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was, and He, resuming the sway, will be petual motion to the whole universe. We the sun—the light—the ascendant of the are told, verse 4,“ God divided between universe; and ultimately the Sun of crea- the light and between the darkness." And, tion. « The new heavens and the new verse 18 states, that the sun was appointed, earth have no need of the sun, for the glory “to divide between the light and between of God is the light thereof :" yea, as it was the darkness.” What, therefore, Elohim in the beginning of time. Thus the created performed by His immediate act, in the atoms, as we have already stated, were first first instance, He now performs by His dedisposed into spheres, atmospheres, and legate, the sun; and He endowed it on this ethers, and from these the universe was day with suitable powers. The sun is de. formed ; gravity and polarity were induced, nominated an enlightener; an issue must, and the great machine of the universe was therefore, be in perpetual progression from put in motion. To these succeeded forma- this luminary, into, and throughout, the tions, in and upon the spheres, of waters, whole universe; and for this purpose a oceans, and dry land: drainage was induced, plenum of light is provided; but if the by subterranean as well as surface currents, provision was only once made, and no through the peculiar disposition of the supply instituted, time must impair the earth's crust into formations of regular in- original provision, and thus ultimately inclined strata, and solid or dry land arose duce a lack. The idea of a provision once above the waters, presenting vast fields for for all, in such a case as this, where the sustaining life; and thereon and therein consumption is perpetual, is contrary to the vegetation was induced, and endowed with economy of creation, which is every where fecundity.

provided with a succession of good, to The day had at length arrived when, in supply a succession of wants, and no where the order of infinite wisdom, light was to is made to depend, during the ages of time, be thus disposed, and motion induced there- upon a provision made in the first instance. in, that it might no longer, as heretofore, The distance of this circumambient depend upon the immediate and repeated elastic radiance from the surface of the sun action of the Creator thereon. Within the is great, in proportion to the magnitude of vortex of the sun's rotary motion, it appears, the orb which it encloses, although comHe accordingly formed an assemblage of pletely within the vortex of its rotary motion ; light into a vast circumambient, elasti and if an immense issue takes place upon mass, not in contact with, but covering the its equator, a suitable return probably enters sun's surface, as the clouds float over, and at the poles. We perceive, in all the ordithus cover the earth, yet not so completely nary operations of caloric, that a draught covering it, but that chasms (by us called of the fluids into the focus of its action spots in the sun) frequently occur, through takes place, invariably commensurate with which the body of the sun appears; and its the expenditure; and that this draught perappearance through these chasms is opaque petuates itself, so long as the force of the and solid, similar to the moon and other caloric in action continues. In a manner planets; which indicate that it may be an similar, yet imminently refined, and aloof habitable globe, blest with animal and vege- from the grosser operations of caloric, when table life, like our earth.

combustible matter is its fuel, may this vast The great Creator, in subjecting the action operation be performed—issuing

rays, which of light to fixed laws which are invisible to strike every object that opposes their course, man, has, as in His previous formations, as well as the latent substance of light, and perfected and perpetuated His work, but thus inducing action, and heat, and providveiled the hand which wields it, so com- ing the medium of vision throughout the pletely, that science itself remains in doubt,

solar system.

The action of light is ever even to this day, of the mode of action. to divide or separate; and rarefaction and

To discourse here upon the substance and combustion, either by the rays of the sun properties of light, would be to repeat what or by an ordinary fire, divide substances, has been already noted in treating on its fluid or solid, in a way similar to each creation; our subject in this essay must, other. If, therefore, the effects of the sun's therefore, be the Sun, considered as the light and the effects of caloric in action, enlightener of the universe.

throughout the universe, be similar, it is fair The elastic circumambient radiance, to

suppose, that the light of the sun, and the added on this day to the sun, whether it caloric of this system, is one substance; and consists of light mingled with gas, or of that the whole was included in the one pure light in action and reaction, is itself a creation of light, although the radiance perpetual motion, and its undulations and around the sun, from its rich abundance, issuing rays, perhaps, are the cause of per- shines to us with superior lustre to every

object in creation; for whether a fire is may be calculated upon, without the least kindled by the sun's rays, in the focus of a disappointment, to a second of time long lens, or by friction, or by the stroke of flint prior to each event. Without the action on steel, its action is the same.

