« ForrigeFortsæt »
MY NOTE-BOOK.-NO. II.
PLAINNESS OF SPEECH IN THE PULPIT.
ragements, of the inspired volume, in order that his auditory may perceive the matchless beauty, properly appreciate the value,
and sensibly feel the commanding import" When a man gets into the pulpit, he should not attempt to utter fine things; but to exhibit
ance of that, which is finely designated, great truths in a plain manner.'
“ the truth as it is in Jesus.”
Every thing associated with the ministry Going into a place of worship, some period of the gospel is of such ineffable magnisince, I was astonished, and deeply grieved, tude and moment, that the utmost plainwhen hearing the minister utter the follow
ness and simplicity are absolutely requisite. ing expressions—“The feculence of morbid It is not merely desirable that a man should inanition ;” converging towards a to. speak plainly to the people, it is essential, tality;"
;" “ the inexplicable meshes of meta- for his own justification, and their permaphysical subtlety and abstraction ;” and nent and immortal happiness. The slightest many other phrases and sentences, equally mistakes or errors may prove so hazardous singular, inappropriate, and unwarrantable. and pernicious; the period of man's conI looked around me, and narrowly sur- tinuance and probation here is so fleeting veyed the congregation assembled. It and evanescent; the heedlessness discovered was comparatively plain, and apparently in relation to the greatest of all great unlettered, and the utmost mortification, things,” is so general; and numbers of and even disgust, seemed to be depictured mankind are involved in ignorance so proin the countenances of several estimable found and entire, with regard to some of and pious individuals.
the most interesting, sublime, and awful I was so much hurt, and felt so indig- subjects ; that, unless a minister be plain in nantly, with the character of the discourse the pulpit, he is chargeable with a gross altogether, that I could scarcely refrain dereliction of duty, he is acting quite infrom weeping, to think that the souls of appropriately and unwisely, and is most men should be so shamelessly trifled with, wantonly and criminally trifling with the as they unquestionably were by this pulpit dearest interests of man ; thus he dishonours orator. A short period after, I took up his Master, prostitutes his sacred office, “My Note-book," and inserted in it the
opens a wide door for remark, castigation, following unpretending observations. Cow- as well as ridicule, and fails in accomper observes, very justly,
plishing those momentous ends, to secure “I seek divine simplicity in him
which the gospel ministry has been instiWho handles things divine ;"
tuted. and it must uniformly appear to every just Plain sermons are what we all most thinker, to every man who desires the hap- obviously require; not elaborate, showy, piness and salvation of his brethren, that, “ gaudy nothings.” Intelligence, taste, if an individual be plain in his mode of classical research, vigorous fancy, elaborate expression, simple and luminous in his argument, superior and splendid intellect, style of thinking, any where, or under any are all very well in their place; but let a circumstances, this beautiful and trans. minister shew the people intrusted to his parent simplicity ought to be discovered in care, in the first instance, that it is not his the pulpit.
supreme desire to exhibit his attainments, The great business of a minister of or his mind, but to make all things plain.” Christ is, or, at least, should be, to preach This is the reason why I estimate so highly the truth, so that all may understand what the discourses of the Rev. Wm. Jay; they he advances, and be sensible of the force are so unaffected and beauteous in their and conclusiveness of the principles which own simplicity.” Fine, useful, scriptural he lays down, of the affirmations he makes, thoughts, not finely, but plainly and enerof the illustrations he furnishes, and of the getically expressed, characterize his pulpit deductions he wishes to establish. The efforts and his published sermons; and this, supreme object of an estimable and devoted unquestionably, is the great secret of his minister of the gospel is, not to be admired popularity and usefulness. If ministers as the finished gentleman, as the man of wish to produce a powerful and indelible refined and classic taste, as an orator of impression on the minds and hearts of their consummate beauty and power, or as à auditory, they must form the habit of speakprofound and vigorous thinker ; the object ing plainly to the people. Let language of bis devout and unceasing solicitude is, be unaffected, obvious, and, sometimes, to pour a stream of radiance on the doc- even colloquial, in a certain degree, so that trines, the principles, the precepts, the a congregation may more sensibly feel admonitions, the invitations, the encou- what the minister delivers; and let great 2D. SERIES, NO. 17.-VOL. II.
