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this emergency, to subserve our purposes; nuisances, they merit indictments, and not for by extracting the carbon, lime decom- less so, as dangerous vehicles, wherein the poses the carbonic acid, and renders the pestilence, which has so awfully visited the other gases salubrious:
nation, may be transmitted to thousands of In order to apply lime, reduce it to a their fellow-men. Lime, yea, even chlo. fine powder: softly spread this powder rides, are thrown away, as disinfectors, upon down the orifices of privies, cess-pools, and these masses of fermentation, where ardent upon any accumulations of putridity within spirits deal excitements to effervescence, and upon your premises. The finer the consuming body and soul. powder, the better ; because it thus comes Woe to the drunkards in Britain! The into contact with the atoms of carbon upon guilt of self-destruction in these, is enhanced a larger scale, and becomes more effica- by the destruction which they perpetuate cious. In addition to this, after brushing upon men more worthy than themselves. off all loose particles, and rendering them Is there no balm in Gilead? Are there no perfectly clean, lime-wash the surfaces of physicians there? One Physician lives, the walls and ceilings, not only in the alone, and they will not come unto Him dwelling, but the privy, shop, out-houses, that they may have life. If these sots will &c. &c. thoroughly. The greater the sur not pray for themselves; in self-defence, let face of lime you thus expose to the action the whole community pray for them. If of these deleterious gases, the better, because these are enemies to the community at the points of contact are thereby multiplied, large, they are not less enemies to themand the effect is proportionably increased : selves—awful enemies, indeed ; for a perand these ought to be renewed from time severance in these practices will destroy to time.
their bodies here, and destroy, hereafter, The chloride of lime is superior to lime body and soul in hell. alone : see Imperial Mag. Jan. and Feb. Their cure is with the Great Physicłan, 1828, under the head of Mephitic Gases who alone can
The blood of in Mines, where this subject is treated at Jesus Christ, while it washes away sin, large. This compound ought to be re- gives power over sin ; and this power sorted to by all those who can afford to alone can save the drunkard. Hear us, O use it. But chlorine can only be united Lord our God, we beseech Thee, for these to lime by a chemical process, at once men, for these women, and (alas for their tedious and troublesome, and this chloride, youth !) for these children, who are given to when purchased of the ordinary venders, intemperance ; and deliver them from the like other drugs, is expensive; whereas lime destroyer. Give them repentance unto is cheap, easy of access, and may be again life, forgiveness and peace of conscience ; and again resorted to without inconvenience that, saved from death, they may live or delay. The City of London Board of before Thee for ever. O Lord, hear us Health has given public notice, that a solu- for our land ; avert this evil, amidst detion of chloride of lime may be procured, served wrath, from us; deliver us from on application at the medical stations of this death : that, humbled in the dust, we each Ward. This, as an example to every may serve Thee in newness of life, in and Board of Health in this island, is worthy through Jesus Christ, our Lord. Amen. of notice.
King Square, Dec. 3, 1831. One subject, and one of the last import
W. COLDWELL. ance, yet remains; and we must notice it particularly : namely, the persons who have induced feverish debility, and a disposition to the attacks of cholera in their constitu- As the state of British India will soon tions, by acts of intemperance, or dissolute become a subject of serious and public habits of any description. If hundreds of inquiry, and as the effect of all the institudwellings have become charnel-houses, by tions in that country, whether moral or rethe pestiferous gases generated from the ligious, upon the manners and conduct of accumulated filth suffered and concealed the natives, will be taken into consideration, therein, in empty rooms, private cupboards, it becomes a matter of public interest to and corners, stagnant drains, and from de- obtain from men, who are qualified by the caying substances; these are living charnel- public situations which they have held, to houses, locomotive temples of pestilential form a statesman-like and unbiassed judgeffluvia, which, instead of privacy, thrustment, an impartiał estimate of the real themselves upon the sober portion of the effects which have hitherto been produced community, and, while they annoy all their by the Wesleyan establishments in different senses, shock their very souls. As public parts of the British territories, to the east 20. SERIES, NO. 13. - VOL. II.