of the sun's rays, all these, if they The whole universe would have con- existed, would be hidden, darkness would tinued one huge field of darkness, even cover the whole; therefore the sun's action after the creation of light, had not Elohim, becomes a sign to us of the continuance of in the first instance in person, and in the action therein, of the hale and healthy state second by His vicegerent, the sun, induced of the whole system, and a commanding action in light, and, through the medium of sign of the stability of the works of God; that action, rendered objects visible ; for under that especial providence which is in light when latent is invisible : yet another perpetual exercise throughout the whole, species of action is also needful, in order to during all the ages of time. enlighten every part of the spheres. To “For seasons.” We behold, amidst the move the sun round the universe every day, admirable regularity of the planetary mowould have been a monstrous labour-a tions, eccentricities which, while they do mere waste of power, on the part of the not destroy the precision of their times, Creator, and quite at variance with the interfere with the place and position of economy visible in all his acts; but to in each in respect of the others, and of the duce a rotary motion in every sphere, and sun; hence arise the seasons of spring, thus turn every part of each in succession summer, autumn, and winter. During these into the direct path of the sun's rays, by the several seasons, the sun's rays act more most simple process, effects the desired end obliquely or more directly upon the several with the greatest ease. Hence, day is in portions of the surface of the spheres, acthat portion of an orb which is towards the cording to the position into which each porsun, and night in the opposite portion. Thus tion is by these eccentricities turned, in is the sun every instant dividing between respect of the sun ; and heat and cold are, the day and the night, upon the face of in consequence, induced in a greater or every sphere in the solar system; for lesser degree therein.

Winter and summer, whereas every orb is in incessant motion, so the two extremes, and spring and autumn, the line of light and darkness is every in- the two means, thus progressively visit and stant moving forward over the surface of pass over certain portions of a sphere; and every one of them.

thus the sun is the ascendant of the seasons, “For signs let these be.” This implies while these eccentricities are the cause : for a second species of motion-a movement uniformity of temperament would perpetualong a path or orbit; for if the spheres ally exist in each sphere, if all its motions had inerely a rotary motion, save the mere were always regular. Our astonishment is division of light from darkness, day and great, that the equipoise of the universe is night, no other sign would occur amidst the not disturbed, yea, even destroyed, by the solar system. We have, however, another incessant recurrence of these eccentricities species of motion in the universe; viz. the in the motions of orbs of such immense progression of every orb in the system, magnitude as the planets : and infinite in that orbit appointed to each by the great wisdom, as well as infinite power, are proCreator, round the central sun. Now, the claimed, from season to season, by every sun, as the enlightener, renders the face of time, and its precise return, which passes over every sphere in the system, which is in the these, the work of His hands : “All thy unobstructed path of his rays, luminously works shall praise Thee, O Lord; and Thy visible to every other sphere, which is in the saints shall bless Thee !” unobstructed path of the rays that each of “ For days and for years." The sun is these reflect from their respective surfaces; the ascendant of day; but it is, also the and while the line of light incessantly flits note of time. It rises, it becomes meridian, over the surface of each sphere, the illumed sets, and rises again ; and these periods note, portion is as distinctly seen from the other in their progression, a day: not that the spheres as if no rotary motion existed; motion of the sun produces this, but the whereby all their wanderings are observed rotary motion of the planet, by turning --their conjunctions, oppositions, relative certain parts of its surface, in succession, positions, and the beginnings and endings into the path of the sun's rays. The planets of their years in endless progression. Thus also form their own years; for a complete are their several times noted; and the order revolution of a planet round the sun is the and precision of all these, from age to age, year of that planet. The days, as well as become signs of the beautiful order and sta- the years, as we have already noted in bility of creation, and of a regularity which former portions of this exposition, are of vari