161.- VOL. XIV.
“ O Sister meek of truth!
RACTER OF THE NATIVES.
simplicity and artlessness of thought be attractive, or produce so powerful an imrigidly studied ; else, sermons, however ac- pression, as when a chaste, manly, and curate, philosophical, and excellent, will dignified simplicity pervades and beautifies not tell energetically on the heart and con- them. science.
Ministers, as well as private individuals, “I never heard my minister to greater should, then, uniformly remember, that advantage,” said a good woman to the nothing is lost by preserving, at all times, writer, a few months since, “ than when he unstudied and unborrowed simplicity; it was obliged to preach unexpectedly. He will impart a grace and loveliness, which had little opportunity for preparation, no nothing else can communicate. On this time for elaborate study, and I never en- subject, the exquisite lines of Collins must joyed a sermon more in my life, it was so not be forgotten. plain and unaffected. It made me feel, because I knew that what the minister said
To my admiring youth, was expressed as he felt it." Thus I have Thy sober aid, and native charms infuse!
The flowers that sweetest breathe, frequently heard it remarked, that ministers
Though Beauty cull’d the wreath, never liked so well by their own Still ask thy hand to raise their order'd hues." people, especially among the dissenters, as London.
T. W. on the week-day evenings, when their discourses are generally more simple and un
CANNIBALISM IN NEW ZEALAND, STATE pretending, and less laboured ; all this shews the necessity of aiming at simplicity and
OF THE COUNTRY, AND GENERAL CHAplainness, in order that ministerial efforts may not prove nugatory or useless. It is The following horrible story is extracted affecting, indeed overwhelming, to think, from the
Tasmanian, a paper, published in that the poorest or the most unlettered person Hobart Town, of the 28th of Jan. 1831. in our respective congregations, should de- “At the northern part of New Zealand part from the house of God, observing, are two chiefs, Hecho, and Robulloh. that, “the minister was quite beyond her Hecho is the son of a chief who is spoken comprehension.”
the Payie,' who was taken to EngThe common people, those who enjoyed land some years ago, where, having received few literary and intellectual advantages, as great attention, upon his return he declared well as secular resources, heard Jesus himself the enemy of all those of his counChrist gladly, because he spoke plainly to try who should attack any English vessel, the people. There was a sweet and win- or injure any Englishman-of course, beyond ning simplicity in his discourses, which the mere practice of thieving, which is the powerfully and resistlessly attracted them, vocation of these islanders. A few years and made them sensibly feel the announce- since, a chieftain of the south-eastern coast ments which he made to them. Why had killed and eaten Captain Downie and should ministers consider it a mark of folly, the crew of the brig Samuel. or of degradation, to imitate Him who people had succeeded in taking a midshipspake as never man spake ?
man and a boat's crew of his Majesty's perfectly harmonize with the sentiments ship Warspite, commanded by the late Sir einbodied in the following passage.
J. Brisbane, who were killed, and afterI called upon to express, in one word, the wards eaten, as mere matter of course. most important requisite in those discourses “To avenge these atrocities, the Payie designed to produce a powerful effect, and the Robulloh, went in 1822, with a equally on the judgment and the passions, strong body of their people, and, taking the I would say, that word is simplicity; with- former by surprise, they killed and ate all out it nothing can be distinetly perceived ; they could find, destroying all before them nothing can be deeply felt. The thoughts of the unfortunate clan, who, in their turn, presented are encompassed by a mist. furnished food for their cannibal appetite. Their real shape, and magnitude, and Glutted with blood, but still hankering for colouring, and other properties, are not more, they landed upon Banks's Island known and understood; it is, therefore, with the same horrible intent. But there absurd to expect that the view of them they met with a check. The chieftain, who should make any, either correct, or strong was called the Marinewie, was prepared impressions." Elegant simplicity in an for their reception ; a battle ensued, in oration, on any subject, is one of its most which the invaders were defeated, with the fascinating charms; and this is the case loss of the Payie, who being taken by the pre-eminently with all pulpit compositions. Marinewie, was by that chief killed and They never shine out so clearly, appear so eaten, as was also an Englishman named
Smith, who had joined the allies in their ship, and having succeeded in capturing predatory excursion. The Robulloh escaped, the wife and daughter of the Marinewie, and, on his return to his native place, united they sent them on board, and a work of with the Hecho, the son of the Payie, who death ensued, utterly indescribable, for the had succeeded to his eaten father's throne, horrible cruelties which were perpetrated. in the determination to avenge the former The whole population of the place who did disasters.