WESLEYAN MISSION IN CEYLON.
the Cape of Good Hope. We shall how
“ Wesleyan Mission House, Colombo. ever in the present instance, confine our
“ Honourable Sir, observations to that branch of the Wesleyan 6. From the favourable manner in which Mission in Asia, which is established on you have been accustomed to look upon the island of Ceylon.
our character and pursuits in this island, When Sir Alexander Johnston, late pre- the lively interest in our success and prossident of His Majesty's council on that perity which you have always manifested, island, was officially sent to England by and the essential counsel and aid which you the local government of the island, to sub- have never ceased to afford us in our missionmit to His Majesty's ministers in this coun- ary work, we are urged, by a grateful and try, such measures as would in his opinion unanimous impulse, to address you on lead to the improvement of the country your approaching departure from this and the people, he proposed, amongst other country; and are persuaded, that you will, things, a general system of education for
at once, excuse the intrusion, and accept all the natives of the island, consisting of of this sincere expression of our sentiments about a million of people; some of whom and feelings. are Catholics, some Protestants, some Hin- “ Led to this scene of missionary labour, doos, some Buddhists, and some Mahome- instrumentally by the representations of it dans. With a view to the introduction of which you gave to some of the leading chathis system, Sir Alexander suggested, after racters in our connection in England, we having examined attentively the Wesleyan have been taught, by our Society, to look institutions at home and abroad, that it up to you as an honourable friend and wellwould be highly advisable for His Majesty's wisher of our undertaking; and we have ministers in this country, to hold out every not been disappointed. You have geneprotection and encouragement in their rously entered into our views; you have, in power to the Wesleyan missionaries, to in- many instances, most disinterestedly marked duce them to establish a mission on the out for us stations of usefulness, and plans island of Ceylon, as well for the purpose of exertion ; and your well-timed cautions, of general education of the natives, as for advice, and support, have oftentimes been that of disseminating the principles of of the most essential service to us in cirChristianity amongst them. On this sub- cumstances of difficulty and discourage. ject, he had a great many communications ment, as well as in those of a less difficult with the late Dr. Coke; who, entering into and a more gratifying complexion. It the plan suggested by Sir Alexander John. would, therefore, be an omission which ston with his usual zeal and earnestness, would be unbecoming our station, for the determined, in consequence of the great im- kind attention with which you have honourportance of the object, notwithstanding his ed us, were we not to repeat to you on this advanced years, to proceed to Ceylon him- interesting occasion, our grateful acknowself with some missionaries, and establish ledgments of all the various public favours, a mission on that island.
as well as unseen and effectual assistances, The age at which the late Dr. Coke un- which we have from time to time received dertook his mission to Ceylon, his death from you in the furtherance of our common upon his passage to that island, the subse. object; and in this we shall be united by quent establishment of his intended mis- the thousands of our friends in the United sion upon it, the good which has been Kingdom in particular, as well as by all derived from it, and the various beneficial who wish well to the cause of the gospel in effects which its labours have already pro- general. Permit us then, Honourable Sir, duced amongst the natives of that island, to offer to you our warmest and most render interesting every circumstance rela- respectful thanks ; and to assure you, that tive to its proceedings, and to the conduct while we shall never forget the honourable observed by every person who was con- name which has so invariably stood among nected with its success in Asia. Although the foremost of our friends in this distant Dr. Coke died on his passage, the other land, so we shall not cease to pray, that missionaries reached Ceylon, and established you, with every branch of your family, may their mission on the island. The manner be ever remembered by our Divine Master, in which the Wesleyans have conducted even by that Jesus whose name you have themselves, and the effect produced by that earnestly desired that we might publish with conduct, are well shewn in the following success among the benighted inhabitants Address, presented by the Wesleyan mis- of this country, and who hath said, 'Those sionaries to Sir Alexander Johnston, and in that honour him, he will honour; and that a his answer to them on his quitting the island cup of cold water disinterestedly given in in 1817.
his name, shall not lose its reward.