in resp


ous lengths; indeed they differ each from each up; because between vegetable and animal exceedingly; but every planet has its day life and light the connexion is inseparable; and its year, and the sun is the arbiter of and where vital heat fails, vitality ceases and all these. The changes occur in the planets death ensues. If, therefore, the genial rays themselves; but the note of these is the of the sun were to cease from the terraquepresence or absence of the rays which in ous, earth and water, with vegetation and duce light therein, in respect of day; and animation, would cease from that action

of the year, the place in the ex which raises up the opaque atoms, under pansion of the heaven to which the planet the hands of Divine Providence, into forms returns, after a complete revolution, in its and hues lovely and deligtful, and the whole orbit round the sun, made visible by the ministration of life would cease from the incessant issue of rays from the sun. The spheres. sun is, therefore, the noter of time. If the Thus far our discourse has been solely whole planetary system is the dial-plate, and upon that magnificent luminary, the sunthe motions of the planets therein are the the ascendant of day; under the impression hands, the sun is the divider of periods, that all which is related by the inspired the division of time thereon; incessantly penman, Moses, of and respecting this orb, visible, and inducing vision throughout the has a direct reference to the whole system. whole. It is the perfection of wisdom to It remains that we discourse on the inferior perpetuate an unerring time-piece to the luminary, the moon—the ascendant of sojourners of time, that incessant note may night, separately; because what is said of rise up before them of their progression in the moon, refers to this one sphere our earth, the direct path to eternity; for which they almost exclusively. are born, and into which they must enter, to King Square, W. COLDWELL. return no more for ever. A day is short, Feb. 2, 1832. and passes quickly away, while a year is a long period : the ages of time are, therefore, noted by this long period, rather than the fleeting of a day; but, in comparison with infinite duration, (eternity,) a year is, even

THE HAPPY PEASANT; A SKETCH FROM LIFE, as a day, fleetingly short, and passes away, like a dream, from which men awake, un

See yonder cotter;

He has not riches' hoards, nor splendour's crown, conscious of duration.

Still, is content, and thankful ! “Let them be lights in the expanse

of heaven, diffusing light throughout the terra. It was on a lovely morning, during one of queous

!" Darkness was, in the beginning, the summer months, a few years ago, that I upon the face of the abyss, the created entered a delightful village, in one of our atoms were all opaque, inert, cold and finest English counties, with the intention of cheerless; and light was created in order to spending some weeks in the prosecution of bless this universe with warmth, vigour, and important engagements, and the enjoyment fecundity. During the expansion and the of very intelligent and agreeable society. subsequent formations of earths and waters, The spot chosen for my temporary residence, it does not appear that a radical change took was at once sequestered and beautiful, far place in the atoms; but they were brought removed from the bustle and turmoil of into contact with and acted upon by light, cities, and from the noise of men. The in the hands of the great Master-builder, whó village was by no means large; the houses thus fitted each for its appointed place, on were pleasingly scattered, occupying the the erection of the universe : all matter was, most picturesque situations. The site of the therefore, opaque as in the beginning, when place was laid somewhat low, though in no this system was completed; and the terra- degree confined. In front of the village, queous spheres were equally dark with the some lofty and magnificent hills finely pregreat abyss. Light is, as it was in the sented themselves, from which the boldest beginning, absolutely necessary to these and most delicious views were enjoyed. spheres throughout all the periods of their Immediately behind it, a beautiful river, existence, and here we have the oply which abounded in fine fish, and whose The sun has it in command, “to diffuse banks were uncommonly verdant, pursued light throughout the terraqueous, while he its silent course; and, in every direction the lights the expanse of heaven.” The issues most pleasing, and elegantly disposed, garof light during one day will not suffice for dens met the eye. It was a spot for calm the next day, much less for the next year; meditation, for quiet, pure, and exquisite on every day, and throughout every year, enjoyment. light must issue--the action must be kept After having rambled about this delight

