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of the natives, although dwelling in huts Several endeavours at a permanent resilittle better than sheds, and always taking dence of a missionary character were nevertheir food out of doors; and by the thriving theless made, whenever any circumstance prolific increase of animals conveyed thither produced an opening that might be regarded by Europeans. A sow and pigs, intro- as barely insuring the safety of the misduced by Captain Cook, have multiplied sionaries. These, however promising for a into an unknown number, both wild and season, ultimately failed, from the want of tame. The same navigator favoured the sufficient protection against surrounding cuZealanders with potatoes and turnips, pidity coveting their little property; or were which are now universally cultivated with given up on account of the whole expense abundant success, to the full extent of our of supporting the individuals separated and knowledge of New Zealand cultivation. located in these little communities for inThe list of fruits and vegetables, success- struction and civilization, as well as of the fully transferred to the fields and gardens of children of the schools being wholly and these islands, would occupy some pages of necessarily sustained by the missions, while a Hortus Botanicus of Australasia. The the realizing of any property by cultivation natural productions of the country are or otherwise on the spot, inevitably invited chiefly a singular kind of fax, of a silky the cupidity of every one to whom its exfineness, used for making cordage, ropes, istence was known. Some of the South and mats, of extraordinary strength and Sea missionaries having visited New Zea. durability, and a sort of wood, of the pine land, and ascertained the inaccessible chagenus, highly valued for spars, of which racter of the people through any medium there are immense forests, interspersed with at the command of the Society, reluctantly trees of a growth sufficient for the main and quitted the islands for more hospitable fore-top masts of the largest three-deckers, shores. as they rise from eighty to a hundred feet, “Shortly after, an enterprise was planned straight and without a branch, crowned with considerable judgment and care, with with umbrageous foliage. Such is the the view of forming a purely commercial beauty and grandeur of these forests, that establishment, and diffusing the benefits they are described as flourishing with a of civilization and instruction among the vigour almost superior to any thing that people. A great mass of property was imagination can conceive among the wildest adventured and expended in this attempt; and most picturesque walks of pure nature ; but the difficulties of the situation, the jeathe sublime and majestic character they lousy of the natives, and the absence of any present, challenging the admiration of every very powerful incentive to perseverance, in traveller. The coasts abound with fish and the face of the depressing influence of want tortoise, the shells of which offer, in the of success, accompanied by constant danger opinion of a resident, a promising object of and incessant alarm, brought this enterprise British trade.
to nothing, without accomplishing the “ Such is the country, containing about slightest benefit, either to the adventurers 95,000 square English miles, and such the or to the islanders; some of whom, howcharacter of the inhabitants, which early ever, frequently found their way to Port attracted the notice of the justly celebrated Jackson, and even to England : and these Dr. Franklin to such an extent, that he form the next link in the chain of attempted studied and organized a plan for civilizing improvement. and improving the people, and subscrip- « Several of these visiters, at different tions were actually commenced towards times, being chiefs, were received in England carrying it into effect; but the quarrel of with the greatest kindness, and were at. England with her American colonies, put tended with unceasing assiduity. The arts, a stop to these proceedings of enterprising conveniences, and comforts of civilized benevolence. Of later years, the various society were explained to their wondering Missionary Societies have always had their and applauding comprehension, and they eyes upon this inglorious spot, earnestly were finally dismissed with presents and desirous of conveying to it the blessings of counsels adapted to their characters and revealed religion, as the surest means of circumstances. This medium, also, utterly imparting the principles of civil order and failed of producing any beneficial effect. social peace to its terrific inhabitants. But A New Zealand chief contemplated the missionary attempts were for a long time wonders of England principally with the deferred, on account of the ferocious cha. eye and heart of a warrior.