not escape, were killed, except about fifty “ Thus matters stood until about the reserved to be taken back to be sacrificed middle of last year, when Captain Briggs, at the bloody feast of triumph which in the Dragon, arrived at the territory of awaited their return. At day-light in the these allied chieftains. Their first attempt morning, the victors were seen actively was to endeavour to induce him to accom. employed in cutting up and preparing for pany them in an expedition which they had the steam-kettle the dead bodies of the been for some time preparing, against the slaughtered victims of the night. The crew Marinewie. They did not, however, suc. of the vessel described the horrors which ceed. Captain Briggs peremptorily refused they witnessed as beyond everything to be associated in the horrid enterprise. dreadful. The whole of the day was ocNot so, however, the commander of another cupied in salting and packing in baskets, British vessel, which happened just then to heads and bodies to be conveyed back. arrive upon a trading voyage. The two Amongst the victims was a fine young wochiefs agreed with this person, that his ship man, near her accouchement, whose head should convey them and their people to the and part of her body were salted, and the country of the Marinewie, where the war remainder, in the presence of the captain, was to be carried on to utter extermination. officers, and the whole crew of the British
“On the 29th of October, of the last ship, given to the pigs ! year, the expedition sailed; there was a On the 11th of November, in the fine fleet of war canoes, and the two chiefs, morning, the brig having arrived with her with about one hundred picked warriors, cargo of human Aesh, living and dead, at were on board the English brig. Captain about 11 A. M. preparations were made for Briggs remained at the anchorage. On the the triumphal landing. And here a peculiar 11th of November the expedition returned, feature in the character of the New Zeahaving been entirely successful : the Ma- landers was exhibited.
Ferocious as aprinewie had been taken by surprise, his pears to be the male character, that of the whole people destroyed, except such as fled female appears in strong contrast thereto. into the interior beyond the reach of pur- Not a single woman was on the beach to suit, and himself, his wife, and his daugh- receive either husband or lover, not a child ter, a beautiful girl of fifteen, taken pri- to welcome its parent, not a father to wel
The captain of the English vessel come his son. All was silence, and-exstated, that on their arrival at Banks's har- cept as respected the cannibal warriors, and bour, the Payie and the Robulloh had the dead mutilated remains of their slaughcaused all their people to conceal them- tered victims-solitude. The prisoners selves below; that the Marinewie sent im- were landed and ranged, seated on the mediately on board to negotiate for the beach ; the conquerors having brought on trading, which he, of course, supposed was shore the salted bodies of the victims of the object of the Englishman's arrival. He their ferocity. Each basket is of sufficient demanded two double guns, by way of tri- size to hold a human body cut up into bute to himself, for permission to open the pieces : of these there were, according to trade. This was granted. The trade com- Captain Briggs' calculation, about one menced, and the Marinewie, not suspecting hundred. The war dance then commenced, the fate which awaited him, confiding fully the warriors being naked—their long black in the Englishman's honour, went himself hair, although matted with gore, yet flowing on board to visit him. After he had been partially in the wind, in the left hand, a seated in the cabin a short time, the Hecho human head; in the right, a bayonetted and the Robulloh jumped upon him, from musket, held by the middle of the barrel. their place of concealment, as did their Thus, with a song, the terrible expression people upon all those who had attended of which can only be imagined by being him on board, and, seizing him by the hair, heard, did they dance round their wretched explained to him his situation. The scene victims, every now and again approaching which followed is too dreadful to be them with gestures threatening death under described.
its most horrid form of lingering torture ! “Under the cover of night, the Robulloh, But they did not inflict it. None of them the Payie, and their men, landed from the were killed. All were apportioned amour
the conquering warriors as slaves, one old ships of the maritime nations of Europe man and a little boy excepted, who were and of America : local agents have been sentenced to be sacrificed to their demon of placed in convenient situations ; grounds vengeance.