ful village, for some period admiring ex- “ for your goodness to me, at all times ; ceedingly the beautiful and sublime scene.yand, I am sure, the stranger is welcome to with which it was encircled, I was invited, my humble abode, and I rejoice to think on the eve of my departure, to visit a pea- that true Christians are no respecters of sant, named John, who resided about two persons or situations; but that, where they miles from my temporary abode. I had find a disciple of Jesus, whether in the heard him very highly spoken of, and a cottage, the hospital, or the workhouse, strong desire was expressed that I should they receive him as a friend and a brother." visit him, and enter into some conversation We entered into an extended conversawith him. I gladly embraced the opportu- tion with this estimable peasant, while we nity presented, and, on a pure and balmy remained, in order that I might gather what morning, a friend and myself proceeded to were his characteristic habits and feelings, the peasant's residencé. After a delightful and from what source his tranquillity and walk through the richest and most cultivated comfort sprung. The following were some country, we arrived at the “cotter's home,” of his remarks, during the interview. which at once awakened surprise and grati- “I live, sir, in a quiet, rural spot, and I fication. It was a neat and pretty little am very happy. My cottage, as you see, cottage, situated on rising ground, in the is neat, and pleasantly situated ; my garden midst of an extensive and nicely-ordered is pretty, and, generally, very productive; garden. Immediately in front of the house, and my family are healthful, contented, there was a most beautiful collection of grateful, and I love them dearly. I have flowers, of every form and hue, breathing not much money to spend ; but I have their fragrance around, and unfolding their enough, and I cannot be too thankful. We loveliness to the beholder; behind the rise early in the morning, and pour forth cottage, there was a considerable portion of our acknowledgments to that gracious land for the cultivation of vegetables, and it Being, who “crowns the year with his was abundantly stocked, and seemed to be goodness." I go forth to my labour till carefully superintended ; while on one side noon; after enjoying a plain and peaceful there was a large orchard, giving the pro- meal with my wife and children, I spend mise of a luxuriant crop.

the evening in reading some excellent books, The cottage itself was a pleasing building, (for I have always had a love of reading) with a white-washed front, and a beautiful and in amusing myself with my family ; bower, over which the honeysuckle was besides, I endeavour, to the best of my trailing, in the most delightful manner, ability, to instruct them all myself, for I and sending its “delicious sweets" abroad. consider a good education to be an inestiWe entered the cottage somewhat abruptly, mable blessing ; and to bring them up in the and took the family a little by surprise; fear of God, knowing that education, withstill they were delighted to see us. We out Christianity, will be an evil, rather than found all the family together, and the ap- a source of good. We thus spend our days pearance of the whole was, to an enlightened calmly and happily. There is no idleness and benevolent individual, deeply interest- --no profanity-no slander-no unholy ing. The peasant himself was a fine, manly, passion, in our humble abode. We wish fresh-coloured, and vigorous individual, ap- to walk consistently, and in peace and afparently about forty, and he had on his fection towards all around. Few know knee a laughing, healthy, chubby boy, of little of us; but we are contented, for we the age of five. Near him was his wife, a have peace and serenity of mind; our home clean, smiling, rosy-cheeked woman, all life, is the dwelling of harmony and love; and animation, sincerity, and apparent good we hope to live and die, with the satisfachumour. Two boys, one about seven, and tory testimony of a good conscience, that one about nine, were delighting themselves God and heaven will constitute our portion with some plates in the “Pilgrim's Pro- for ever. We wish to live as the friends of gress," and a light, elegant, and beautiful man, to walk as the children of God, and girl, apparently about thirteen, was gazing, to dwell with Jesus for ever in the heavenly with joyousness, on her youngest brother. sanctuary.” I never beheld a more beautiful or agree

“ Ah !" said I to my friend, on our reable group, and the scene would have pre- turn home, “this is, indeed, an enviable sented a striking appearance on canvass. condition! This is a happy man! How“ Well,” said my friend to the peasant," I ever lowly his cot, obscure his station, or have brought a stranger to see you, who limited his pecuniary resources, he possesses respects character, and delights in happi. true dignity, and enjoys genuine and high ness, wherever they are found.” “I am felicity. He can sit down in his habitation obliged to you, sir,” replied the peasant, with peacefulness and delight. He can re2D. SERIES, no. 19.--VOL. II.