Having racter of the people rendering an unresist- brought hither, and carried away with him, ing and peaceful residence among them the spirit of his countrymen unbroken and scarcely to be contemplated as possible. entire, guns, swords, ammunition, and iron, were the principal objects of interest with precursors of the arts of civilization and him while here, and formed the main peace. topics of his regret on leaving them be- “ The labours of the press have also hind him. On returning to his native land, reached that land of darkness. After some every acquisition he had made in the way elementary books, in which their language of knowledge, skill, and possession, was is printed as expressed by English letters, turned to immediate account in the fa- which many of the natives and their chilvourite pursuits of war, devastation, and dren were taught to read, parts of Genesis, all the exercises of unbridled licentious the xxth of Exodus, parts of the Gospels, power.
and the Lord's Prayer, have been printed “On behalf of this interesting people, in their language; and the natives are dewhose history is full of instances of the lighted with their books, and the new atmost touching affection, lively gratitude, tainment of reading them, which stimulates stedfast friendship, and persevering exer- others also to acquire the same ability. tion, sustained by a spirit of independence “As to civilization, English blankets are such as inight put many of their accusers to become a valuable article of barter, and the blush, our hopes, under God, rest upon have happily superseded the anxious rethe Christian missionary, and the patrons quisitions for muskets and powder. Blanand friends whose countenance and contri- kets promised in payment for wheat have butions support him in his course. He, extended its cultivation; their horned cattle and he only, we are bold to affirm, pos- have increased to ninety-five head, supplysesses the animus that will sustain the con- ing the settlement with milk and animal flict and come off conqueror, when brought food. We have before us the testimony of to bear upon the profound ignorance, the len persons, occupied at different stations, vile superstitions, and viler passions, and all rejoicing in the most pleasing prospects depraved and degraded habits even of can- as to the people's docility, attention, and nibal tribes. But his weapons, though eagerness to be instructed ; and all uniting mighty, are neither noisy, punitive, nor in observing, “It is very evident that a hasty : they make their silent way effectually considerable change has been effected as the leaven in the meal, and reduplicate among the natives ;” formerly they were like their principles like corn upon the mountain- wild men, but now they are civil, converse tops. It is to the honour of the Church sensibly, and, before retiring to rest, pray Missionary Society, and the indefatigable to God, without being taught a form, in exertions of that excellent minister, the language which shews they understand Rev. Mr. Marsden, chaplain to the colony scripture truth. The schools also, (everyat Sydney, that the commencement of im- where the germ of civilization and improve provement in the character and prospects ment,) in which several hundred native of the New Zealanders is principally to be children are daily instructed, are going on attributed. After a series of exertions, pri- well. vations, disappointments, and sufferings, “Those of our readers who are friendly to highly honourable to the parties encounter- missionary efforts, on contemplating the ing and enduring them, Christian mission- character of these islanders, existing but a aries have been established, and stations few years ago, without a solitary exception, formed in the Bay of Islands, the most as sketched in the preceding paragraphs, favourable spot that could be found for the have indeed "read with astonishment” purposes either of trade or missionary and gratitude, in their respective doculabour.
ments, the details of a change so auspicious “ As much as two years ago, Mr. Marsden to the future character and well-being of wrote thus :-“ New Zealand is now open, these objects of their Christian charity and in every part, for the introduction of the daily prayers. From the whole, it may be gospel and the arts of civilization pronounced without hesitation, that the era
There can be no doubt that New Zealand of civilization has commenced with the will become a civilized nation.” The cor- people of these islands, under circumstances rectness of this representation is sustained of peculiarly fair and auspicious promise. by the fact, that the Wesleyan mission has A mild and moral sway is at this moment been resumed on the side of the island exercised among these rude but noble baropposite to its former situation, in the barians," which cannot fail in ultimately midst of a population of 4000 natives, and subduing their destructive animosities, and protected by a friendly chief. Indeed, abolishing their sanguinary habits. Chrismany of the chiefs, witnessing the advan- tianity, emphatically the religion of civilitages of being near the mission settlements, zation, accompanied by literature and are anxious to obtain missionaries, as the science, is going forth among them, and it
THE EDDYSTONE LIGHTHOUSE.