have been purchased, and settlements “ The feast was then prepared, at which forined, and much casual trade carried on these two victims were to be killed and with the people on various parts of the eaten. It consisted of about one hundred coasts, but principally at the Bay of Islands baskets of potatoes, and a sort of green and in the immediate vicinity of East Cape, vegetable of delicious flavour, and equal which has already produced a sort of regular quantities of whale blubber and human industry, not to be found elsewhere--from flesh. Everything being arranged, the 150 to 200 acres of land being in a state of poor old man was brought forth horribly good cultivation in the Bay. In fact, the accoutred for death, having affixed round interior of these Islands, not withstanding the his neck the head of his son, whose body long residence of various Europeans, is as formed part of the infernal banquet then perfectly unknown to the civilized world as exhibited. Here, for the first time, a few the interior of Africa. The whole country women appeared. Some few, wives or appears to be in the possession of numbermothers, whose husbands or whose sons less petty tribes; every one wearing the had been in their turn killed and eaten, ap. front of war and defiance against all the rest. proached the poor old man, and, plucking They drink in the spirit of revenge and war the hair off his head and beard, pricking from their earliest infancy. “ Sudden and hiin with the teeth of some fish or other quick in quarrel,” they know nothing of animal, inflicted upon him every possible forgiveness without a recompense: even bodily torture, while the inventions of their after a quarrel is made up, the injured party demoniacal countrymen were doing their will calmly pursue the principles of the lex utmost to agonize his mind! Captain talionis, a fence for a fence, a pig for a pig, Briggs, who witnessed all this, determined a life for a life, the pacification only imto save this poor man's life, and that of the plying it should stop there. Can it be boy, who was also to be sacrificed, if such matter of surprise that such a people should could be done by either force or price. meet the aggressions of Europeans blow for The boy was brought forth to die. A man blow? had the axe extended over his head, and “ If some of their retaliatory exploits aswas about to cleave it in twain, when Cap- tound us by their atrocity, and excite our hortain Briggs, at a hazard which may be rorand disgust, the little patches of New Zeaeasily understood, seized him, and by land history exhibit abundant provocations threats and entreaties, the risk of which, at to a people who do not choose to stand still şuch a time, he cannot now contemplate and be knocked on the head! A New without shuddering, obtained the life of the Zealander possesses an absolute passion for boy altogether, and that of the old man for war; his slaughtered enemy he eats, that a time! The next day he was taken 10 he may indulge in the full gluttony of reanother place, where his doom was sealed venge, while he gratifies to the utmost his with every circumstance of horror and voracious appetite; he is a cannibal from atrocity, The boy still lives. Captain principle as well as taste, believing that as Briggs paid the ransom of his life in mus- the blood of his adversary becomes incorkets and gunpowder.
porated with his own, all the estimable “ New Zealand consists of two islands, qualities, and all the good fortune that lying westward of all the groups in the great belonged to the conquered, will be thus Pacific Ocean, and nearly in the track of transferred to the victor !* So long as shipping from the Friendly and Society their ler talionis principles prevail, their Islands to the British settlements in New must prove interminable: they beHolland. From their original discovery by queath their quarrels from one generaTasman, in 1642, even to the present day, tion to another; and the latest conquerors the character of the inhabitants has ex- or their progeny have only to wait till the hibited the most hostile features towards the numbers and strength of their enemy shall occasional visitors of their coasts; and all the intercourse hitherto held with them, With all the horror and disgust we feel at canni
balism, it is hut fair to mention, that it is not confined presents, in great boldness of relief, most of
to New Zealand. Sir Stamford Raffles relates, rethe vices and the virtues of savage life.
specting the Battas, an extensive and populous nation
of Sumatra, that they have a regular government and From the time of Captain Cook's visits in deliberative assemblies,possess a written character, and 1769, and 1777, the shores of these islands
have a talent for eloquence, aeknowledge a God, are
fair and honourable in their dealings, crimes amongst have, with increasing frequency, been re- them are few, and their country is highly cultivated;
yet this people are canoibals upon principle and sorted to, for the purposes of trade, by the system !
