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to stay,

it is one of the richest pleasures to peruse

be estimated. There is a decision, a purity, this invaluable poem. While the language a fearlessness of statement, an elevation of endures, it must live ;- and while genuine thought and principle, a severity of sarcasm, poetry and religion are prized, it must be and an abhorrence of vice, associated with valued.

them, which will never be much enjoyed In reading the poems of Cowper, with by the mere worldling, the infidel, the care, I have been much struck with the scoffer, or the intemperate; but, when a number of bold, nervous, and eloquent man is devoted to God, is raised beyond lines, which they contain; lines furnishing the world, is rendered sensible of the inthe most striking sentiment, or the finest effable value of Christianity, and is antici. description. Take a few as specimens. pating the bliss of immortality, then, the

Speaking of the writings of Chesterfield, writings of Cowper will be attentively read, he remarks,

frequently referred to, very highly estimated, “Every tear shall scald thy memory."

and will furnish a source of the purest and Of the spirit of heaven, he says,

sublimest enjoyment,

“ Mid all the dark and howling storms of life.” “Love makes the music of the blest above, Heaven's harmony is universal love."

London, Jan. 2, 1832. T. W. Speaking of corrupt novelists, he terms them the “flesh-Hies of the land,"

REFLECTIONS IN A CHURCH YARD. “Who fasten, without mercy, on the fair, And suck, and leave a craving maggot there."

“I love the ivy-mantled tower, How beautiful the couplet

Rocked by the storms of thousand years;

The grave, whose melancholy dlower, “She pours a sensibility divide

Was nourished by affection's* tears.". Along the nerve of every feeling line."

Cunningham. How just and admirable the following

A VILLAGE churchyard ! What solemn representation

associations do these words convey! The Pity Religion has so seldom found

loveliness of silence, the consecration of A skilful guide into poetic ground; 'l be flowers would spring, where'er she deign'd thought. There is the venerable tower And every muse attend her in her way!"

mantled with ivy, raising its hoary head Speaking of triflers, he says,

“amidst the grove of green;" the majestic

elm, twining its boughs above, in rude “ The foam upon the waters uot so light."

architecture; the yew and cypress, folding How finely is the lover of scandal de

their mournful drapery over the marble pictured!

tablet. How hallowed a spot for medita. "Laughs at the reputations she has torn,

tion! The world, how secluded ! And holds them dangling, at arm's-length, in

I have seen the setting sun dart its rays There is much truth in this line

through the quivering foliage, the sky beau“No soil like poverty for growth divine." tifully melting its varied tinges, as it spread

Nothing can be more beautiful than the from east to west, and my spirit has subjoined couplet

wished to burst from its clay, and “drink

deep” of the loveliness with which it was "A Christian's wit is inoffensive light,

A beam that aids, but never grieves the sight." surrounded. The twilight shade has come The following lines are exquisite- like a mist upon the scene, and I have “ Muscle and nerve miraculously spun."

thought of the darkness of death, and of “The unwearied spring of an elastic foot.

the eternal morn, when the trump of the “The crescent moon, the diadem of night.” archangel shall echo above these silent “Stars countless, each in his appointed place, walls. Fast anchor'd in the deep abyss of space.

My imagination has presented to me the "Pant for the refuge of some rural shade." “ Pleasure,

prisoned mortal bursting from his tomb, That reeling goddess with the zoneless waist." and gazing on the splendour unveiled to “His conscience, like a glassy lake before, Lash'd into foaming waves, begins to roar."

his sight. Then what holy joy has illu"The judgment, drunk, and bribed to lose its way;

mined his countenance, when he sees " face Winks hard, and talks of darkness at poon-day.' to face” Him who was indeed his Saviour Thus we might proceed to multiply ex- and his friend, but is now his Judge. He amples, but the work of specification would knows that he stands at the dreadful be endless.

bar with the suspense of one who never Cowper is too well known to require any desired the “ full assurance of faith." He thing of this kind, and we are happy to find pleads no merits of his own; the garment that his poems are increasing in popularity of righteousness with which he is clothed among general readers; and, the more is not his own; but he pleads the merits highly genuine religion is valued, the more of Him who redeemed his soul from deappropriately will the writings of Cowper • In the original, "a martyr's" tears.