is not possible for us to conceive that her an elbow-chair, its arms would clasp around triumph over ignorance, prejudice, and you. His light-house, which was built of ferocity, will be less than complete. The wood, partook of his whimsical genius. It New Zealanders have, indeed, to learn and was finished with galleries and other ornaappreciate the difference between Christian ments, which encumbered it, without being missionaries, and Englishmen escaping of any use. It was, however, on the whole, from transportation, deserters from our navy, much admired as a very ingenious edifice, or captains like the hero of the preceding and Winstanley certainly deserved the crehorrible narrative; but the quick sensibility dit of being the first projector of a very of these islanders, improved and guided by difficult work. He had fixed it to the rock the scriptures, will not be long in making by twelve massy bars of iron, which were the necessary distinctions."
let down deep into the body of the stone. It was generally, indeed, thought well founded ; and the architect himself was so
convinced of its stability, that he would Among the curiosities of this part of the often say, he wished for nothing more than Cornish coast, the Eddystone light-house is to be shut up in it during a violent storm. not one of the least. About three leagues He at length had his wish; for he happened beyond Plymouth-sound, in a line nearly to be in it, at the time of that memorable between Start-point and the Lizard, lie a storm on the 26th of November, 1703. As number of low rocks, exceedingly dan- the violence, however, of the tempest came gerous at all times, but especially when the on, the terrified architect began to doubt tides are high, which render them invisible. the firmness of his work; it trembled in the On these rocks it had long been thought blast, and shook in every joint. In vain be necessary to place some monitory signal. made what signals of distress he could inBut the difficulty of constructing a light- vent, to bring a boat from the shore. The house was great. One of the rocks, in- terrors of the storm were such, that the deed, which compose this reef, is con- boldest vessel durst not face it. How long siderably larger than the rest; yet its di- he continued in this melancholy distress is mensions are still narrow: it is often unknown; but in the morning no appear. covered with water, and frequently, even ance of the light-house was left. It and all in the calmest weather, surrounded by a its contents, during that terrible night, were swelling sea, which makes it difficult to land swept into the sea. This catastrophe fure apon it; and much more so to carry on nished Mr. Gay with the following simile any work of time and labour. The un- in bis Trivia, which was written a few years common tumult of the sea in this place is after the eventoccasioned by a peculiarity in the rocks. “So when fam'd Eddystone's far-shooting ray,
That led the sailor through the stormy way, As they all slope and point to the north
Was from its rocky roots by billows torn, east, they spread their inclined sides, of
And the high turret in the whirlwind berne, course, to the swelling tides and storms of Fleets bulged their sides against the craggy land, the Atlantic. And as they continue in this
And pitchy ruins blacken'd all the strand.” shelving direction many fathoms below the A light-house was again constructed on surface of the sea, they occasion that violent this rock before the conclusion of Queen working of the water which the seamen Anne's reign. It was undertaken by one call a ground swell. So that, after a storm, Rudyard, who built it also of wood, but when the surface of the sea around is per- having seen his predecessor's errors, avoided fectly smooth, the swells and agitation them. He followed Winstanley's idea in about these rocks are dangerous. From the mode of fixing his structure to the these continual eddies, the Eddystone de- but he chose a plain circular form, rives its name.
without any gallery, or useless projecting The first light-house of any consequence, parts for the storm to fasten on. erected on this rock, was undertaken by a stability also to his work, he judiciously inperson of the name of Winstanley, in the troduced, as ballast at the bottom, 270 tons reign of king William. Mr. Winstanley of stone. In short, every precaution was does not appear to have been a man of taken to secure it against the fury of the solidity and judgment sufficient to erect an two elements of wind and water, which had edifice of this kind. He had never been destroyed the last; but it fell by a ibird. noted for any capital work ; but much Late one night, in the year 1755, it was celebrated for a variety of trifling and ridi- observed from the shore to be on fire. Its culous contrivances. If you set your foot upper works having been constructed of on a certain board in one of his rooms, a light timber, probably could not bear the ghost would start up; or if you sat down in heat. It happened fortunately that admiral
West rode with a fleet at that time in the The care of this important beacon is Sound; and, being so near the spot, he im- committed to four men; two of whom take mediately manned two or three swift boats. the charge of it by turns, and are relieved Other boats put off from the shore ; but every six weeks. But as it often happens, though it was not stormy, it was impossible especially in stormy weather, that boats to land. In the mean time, the fire having cannot touch at the Eddystone for many descended to the lower parts of the building, months, a proper quantity of salt provision had driven the poor inhabitants upon the is always laid up, as in a ship victualled for skirts of the rock, where they were sitting a long voyage. In high winds, such a briny disconsolate, when assistance arrived. They atmosphere surrounds this gloomy solitude, had the mortification, however, to find that from the dashing of the waves, that a man the boats, through fear of being dashed to exposed to it could not draw his breath. pieces, were obliged to keep aloof. At At these dreadful intervals, the two forlorn length, it was contrived to throw coils of inhabitants keep close quarters, and are rope upon the rock, which the men tied obliged to live in darkness and stench ; round them, and were dragged on board listening to the howling storm, excluded in through the sea.