be recruited, to be certain that retribution that his father's death might not remain unis at hand. Should no old quarrel be ripe revenged. If we often stand aghast with enough for retaliation, such is the universal horror at the character of their vengeance, and incessant passion for the excitement we should take into the account the number found in war and bloodshed, that an assem- and nature of its provocations. The memblage of five hundred fighting men has been bers of civilized communities (so called !) known to set out on an excursion of killing, bave never been remarkable for any very eating, and plundering, and pursue their strict regard to propriety, right, or justice, object with a merciless and resistless ra- in their treatment of those whom they are pidity which made their progress resemble pleased to call savages. It is even the thundering rush of an avalanche, or the record, that above a hundred of the natives gushing forth of a mighty river, bursting its of New Zealand have been slain by Euroancient bounds, destroying at one fell swoop peans, in the vicinity of the Bay of Islands every inhabitant of a district equal in ex. only. This sort of retaliating war, sustent to one of our smaller counties. Acting tained and accompanied by incessant wrongs thus among themselves, we may be assured and injustice of every description, of which of their carrying the same principles into these islanders are extremely sensible, had their transactions with foreigners; of which, long since extended itself so widely, and examples, in a series, have already com- with such diffused mischiefs, that a Society menced, without prospect of a termi- was formed at Port Jackson “ for the Pronation. We will mention only one of tection of the Native Inhabitants of New these :
Zealand.” “A son of one of their chiefs was flogged “ The chiefs of these islands, who are pretty on board an English ship; the Zealander numerous, exercise a pure despotism over hid it in his memory; and, on arriving at the cookees or slaves of their respective the place of his tribe, he planned and exe- tribes, being restricted only by their peculiar cuted a scheme of daring and horrible re- customs, not very explicitly understood, and venge with so much art, address, cunning, seldom regarded in times of passionate exand ferocity, that the ship was destroyed, citement. Provisions form a common stock, and the whole crew, with a trifling ex- under the care of the rangatiras, and at ception, massacred and eaten. Some time the disposal of the chief. Theft from a chief after, another English ship, arrived upon is punished with instant death; though when another part of the coast, inhabited by a one cookee steals from another, it is little different tribe, and the captain and men on noticed, except by a laugh, if dexterously board, as if they had inhaled a New Zea- performed. Indeed, private property, of land spirit, by breathing the air of the which, however, the possessors are extremely island, destroyed every man, woman, and jealous, is held only by strength; and even child 'they could lay hands on, by way of the life of any of the lower class is sacrificed revenge. The survivors of the families who on the slighest pretences. For example, suffered on that occasion have probably should a chief take a journey which detains found an opportunity of returning the blow; him from home a few weeks, a grand feast for the great passion of savage lise is revenge. is held in honour of his return; pigs and The intensity and permanence of this un- potatoes are provided for such Europeans quenchable thirst for ample and special as happen to be present; but a slave girl, retribution is somewhat illustrated by a cir- among the attendants, is suddenly killed by cumstance connected with the death of the a blow on the head, without a moment's individual we have just referred to, as in- previous notice, and cooked in a pit made flicting such horrible vengeance upon the in the ground, amid the general uproarious crew of the ship in which he had suffered joy of the occasion, which is indulged and the indignity of a flogging.
increased by devouring the victim. Between When he came to die, he was visited with the chiefs and the lower order, the rangasome deep compunctious relentings, not for tiras are a numerous class, whose attendance what he had done on that occasion, but that on the chief forms the basis of his power ; he had made no adequate satisfaction to and, as the men of this class do no work, the manes of his father, who was killed in they may be termed the gentlemen of the the conflict, by some audacious act of community; a title which they are ready atrocity and bloodshed, worthy of his enough to assume, with all the imagined name, and particularly designed and per- importance belonging to it. petrated for that especial purpose.
He « The climate of New Zealand is a happy therefore gave directions to his friends, that medium between the torrid and frigid instantly after his decease they should kill zones, the healthiness whereof is testified the missionaries and seize their property, by the size, the sturdy vigour and strength,