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Lesson 142.—Tuesday Morn. Geography. Write and Learn.
IRELAND. A 29—INTERNAL COMMUNICATIONS.—The roads are generally good. There are two canals constructed by the Government-the Royal Canal from Dublin, through Maynooth to the Shannon, and the Grand Canal from Dublin, through Tullamore, also to the Shannon.
RailwAYS.-- There are three main lines of railway in Ireland, and three minor lines. From Dublin-Main lines-
(1) The Great Southern and Western to Cork and Limerick.
(2) The Midland and Great Western through Mul-lin-gar' and Athlone to Galway.
(3) The Dublin and Belfast by Droghe'da and Dun'dalk to Belfast. Minor lines
(1) The Dublin, Wicklow, and Wexford.
(2) The North Western from Dundalk to Londonderry by En-nis-kill-len and O'magh.
(3) The Belfast and Northern Counties from Belfast to Londonderry by Antrim and Cole-raine'.
**** EUROPE. SPAIN AND PORTUGAL. PHYSICAL. B 29-CLIMATE AND PRODUCTIONS.—The climate is warm and temperate. The soil is poor. The chestnut and the cork tree are abundant. Agricul. ture is the chief employment, but is backward. The vine, the mulberry. and maize are largely cultivated. Neither the manufactures nor commerce are of importance. Lead and quicksilver are abundant.
In both Spain and Portugal the GOVERNMENT is a constitutional monarchy. but at present Spain is very unsettled. Alphonso XII. is, h.wever, seated on the throne. The religion in both countries is Roman Catholic.
Both the Spanish and Portuguese are very ignorant, few of them can
either read or write. Spain at one time possessed nearly
America. CHIEF TOWNS.-SPAIN.-Ma-drid' is the capital, but Bar-ce-lo'-na is the chief city for trade and manufactures. Ca-diz' and Mal'-a-ga on the south coast are important towns. Sev-ille' and Gren'-a-da, inland towns, are both very ancient.
PORTUGAL.-Lis'-bon, on the Tagus, is the capital. 0-por-to, on the Douro, exports port wine. Gib-ral-tar, on a rock in the south of Spain, belongs to England.
THE UNITED STATES. C 29—The United States consists of the central and southern portion of North America.
It is a Federal Republic, governed by a President, elected every four years, and two Houses of Congress.
The President, during his term of office, performs nearly all the
functions of a King The Houses of Congress are somewhat like
our Houses of Parliament. The country is divided into 37 states, 11 territories, and the District of Columbia, containing the city of Washington, the political capital of the States.
The territories have no share in the general government, as they
send no representatives to the Houses of Congress, nor do they vote for the President. The Indian Territory, between Tex' -as and Kan'-sas, is set apart for the native Indians who are driven from their homes by the settlement of the country. About 10,000 of them dwell in this territory, and about 300,000 still remain
scattered about the states In 1861 eleven of the slave states in the south separated from the Republic and attempted to form a separate Confederacy. A terrible war, which lasted four years, ended in the surrender of the southern states, and in the abolition of slavery.
Lesson 143.—Wednesday Morning Work these Sums.
Reduce to VULGAR FRACTIONS(1) 5; 6; 8 ; 56; 375; 625.
(2) .256 ; •024; .9375; .00037; -2075. (3) .04; 0225 ; 7 84 ; 0696 ; •0208. (4) 1:08 ; .325; 2725 ; .000875. Lesson 144.-Thursday Morn. Grammar. Write and Learn. Ex. 79. Analyse and Parse
“So captive Israel, multiplied in chains,
A numerous exile, and enjoyed her pains ;
Her martyred offspring, and their race renewed."-(Dryden.) Ex. 80. What are auxiliary verbs, and what are their uses? Give a list of the principal ones.
Ex. 81. COMPOSITION.-Bones--Where formed, their uses in our body, their forms, and composition. Uses of the bones of dead animals. Lesson 145.-Friday Morning. Work these Sums.
(4) 3oz. 4dr. ; 6oz. 4dr. ; 31b. 5oz. 6dr. ; each to the decimal of llb. (avoir.) History.-Write and Learn.-GEORGE II.-(Continued).
THE REBELLION OF 1745. A.D. Charles Edward, the young Pretender, son of James Stuart, the old
Pretender, attempted to regain the throne. 1745 He landed in Inverness in July, marched southward, and was gladly
received by Perth and Edinburgh. Sir John Cope, who was marching towards Edinburgh, was met by
him at Preston Pans, and suffered a defeat. After six weeks spent in mustering troops, Charles marched into
England, took Carlisle, and advanced as far south as Derby, but by
the advice of the Highland chiefs he retired into Scotland. 1746 The Duke of Cumberland followed, and in April, 1746, a battle was
fought at Culloden, near Inverness, when the Pretender was totally
£30,000 was set on his head.