every emergency from the least hope of asThe case of one of these poor fellows, sistance, and without any earthly comfort, who was above ninety 'years of age, was
but what is administered from their consingular. As he had been endeavouring fidence in the strength of the building in to extinguish the fire in the cupola, where which they are immured. Once, on relievit first raged, and was looking up, the ing this forlorn guard, one of the men was melted lead from the roof came trickling found dead, his companion choosing rather down upon his face and shoulders. At Ply- to shut himself up with a putrifying carcase, mouth he was put into a surgeon's hands; than, by throwing it into the sea, to incur and, though much hurt, he appeared to be the suspicion of murder. In fine weather, in no
danger. He constantly, however, these wretched beings just scramble a little affirmed, that some of the melted lead had about the edge of the rock, when the tide fallen down his throat. This was not be ebbs, and amuse themselves with fishing ; lieved, as it was thought he could not have which is the only employment they have, survived such a circumstance. In twelve - except that of trimming their nightly fires. days he died; and Mr. Smeaton says, he Such total inaction and entire seclusion saw the lead, after it had been taken out of from all the joys and aids of society, can his stomach; and that it weighed seven only be endured by great religious philoso. ounces.
phy, which we cannot imagine they feel; The next light-house, which is the pre- or by great stupidity, which in pity we must sent one, was built by Mr. Smeaton, in suppose they possess. 1759, and is constructed on a plan, which Yet, though this wretched community is so it is hoped will secure it against every dan. small, we are assured it has sometimes been ger,' It is built entirely of stone, in a cir- a scene of misanthropy. Instead of suffering cular form. Its foundations are let into a the recollection of those distresses and dansocket in the rock on which it stands, and gers in which each is deserted by all but of which it almost makes a part; for the one, to endear that one to him, we were instones are all united with the rock, and formed the humours of each were so soured, with each other, by massy dove-tails. The that they preyed both on themselves, and cement used in this curious masonry is the on each other. If one sat above, the other lime of Watchet, from whence Mr. Smeaton was commonly found below.
Their meals, contrived to bring it barrelled up in cider- too, were solitary; each, like a brute, casks; for the proprietors will not suffer it growling over his food alone. to be exported in its crude state. The door We are sorry to acknowledge a picture of this ingenious piece of architecture is only like this to be a likeness of human nature. the size of a ship's gun-port; and the win. In some gentle minds, we see the kind affecdows are mere loop-holesdenying light, to tions rejoice in being beckoned even from exclude wind. When the tide swells above scenes of innocence, mirth, and gaiety, to the foundation of the building, the light- mingle the sympathetic tear with affliction house makes the odd appearance of a
and distress. But experience shows us, structure emerging from the waves. But that the heart of man is equally susceptible sometimes a wave rises above the very top of the malevolent passions ; and religion of it, and, circling round, the whole looks joins in confirming the melancholy truth. like a column of water, till it breaks into The picturesque eye, in the mean time, foam, and subsides,
surveys natural and moral evil under • See Mr. Smeaton's Account of the Eddystone. characters entirely different. Darken the 2D. SERIES, NO. 17.-VOL. II.