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struction; he is clothed in the righteous- thoughtful cheek; devotional feelings have ness of Him in whom was found no spot relumed the eye, and the child of sorrow or blemish.

has rejoiced that there is one who sympa. And, then, how shuddering has been the thizes in all her grief, and by those tears contemplation of the fate of many who sur- drawn her from the world which has round these walls. They have been raised pierced and wounded her soul. from the grave, only that they might receive But on a Sabbath, when the cool breeze eternal condemnation. How has the eye sweeps through the waving shrubs, and been confounded with the majesty of that He, to whom this hallowed fane is dediheaven which it has scorned! How have cated, is more peculiarly present, then, the once blaspheming lips quivered with more especially, have I loved to linger terror and anguish; and the re-animated there. The cheerful face, the calm expresclay has veiled itself in its shroud, desiring sion of sorrow when the mind is resigned again to seek refuge in the grave, and to grief, and the thoughtful step, as it claim non-existence.

slowly paced its way to the house of God, There have been those, too, who, while have made me exclaim, “How amiable it was still day, neglected to make their are thy tabernacles, O Lord of hosts,” and “calling and election sure,” but committed my mind has been led to some conception the importance of salvation to the procras- of the joy of David, when he saw the tinated hour that never arrived." Then, various tribes proceeding to the temple to when time has ceased to exist, too late appear before God. they have understood its value.

There are many reflections that must be These have often been my reveries, on a common to us all. When we have media spot which hallows the precepts of reli- tated on all these things, and dwelt on the gion. It is true, that they were but the remembrance of those who have departed conceptions of an imagination that dwelt to another world, of those whom we once on futurity ; yet, the time is fast approach- have loved, yet are now sleeping beneath, ing when this awful scene will be realized, “in the hope of a glorious resurrection, when we shall stand, not as spectators, but we have felt that we all are mortal. As as beings interested in the decision of our the flower of the field, is the life of man, Judge. “So teach us to number our days, and death will soon claim its victim. Be. that we may apply our hearts unto wisdom.” neath this turf shall we, too, be laid, and,

I have seen the silver beams of the with those around, shall we one day be moon streaming through the stained win- summoned from the grave, to wait the dows, gilding the carved desk and the altar, unalterable decision of Him who shall and throwing the distant objects into an hereafter sit on the “great white throne,” indistinct gloom; and I have thought of judging the twelve tribes, and from whose the old monastic times, when, at these face the earth and the heavens shall flee hours, from the silent choir came the un- away.

J. A. B. earthly voices of beings dedicated to God,

Beaconsfield. the soft response terminating in a rich chord and dying away, then the bursting of the anthem in full chorus; till the mind has been led from the assemblies of earth

r Second Series.) to those of heaven.

In a preceding number of the Imperial I have heard the deep tones of the clock- Magazine, p. 21, &c., we dwelt upon the bell murmur from the tower, and it has inspired narrative of creation, relative to seemed a voice from another world. Never the formation of oceans and dry land, or did time mark its flight more solemnly; earth, and so much of the conformation of never did it so much impress my mind this sphere as is relevant to its drainage, with a sense of its fast approaching dis- from the waters contained therein, and solution. I have also sometimes been a those at large upon its surface. Having witness of nature, when she is most lovely arrived at this important point, we consider and interesting—in her sorrow. I have ourselves to be on terra firma. At large, seen the silent figure pause through its walks, upon our own sphere, we can now walk till it has reached a fresh-made mound. The up and down therein, and examine the still blowing flower has been placed as a question, at leisure, which is asked by tribute of affection to one who is now un. thousands,“ Upon what do the soles of conscious of filial love. There has been our feet rest ?” But, in order to find an such communion with beings now no more, answer to this universal question, it will such recollections of scenes and parting not suffice us to ascend the highest mounwords, that the tear has stolen down the tain, even to its utmost peak, to descend