THIRTIETH WEEK. Lesson 146.-Monday Morning. Learn. Psalm XXIV.; OR ELSE LEARN
THE SPANISH ARMADA (Contined).
There came a gallant 10 merchant-ship full sail to Plymouth Bay ;
At sunrise she escaped their van16 by God's especial grace ;
9. The Armada entered the channel, after stormy weather, on July 19th. 1588. having sailed from Lisbon on May 19th, 10. Brave, the captain haviny shown great bravery in escaping the Spaniards, and bringing news of their approach. 11. Castile, an important kingdom in Spain before Ferdinand of Arragon married Isabella of Castile, in 1474. 12. The ships were painted black. 13. (pro. Ö-rê-niz) Alderney, one of the Channel Is. 14. The fleet stretching out for many a mile lay heaving (rising and falling) in the swell caused by the storm they had just passed through. 15. The foremost part of the fleet. 16. One of the Armada's ships.
Lesson 147.–Tuesday Morn. Geography. Write and Learn.
A 30--The British Empire, the largest in the world except those of Russia and China, consists of Great Britain and Ireland, with numerous colonies and possessions in various parts of the world.
A Colony is a settlement of people in another country, partly under the government of the country they left. A Foreign Possession or Dependency is a portion of a foreign country to the Home Government, and having few colonists.
BRITISH POSSESSIONS IN EUROPE. (1) Hel'-1-go-land, Holy Land, a small island in the North Sea, 36 miles from the mouth of the R. Elbe, and 400 from London. The people are either pilots, or live by fishing.
(2) Gib-ral-tar, a strongly fortifieri rock in the South of Spain, in the Mediterranean. It is often called “The Key to the Mediterranean."
(3) Mal'-ta, a small island in the Mediterranean, south of Sicily.
Cotton, oranges, and lemons grow in abundance in Malta. La Va-let'-ta, the capital, is built on a rock, and is strongly fortified.
This possession is very valuable as a naval station, a coaling station, and a packet station.
EUROPE.-ITALY.-PHYSICAL. B 30—The kingdom of Italy includes the Italian peninsula and the islands of Sic'-i-ly and Sar-din'-i-a.
BOUNDARIES.- North by Austria and Switzerland, west by France and the Mediterranean, east by the Adriatic Sea.
SURFACE. In the north is the large and fertile plain of Lom'-bar-dy. bounded on the west and north by the Alps. The Ap'-en-nines are a continuation of the Alps, and run nearly down the centre of the peninsula. Mount Ve-su'-vi-us, on the Bay of Naples, and Mount Et’-na, in Sicily, are volcanoes.
Rivers.—The Po, flowing through the plain of Lombardy into the Gulf of Venice; the Ti-ci'-notě-che-no), draining Lake Mag-gi-o'-re; the Ad'-da, draining Lake Como: and the Min'-ci-o (min'-che-o), draining Lake Gar-da, are its main tributaries. The Adige (ad'-e-jă) flows into the Gulf of Venice, and the Ar-no and the Ti'-ber flow into the Mediterranean.
The Italian Lakes, which lie south of the Alps, are among the most beautiful in the world. They are very deep, and have beautiful clear water.
*** UNITED STATES. C 30-PRODUCTIONS.-Agriculture forms the chief occupation of the people east of the Rocky Mis. The soil is fertile and well watered. To the west of them are numerous barren tracts of rocky desert, and on the southern shores the land is low and rather unhealthy. The north-east part forms a good grazing ground. In the middle and western states maize, or Indian corn, is extensively grown, and the maple tree, from which sugar is made, also grows in the same parts. Tobacco, cotton, sugar, and rice are cultivated in all the southern states. The vine flourishes in all parts, especially in California and Ohio. Corn grows everywhere.
MINERALS.-The United States is rich in useful minerals. Coal and Iron are very abundant, they are especially worked in Pennsylvania. Gold is found in California, Copper in Michigan, Petroleum, or rock oil, in various places in the north.
MANUFACTURES.- The manufactures are most important, mechanical trades being a special feature in the industry of the United States. Iron goods are made in Pennsylvania, Ohio, and Massachusetts. Pitts'-burg,
the Birmingham of the States," being the centre of the trade. Cotton goods in the north-east states, Low'-ell being the chief seat. Clocks and watches are manufactured largely in New Jersey, they are cheap and are exported in large quantities.