2 R

163,--VOL. XIV.

pose himself on the bosom of his family perance, it would be sufficient to make with perfect satisfaction. He can look on ihem shrink back with horror, from pursuing the splendours, and luxurious enjoyments of their grievous failings, and they would no the opulent and mighty, and not desire the longer cherish a scorpion in their bosom. slightest degree of them; and, what is infi. What ought to be our thoughts when we nitely more important and delightful, he can see the most sumptuous table set out in all Jook up to heaven with inexpressible compo its magnificence ? should we be gratified at sure, cherishing the blissful anticipation, the expectation of partaking to an excess of that, after death, the delights and glories of the luxuries set before us? ought we not immortality will be his abundant and ex rather to imagine that we see disease lying haustless portion."

in ambuscade among the delicacies, and to What a heart-inspiring circumstance act with moderation ? would it be, if our peasants, generally, in It is greatly to be lamented that intempestead of being the creatures of ignorance rance does not rest in injuring its votaries the victims of intemperance—the beings of alone, but the innocent frequently feel the profanity, that so many of them are, were direful effects. How often do we see the under the hallowed influence of that reli- miserable mother pining over her helpless gion which expands the mind-which re- infants, while the cruel father is indulging in gulates the powers—which subdues the vio- his darling pleasures ; and notwithstanding lence of the passions—which sweetens life all the pills, potions, and plasters that may which elevates the character in every respect have been administered to him, he entails -which raises the mind above even the upon his posterity a train of distempers. heaviest afflictions—which prepares for all We need not envy the situation of a pampered the storms of existence, and fits the spirit lord, who, sunk” in ease and luxury, often for all the dread realities of eternity ; then, languishes without an heir to his estate. amidst all the fluctuations of this changing Drunkenness has very properly been and tempestuous scene, they would be styled a distemper of the head, a subversion abundantly supported, and would delight- of the senses, a tempest of the tongue, a fully anticipate the region,

storm in the body, the shipwreck of virtue, Where fragrant flowers immortal bloom, a loss of time, a wilful madness, a sugar'd

And joys supreme are given ; Where rays divine disperse the gloom, poison, &c.; and where drunkenness reigns, And pour the light of heaven."

there reason is an exile, virtue a stranger, London.

T. W.

blasphemy is wit, oaths are rhetoric, secrets are proclamations, and happiness is a stran

ger. Drunkenness murders the understandINTEMPERANCE may justly be called, the ing, and qualifies a man for every vice. parent of disease; yet numbers of mankind The Spartans caused their children to act as if they thought disease and death dislike drunkenness, by shewing them a were too slow in their progress, and by in- drunkard, whom they gazed at as a monster; temperance solicit their approach. If we and

among the heathens, he was considered only consider the construction of the human the best man, who spent more oil in the body, we at once see the danger of intem- lamp than wine in the bottle. perance. While the vital functions are re Beware of drunkenness, or all good men gularly performed by a proper state of the will beware of you; and be careful lest you solids and fluids, we are sound and well; should realize the saying, that he who goes but if, by intemperance, these are disturbed, to the tavern first for the love of company, our health must of course be impaired, will at last go there for the love of liquor. digestion hurt, the nerves relaxed, the sere. Too much evil has arisen from individuals tions irregular, the humours vitiated, and attending such places, only to take a single disease must ensue.

glass, and smoke a cigar with a friend, ReMoisture, manure, and warmth, greatly collect; it is easier not to commence an evil promote vegetation, but an excess of either than to leave it off, when once begun; and will destroy it; yet man, who is entitled to it should not be forgotten, that many people the character of a rational being, too often injure their health by drinking, who seldom becomes a slave to his appetite, and a dis. grace to human nature, by perpetually Nothing is more absurd than the unfortusearching out something to gratify his arti. nate and miserable expedient of expecting, ficial wants : “ Nature is content with when in distress, a remedy from drinking. little : but luxury knows no bounds." It is true that the senses may be drowned,

Did men but reflect on the painful and this to some may appear as a tem. diseases and premature deaths that are porary relief from calamily. But, alas ! daily taking place in consequence of intem this solace is of short duration; and when it


get drunk.

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