet presented a luminous appearskins and implements to the young Indian ance, in consequence of the reflection of