“Having been instrumental in introduc- land, surrounded by your numerous and ing our present sphere of action, you have cheerful family, under the most pleasing beheld us, in a humble measure, entering possible circumstances. upon our work : as yet, but little saving With no common sentiments and emoeffect has been produced. We are, how- tions, do we draw to the conclusion of a ever, we trust, laying the foundation for letter already too long, were it not that future usefulness; and we intend patiently gratitude is sometimes allowed to exceed and perseveringly to proceed in imparting limits prescribed by ordinary rules; and the knowledge of the gospel, until it shall commending you and your amiable partner please God to render the communication and family to the grace and keeping of our thereof signally effectual to the salvation of Lord Jesus Christ, we remain, Honourable the beathens. We are in no doubt as to Sir, your much obliged and thankful humthe final result; we are persuaded it will ble servants, be glorious. The day may be distant, but "(Signed by order and in behalf of the conferwe are sure it will come, and know it is ence of the Wesleyan Methodists, Mission. approaching, (may we be permitted to
aries in Ceylon,)
“JAMES LYNCH, Chairman. see it!) when the degrading worship of
“ W. M. HARWARD, Secretary. unholy demons shall universally give place “ August 22, 1817. to the pure and peaceful service of Jesus, “ The Hon. Sir Alexander Jolinston, Knt. our Immanuel ; and when the populous.
Chief Justice of Ceylon." jungle of Ceylon shall resound with the high
" To the above Address the Honourable the praises of Him who came to seek and to Chief Justice was pleased to return the save that which was lost.'
following Answer :“Though at a distance from you, we “ Gentlemen, trust we shall still be allowed a place in “ I beg that you will accept of my sin. your solicitude; and as you have obligingly cere and grateful thanks for the very
kind made yourself acquainted with our whole and very flattering manner in which you economy and situation, we beg to request have been so obliging as to communicate your services with our committee and
to me your resolution of the 22d ult. The friends in England, that we may continue respect which I entertain for your Society to be supported and reinforced in such a
at large, as well as for those members of it way as to render our endeavours increas
in particular with whom I have the honour ingly efficient. They will thankfully re to be personally acquainted, make me ceive, your various communications, and we fully aware of the weight which is due to shall no less thankfully enjoy the beneficial your opinions; and nothing, I assure you, consequences of them from time to time. could be more gratifying to my feelings,
“This consideration tends to lessen the than to receive so public and so unanimous regret that we feel at losing your personal a mark of your approbation. residence among us in this country; and " It is with infinite satisfaction I learn we entertain the hope, that it may yet be from you, that your Society in England do the will of Providence to return you again me the honour to consider me, in some personally to assist his cause in the Eastern
measure, as the original cause of the estab. world,
lishment of your mission on this island. “ We cannot, Honourable Sir, but refer, The benefit which the country has derived with feelings of respectful sympathy, to the from your unremitted exertions, notwithimmediate cause of your present removal standing the innumerable and the unforeseen to Europe; the kind and christian solicitude difficulties which you have had to encounof your esteemed and respected lady, espe- ter, is acknowledged by every unprejudiced cially for the improvement of the female person who is acquainted with the real part of the rising generation, renders our nature of your proceedings ; and the exloss two-fold. May the wishes of her lady- tensive effect which has already been proship be fully carried into effect, and espe. duced by your exertions, will enable your cially may the rising institution near your friends to look forward, with confidence, late residence, which was the object of her to what may hereafter be expected from daily attention and superintendence, con. your zeal and from your perseverance. tinue to flourish, and ever be a source of “ The progress which the members of pleasing satisfaction to its benevolent foun- your society have made in acquiring a dress, whose name the children of that knowledge of the different languages that place will always be taught to revere and prevail in this country; the extent of the esteem. We ardently hope that the voyage information which you have collected, relaand change may be propitious, and that tive to the religion, sciences, customs, manyou may shortly find yourself in your native ners, and local prejudices of the people;