TALE OF A SKULL.
storm; let loose the winds; let the waves ever, of rare occurrence: for the baron being overwhelm all that is fair and good; the chiefly at court, was seen but seldom at the storm will be sublime, and the catastrophe northern castle, where his little son was pathetic : while the moral tempest is dreary, born; and for the first ten years of his without grandeur, and the catastrophe af- life, I found my situation sufficiently moflicting, without one picturesque idea. The emolument of this arduous post is When Albert de B
was seven years twenty pounds a year, and provisions while old, his mother died; the baron returned on duty. The house to live in may be to the castle just in time to bid her farewell, fairly thrown into the bargain. The whole and, after her funeral in the chapel, contitogether is, perhaps, one of the least eligible nued there some months, to attend to his pieces of preferment in Britain ; and yet, infant son, who was the more beloved, as from a story, which Mr. Smeaton relates, it he was the only child, and the very appears there are stations still more ineli- image of his departed parent. At pine gible. A fellow, who got a good livelihood years of age, Albert was a lad of the most by making leathern pipes for engines, grew noble manners, and attractive appearance. tired of sitting constantly at work, and so- Being near the post of observation, I had licited a light-house man's place, which, as frequent opportunity of ascertaining this : competitors are not numerous, he obtained. and in my many wanderings, among all As the Eddystone boat was carrying him to the persons who have fallen under my take possession of his new habitation, one notice, I never met with a countenance of the boatman asked him, what could tempt that struck me as more intelligently beauhim to give up a profitable business, to be tiful. shut
for months together in a pillar ? At this time he was put under the care Why,” said the man, “ because I did not of the priest, who instructed him every day like confinement !"
in Latin, and such of the sciences as the young nobles of that period were taught. He learned also to ride, till he could sit the most fiery horse with perfect safety; he was
likewise taught to swim, and to shoot with Perhaps in this neglected spot is laid
the long bow: and at the age of fourteen Some heart once pregnant with celestial fire; Hands, that the rod of empire might have swayed,
he used the cross-bow; and soon after Or waked to ecstasy the living lyre.
began to practise in a full suit of knightly Leaves have their time to fall,
armour, which was presented to him by a And flowers to wither at the north wind's breath, noble relative; and in a few years he was, Thou hast all seasons for thine own, o death!
without doubt, one of the most accomYouth, and the opening rose, May look like things too glorious for decay,
plished knights that England could boast. And smile at thee; but thon art not of those
As all the share I took in his conThat wait the ripened bloom to seize their prey ?
cerns was only personal, I knew nothing beyond.
I well recollect a passage of I FIRST entered the world, in the possession arms, in which Albert had overcome five of an infant, of a very noble family in the knights of great celebrity; in the contest north of England, just four hundred years with the sixth, the adversary's spear was ago. His birth was greeted with the utmost shivered, and one of the splinters struck festivity; the old hall of the castle was filled the youthful Albert over the eye, and left a from end to end with the feudal retainers of very dangerous wound. Both fell ; and as the baron, the father of 'the little boy, who neither rose to demand the surrender of the was brought into the hall every day of the other, the heralds interfered, and, on lifting feast, dressed in a little scarlet silk robe. them up, the adversary was no more, and The vassals were allowed to kiss his hand; Albert was insensible. In course of time, and all seemed to vie with each other in however, he recovered, the wound healed, flattering him, in order to gain the favour and left no scar; but the indentation formed of the baron and his lady. It was, how- in myself I retain to this very day. ever, of little importance, for the object of Some years after, he was called to actheir praises was quite unconscious of them. company his father into the field against After these revels had passed away, I re- his monarch, Henry VI., in behalf of the member little of the life of my possessor;
Duke of York. Many of the opposite he was clothed, I recollect, in the most party did I behold crouch beneath his costly manner, and the baron would some- lance; at length, in one of the most destimes visit the turret in which the nursery perate contests, the bloody Clifford, with was situated, and bestow an affectionate eye of fire, attacked the baron, who was kiss upon his infant son. This was, how. fighting in the front of the battle, with his
And stars to set-but all,