into the deepest mine, to explore the wildest line rocks, bearing the name of marble, &c. caverns, or, amidst chasms, ravines, and is frequently incumbent upon granite ; and, valleys, to view impending precipices and in general, the marble and granite are only stupendous rocks; we must penetrate these divided by strata of gneiss and micaceous masses, disintegrate their parts, and, con- schistus. In many instances, these granite templating these, arrive, where it is pos- rocks graduate into each other, and form sible, at a knowledge of their component varieties of the same species, rather than substances, in order to form a sound judg- distinct strata. ment of the whole. If we omit this, we Granite is composed of grains, (hence its dwell only upon the surface of things, name,) or small crystals of felspar, quartz, amuse ourselves for the moment, fold our mica, and hornblende, crystallized into arms, and rest in ignorance.

solid masses, which are piled upon each From numerous experiments, the deci- other, like the ashler of huge castles. sion is, that the created atoms are of a Gneiss and micaceous schistus are formed variety of forms, densities, and sizes. Glo- of similar materials, but the proportions of bular, cubic, angular, irregular, and regular each to each vary in these strata, and, in figures, of every grade, exist in these atoms, many instances, even in different parts of and in specific gravity differences in the the same rock. Pure white marble is comextreme ; while some have greater, and posed of the oxide of calcium and carbon, others lesser, geniality with light, or the in crystals. substance of heat. In compounds, there- Above the granite rocks lie, in general, fore, of such heterogeneous materials, sub- strata which contain fissures, or veins of stances of every conceivable variety exist; metallic ores; hence they bear the name of and our wonder is excited at every step, metalliferous strata. The lowest of these is until, from sheer repletion, we cease to called argillaceous schistus. These rocks wonder at any thing we behold.

are composed of laminar crystals, into Like the scales upon a fish, or the leaves which they are divided, forming the blue which form the head of an artichoke, the or grey slates, called clay slate; and these crust of the earth is built in regular series constitute those elegant coverings which of strata ; for the most part, these strata adorn, while they secure from rains, the are inclined in planes, whose elevated ends, mansions of man. Talc, magnesia, argil, or escarpments, rise into the atmosphere, and silica, in various proportions, enter into and whose lower parts descend deep into the composition of these rocks, and cause the earth. Each stratum is incumbent variations in their texture innumerable. upon another stratum, like courses of ma- Hence the changes are incessantly rung, in sonry in a building, and the overlaying of all the luxuriant playfulness of creation, each becomes bond to the whole. These from strata to strata, and even in the same strata embrace in their various substances rock, into varieties endless. great varieties of matter. Argillaceous Next, in succession, we arrive at those clay, for instance, more or less indurated, immense strata denominated the sand-rocks. according to the depth at which it is found. These rocks, for the most part, are comrests upon beds of alumine shale, contain- posed of small crystals; and, the ease with ing nodules of iron-stone, these upon a which they are detached from each other stratum of freestone, this upon iron-mine, and thus resolved into sand, gives the title stone bind, and seams of coal; and beneath of sand-rocks to the whole strata. Argil these, similar strata alternate, until we ar- and silica predominate throughout; and, rive at coal again; and so on, in progres- according to the prevalence of each of these sion, ad infinitum. For, although we can substances in any particular portion of these scramble up to the summits of these escarp- rocks, is the character of that portion determents, we have never once been able to mined. The grau-wacke of the German sink a mine, completely through the strata, school, which is the psammite of the into the nucleus or central substance of this French, have their place in the region of sphere. In other situations, we behold these rocks; and, aliogether, they compose granite rocks rise, from unmeasurable some of the most imposing ranges of strata depths, probably from the earth’s centre, known in the earth's crust, extending, of high into the atmosphere ; forming moun. immense depth and mountainous height, tains upon

the grandest scale; while strata over whole districts. Fraught with metallic of various structure, in succession, lean veins, they are rich in ores of value to thereto around, and bear thereon, like mankind. rafters, as if to support, and be supported, With these schistus strata, mountain by this atlas of the sphere.