the care with which you have educated health permitted of her remaining in this natives to officiate as preachers; the assi- climate, to have promoted many other induity with which you have yourselves in- stitutions of a similar nature ; and under structed the inhabitants on religious and the urgent necessity which she feels of her moral subjects; the numbers and variety, immediate return to Europe, she reflects of the English books which you have trans- with the greatest pleasure upon all those lated; the ready assistance which you have benevolent measures which your Society, afforded the Bible Society in completing from motives of the purest philanthropy, has and printing the new translation of the adopted, for the education and religious Testament; the great improvement which instruction of the native inhabitants of both you have introduced into the method of sexes, in every part of this island.— I have printing at Colombo, and the moderate the honour to be, with the greatest respect prices at which you have circulated the and esteem, your most obliging and respectmost useful works, are unequivocal proofs ful servant, of the pains which you have taken to dis- (Signed) ALEXANDER JOHNSTON." seminate throughout India, by every means The opinion contained in Sir Alexander in your power, a knowledge of Christianity, Johnston's Answer, is that of a man who and a bias in favour of its doctrines. The had attentively considered the character admirable plan upon which you have estab- and manners of the natives, and had delished schools in the vicinity of Colombo, voted himself, in his public and private Negombo, Pantura, Galle, Matura, Batti- capacity, to raise their moral character calo, and Jaffna, has excited an universal by giving thein a share in the government anxiety amongst all classes, and amongst all of their country, by inducing them to abolish descriptions of the natives, to have similar the state of domestic slavery which had subschools opened in every part of the settle- sisted on their island for three hundred ments; the rule which you have so wisely years, and affording them, by the introducadopted, of selecting such persons only for tion of trial by jury, the most powerful masters, as may be deemed fit for the situa- motive for improving their education, and tion by the heads of the different families increasing their value for a character of whose children they are to instruct, has truth and integrity. warmly interested those who are parents in A testimony so favourable, so unequivothe success of your undertaking; and the cally expressed, and emanating from such voluntary manner in which they have an exalted quarter, is of far more importoffered
you their assistance, is a decided in- ance than that which any private individual dication of the popularity of your system. could confer. It has both a religious, and An attentive observation of the character of a political aspect; and in each of these the people of this island, for a period of respects the Wesleyan mission in Ceylon fifteen years, enables me to form some con- must have been surveyed by Sir Alexander jecture as to the probable effect of this Johnston, from that elevated and responsisystem; and I have no hesitation whatever ble situation which he so long filled with in stating it to you, as my decided opinion, integrity and honour. Instead of suspectthat, should you meet with the supporting that an attempt to introduce Christiwhich
deserve in England and in this anity would create disorder in the state, by country, you will, ere long, realize the interfering with the prejudices of the nahopes of those who are the most sanguine tives; according to his views, founded on in their expectation of the ultimate success long observation, no danger whatever was of the cause of Christianity in Asia. to be apprehended. It also appears, in
“ The kindness with which you express bis estimation, that the system on which the your wishes for the recovery of Lady John- Wesleyan missionaries had invariably acted, ston, and the terms in which you are pleased was better adapted than any other to acto mention her earnest, though feeble, en- complish this desirable object. deavours to promote the establishment of The experiment has been tried about sixthe school of Colpetty, are most flattering teen years, and we are not aware that any to her ;—she begs me to return you her sin- attempt to place the natives under laws to cere thanks, and to assure you how much which they had been total strangers, to she regrets that the distressing and very favour them with the privileges of Englishmelancholy state of her health has prevented men, or to supplant heathenism by Chrisher of late from attending so regularly as tianity, has in any one instance been attended she wished to an institution, the success of with inconvenience, or even received with which has never failed, under all her suffer- feelings of stern and reluctant submission. ings, to be a source of real consolation to Hence, it may be fairly presumed, that her mind. It was her intention, had her when the concerns of India shall undergo a
legislative investigation, the subject of with His creatures, and the creatures with Christianity will occupy an interesting the lumpish clod, are all before us, unportion of its councils. In this renovated touched. With these we must grapple, in order of things which is confidently expect- the order of the word of truth. If matter, ed, it may be reasonably hoped, that ob- in its primitive form, detained us a whole stacles and impediments will be removed, year, can we look to the termination of the and every facility afforded to zealous mis- discussions on all these in another year? sionaries, and benevolent private Christians, At least, we can try; and if we fail, we fail while uniting their efforts to spread among in a noble cause. the heathen the unsearchable riches of It would seem a question, from the Christ.