limestone frequently alternates; and it often Lime, combined with carbon, in crystal- is found resting upon them. Like them. it is metalliferous, being stored with ores A coal-field is a most, if not the most, and minerals of value, together with marble interesting object in the crust of this sphere. and spar in abundance. The immense Here we behold a huge bason, in form like caverns amidst these strata, fraught with a tea-saucer, to the form of which all the crystalline stalactites, stalagmites, and crys- adjoining strata yield, and into which curtals, transparent, glittering from their roofs rents of water are introduced, through and sides, like the starry heavens, amaze fissures in the stone strata from above, so the beholder, and lead him up, from this as to completely cover the coal; while subterranean splendour, to the astral re- dams of argillaceous clay prevent this gions, and thence to the God of all these water from completely running off. These -He who created all things. It is at this clays, while they hold up the water, interpoint of the stratification of our sphere, pose themselves, as well as the water, bethat we arrive at the plenum of carbon- tween the coal and the atmospheric air, as forty per cent of the substance of all these well as the sun's rays, and thus prevent rocks, is that subtile gas, carbon ; and this the bitumen, and other inflammable subgas has been rendered the bond of union to stances of the coal, from being evaporated. the whole.

By these means, the coal is preserved, Calcareous amygdalite, under the name during the ages of time, entire for the use of toad-stone, being streaked with colours of every generation of mankind, in the like the back of a toad, occurs frequently providence of Him who formed the whole. and abundantly amidst metalliferous lime- To the coal strata generally succeeds an stone; and therewith calcareous spar, inter- immense stratum of magnesian limestone ; mixed and in chasms, in pure crystals, or so named, because, in addition to lime and carbonate of lime—but the amygdalite itself, carbon, it contains magnesia. Thus, coal although calcareous, contains a much less to smelt, iron ore for smelting, and lime quantity of calcium and carbon than even to flux the ore while being smelted, are at limestone.

hand ; and that useful metal, iron, is thus Incumbent on, or leaning against, the produced in rich abundance, with the least mountain limestone, we now arrive at possible expense of labour. shale, a laminar set of strata, the plates of Calcareous sandstone, called freestone, which are minute, and yield to the atmo- of a beautiful white colour, succeeds the sphere. With these, strata of stone alter- magnesian limestone; and seams thereof nate, laminar also, and almost equally often alternate with the limestone itself. friable with the shale ; so much so, that Siliceous sandstone, in massive rocks of the whole escarpment of these is called the great elevation and wide extent, frequently shivering strata, from its incessantly moul- succeed these calcareous strata. These dering into small fragments, which roll rocks are friable; and the sand accumu. down its declivities, and are strewed overlated by the action of the atmosphere upon the vales below. Argillaceous, siliceous, their surfaces covers the districts in which and calcareous, by turns, these strata, they prevail. To these rocks succeed called limestone shale, partake of the sub- strata less imposing than those over which stances prevalent in all the adjoining strata, we have wandered, consisting of argillaand yet resemble none of them ; for the ceous clays, with nodules and rocks of want of tenacity in these strata, forms a gypsum, limestone, and sandstone. Finally, perfect contrast with the limestone on the we arrive at the level strata, which consists one hand, and the millstone grit on the of argillaceous shale, stratum super-stratum, other.

the planes of which are parallel with the Siliceous, micaceous, and argillaceous horizon. It is upon the loamy surface of sand-stone, alternating with carbonaceous these level strata, that we perceive the and argillaceous shale, or allumine, succeed excellency of that general system of inclined the limestone shale in several districts. planes, which elsewhere pervades the crust The first of these is called millstone grit, of this sphere, and effectually drains the because huge millstones are formed thereof, surface : for the surface water here lodges whole and entire. The second is laminar, in every cavity, overflows again and again, yielding strong slates for roofing, and drowning vegetation and animation : and paving-stones for the foot-paths in our it is only by deep and expensive drains, courts and streets, as well as floors for the kept open with incessant labour, that the basement stories of our houses; and the land is reclaimed. third introduces us to the coal strata, enu- Salt, in rocks regularly stratified, is found merated in the beginning of this article. amidst coal-fields, and also adjoining the The nature of each of these strata is above sand-rocks. Clay, sulphate of lime, or gypdenoted by its name.

suni, marl, &c. accompany rock-salt, in general, and, interposing between it and the The whole tribe of gases, being fine atmosphere, preserve it from dissolution. fluids, are so susceptible of change, that

Chalk, in the south-eastern parts of we seldom come in contact with them in England, succeeds the level strata, or the an individual state of purity; not even in sand-rocks; and from its great extent on the atmosphere. Mingled with each other, the eastern coast of England, and the op- or combined with other substances, we posite shores of France, Germany, Den- must abstract them from their associations mark, and Sweden, deserves our attention : on all occasions: for without this, we cannot the nodules of flint which pervade the chalk obtain them pure. strata are also interesting. Lime and car- We have now passed over the principal bon are the bases of chalk, and silica is the compound substances which enter into the base of flint.

structure of this sphere, as well as those Upon the chalk, we find a clay stratum which remain simple. Supposing, for the of considerable thickness and great extent; moment, that pure gold, pure silver, and and because this stratum appears beneath the other metals, when pure, are simple that city, and rises to the surface to the substances, then we behold the firm and north thereof, it is denominated the Lon- tenacious manner in which an aggregate of don clay.

similar atoms forms a solid substance. If The crown of this sphere is basalt. This the gases, when pure, are simple subrock is composed of minute crystals, which stances, then we perceive how an aggregate frequently crystallize into regular columns, of similar atoms forms a fluid. And if we prisms, lamina, tables, globes, and also treat a pure metal with caloric in action, into amorphous masses : many of which we behold how an aggregate of similar are of great volume. Upon the heads of atoms, from being a solid, melt or rethe utmost hills, towering over all, these become fluid ; and while we treated upon rocks are frequently found, in huge masses compound substances, we encountered, at throughout vast extents; and where they all points

, fluids as well as solids. Matter are regularly stratified, as, for instance, is, therefore, itself, whether simple or comin the island of Staffa, or the Giants' pound, fluid or solid; and the form in Causeway, in Ireland, &c. the stupendous which the Great Creator called it into facades of erect columns which they pre- existence, namely, in atoms, we perceive, sent to the astonished beholder, convince equally adapted it to all the purposes of him that, “the cloud-capped towers, and Auids, solids, simples, or compounds. the gorgeous palaces” of man, are pigmies We discover, on compounding and compared with these sublime works of the decomposing various compounds in this great Architect of the universe.

sphere, that the affinity of diverse subAllied to basalt, in vicinity as well as stances, each for each, is greater than the nature and form, is green-stone, porphyry, affinity of other substances; and that, while and sienite. Silica, alumina, oxide of iron, some attract, others repel each other. lime, and magnesia, the most abundant These facts prove a dissimilarity in the substances of this globe, are the bases of created atoms; and also that some are these rocks. These five substances, in fact, genial and others ungenial to each other. in the proportion of ninety per cent, pre- Whether these properties are inherent in vail throughout the sphere. How aston- the atoms themselves, or consequent upon ishing, that from so small a number of the action of those subtile, created agents ingredients, such rich varieties should arise by which the Great Creator governs the around us : but these arise from variations universe ; who can inform us? All the in the quantity of each ingredient, rather agents of the Infinite are invisible to us, than from the number of ingredients em- and matter, in its individual state, is inviployed. We behold here anew the eco- sible also ; it is only in the aggregate that nomy of the Great Creator, as well as His it becomes visible to us.

Are we not, wisdom and power : and while we behold therefore, as ignorant of the essence of we ought to praise Him.

matter, as we are of the essence of Him The metals, namely, gold, silver, copper, who created matter, and of it formed the tin, lead, iron, &c. &c. seldom occur in a unive e ? pure state in the veins of metalliferous To ascribe the several strata, and the strata : oxygen, sulphur, &c. combined various formations observable in the earth's with the metals, form them into ores, in crust, to the play of affinities, to fortuitous which state they are generally found'; al- or adventitious subsidations, to natural though native gold, silver, &c. are some crystallizations, or mere progressions of times discovered devoid of foreign mixture, time, during any or all its ages, is to and yet more seldom, the other metals. ascribe to chance what, in reality, is the

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