length of time the created atoms remained individual, whether there was sufficient ge.
niality in their nature to induce an union of CREATION NO. I,
each with each ; and if so, whether such r Second Series.)
union would be permanent ? But to attain In our efforts, during the year 1831, to de- an end, the great Creator is never at a loss pict the creation of Elohim to our fellow. for the means. The agents which He called men, it was deemed expedient, in the first into existence on the second day of creation, instance, thoroughly to investigate the ele. perfectly sufficed for the accomplishment of ments of this universe, viz. the primitive, this great purpose, and the experience of created atoms. These, therefore, necessarily ages proves the efficient manner in which occupied our first series ; for of these the the work was performed, by the permanency whole universe is composed.
of the subjects then called into existence. In this second series, we must advance So perfect, indeed, is this union of the from the elements of bodies, to the bodies atoms of matter, that, even in this enlightened themselves. And here we have a field so age, it is a question with the learned, whevast, that what is already done appears ther all the ingenuity of the ablest chemists little, in comparison with what is before us. have ever yet, by analysis, sufficed to en
The outline of the universe has been able them to arrive at a simple substance. sketched ; but to fill up the parts, and finish Having already treated upon the subjects the subject, is a task too arduous to con. noted by the inspired penman, in his actemplate without emotion. Matter, simple count of the first and second days of creaas created, seems easy to dilate upon, in tion, we now proceed to his narrative of the comparison with matter compounded, and third day. Gen. i. 9, 10. “And God said, appropriated to uses innumerable; diverse, Let the waters under the heaven be gaeven to extremes, and yet possessing every thered together unto one place, and let the grade from the lumpish clod to the most dry land appear: and it was so. And God beauteous of vegetation, from the most called the dry land earth, and the gathering diminutive to the highest of animation, from together of the waters called He seas : and the grain of sand to the towering and mass- God saw that it was good.” Or, as it may ive rock, and from the minute vapour to be rendered : Elohim pronounced, Let the the mighty ocean!
waters under the heaven congregate in their The appropriation of matter, in com- place; and let the dry arise : and it was pounds, into moist and dry-oceans and solid established. And Elohim denominated the land; the vegetation of matter into forms and dry earth, and the congregated waters dehues, including powers of successive vege- nominated He seas. And Elohim surveyed tation from age to age, by the germination the whole, and, behold, it was beautifully of seeds; the appropriation of spheres into perfect. greater and lesser lights-a central sun, In describing creation, Moses is sublime; revolving moon, and wandering stars ; the and in his subsequent descriptions of the animation of matter into locomotive crea- operations of the great Creator, a similar tures, aqueous, amphibious, and aerial, of grandeur is manifest in every sentence: his dimensions huge, moderate and minute, diction never flags—it never becomes exuwith the power of generation from age to berant, and a definitive terseness marks its age ; the animation of matter into locomo- progression from first to last. In describing tive creatures, earthy prone and elevated, an act of creation, his language is, “Elohim of every grade and form, with the power of pronounced, Let the light be, and the light generation from age to age; and finally, was !" In noting an operation or formathe incarnation of spirit in matter, with the tion, his language is, “Elohim pronounced, power of generation from age to age : thus Amidst the terraqueous fuids, let there be completing the last link of the mighty an expansion, and let it divide fluids from chain which connects the great. Creator fuids!” With this addition, “And Elohim