Lesson 149.-Thursday Morn. Grammar. Write and Learn.
Ex. 82. Analyse and Parse.—“If you should ask, after all, what is the best way of knowing bad poets from good, the best from the next best, and so on? the answer is, the only and twofold way: first, the perusal of the best poets : and second, the cultivation of that love of truth and beauty which made them what they are.”—Leigh Hunt.)
Ex. 83. What do you mean by transitive and intransitive verbs ? Give three sentences illustrating each kind.
Ex. 84. COMPOSITION.—Write a letter applying for a situation as errand boy.
Lesson 150.-Friday Morning. Work these Sums.
Find the value of -
(3) "187502. ; 2.975lb. History.-Write and Learn.-GEORGE II.—(Continued).
THE SEVEN YEARS' WAR. A.D. The Seven Years' War was caused by the ambitious policy of
Frederick the Great, king of Prussia, and the anxiety of George
respecting Hanover. 1756 England and Prussia took up arms against France and Austria, and the
war was prosecuted in India, Europe. and America.
joined the native princes. Surajah Dowlah took Calcutta, and
in the Civil Service. retook Calcutta, and gained a victory over the native princes at Plassey. This laid the foundation of our Indian empire.
THE SPANISH ARMADA (Continued).
And with loose rein and bloody spur rode inland many a post. 22
Behind him march the hăl'-běr-diers, 26 before him sound the drums;
For there behoves him to set up the standard of her Grace. 28 17. At once. 18. The wall of Plymouth. 19. A lighthouse. A high tower on which a fire was lit to give warning of danger. The light itself is also called "a beacon." 20. The mansion of Lord Mount Edgecumbe, on a sinall LESSON 151-Continued. island in Plymouth Bay. 21. To peep about and try and discover where the Armada was. 22. Letters at this time were carried on horseback Word was sent to all parts of the country giving warning of the danger. 23. That is, without his hat, which he had not put on in his haste. 24. Shire-reeve, the governor of a shire or county. 25. Soldiers armed with a halbert, a pole having an axe on one side and ending in a sharp spear. 26. Small farmers, of lower rank than gentlemen. 27. Large, wide. 28. To raise the flag of the queen to inform the people of their duty to fight for their queen and country. Lesson 152.—Tuesday Morn. Geography. Write and Learn.
BRITISH POSSESSIONS IN ASIA A 31–Our chief Possession in Asia is In'-dia, or Hin'-dos-tan, a large triangular peninsula in the South, having the Bay of Ben-gal' on the east, and the A-ra'-bian Sea on the west.
It is bounded on the north by the Him-a-lay-a Mountains, of which the highest point is Mount Ev-er'-est (29,000 feet, or 54 miles, high).
There are four principal rivers--the Gan'-ges, the Brah-ma-pooʻ-tra, and the Ma-han-ud-dy, all flowing into the Bay of Bengal, and the In'-dus, flowing into the Arabian Sea,
The heat is very great in the centre and the South, and all kinds of tropical produce grow in abundance. The country is divided into three Presidencies.
BEN'GAL........capital Cal-cut'ta........on the R. Hoog'ly.
EUROPE.-ITALY.-POLITICAL. B 31-CLIMATE AND PRODUCTIONS.- The soil is mostly fertile, and the climate is the most delightful in Europe, being warm and generally healthy. Agriculture is the chief employment; and the vine, olive, rice, maize, mulberry, and orange are cultivated. The only important manufacture is raw silk. Olive oil, sulphur (from Sicily), fruits, and silk are imported, Iron and marble are imported minerals.
The GOVERNMENT is a limited monarchy under a king, and the RELIGION is Roman Catholic.
The people are ignorant, especially in the south. Their language is
very sweet sounding, and closely resembles Latin. CHIEF Towns.-Rome, on the Tiber, the capital, noted for magnificent ruins. Na'-ples, the largest city in Italy. Flor'ence, on the Arno, is noted for paintings and sculpture. Ven'-ice is built on above 100 islands in the Adriatic. Ge-no'-a and Leg'-horn are important ports. Tu'-rin, on the Po, was the capital at one time. Mil'-an has a splendid cathedral, built of white marble ; it is the centre of the Lombardy silk trade.
UNITED STATES. C 31-COMMERCE is extensive and rapidly increasing, “The States" being the second commercial nation in the world. Cotton, wheat, flour, maize, tobacco, sugar, rice, bacon, cheese, timber, potash, and clocks are exported. In return, manufactured goods from England are imported.
The chief ports are- New York, on the Hudson; Bos'-ton, in Massachusetts; New Or-le-ans (or'-le-ang*), near the mouth of the Mississippi; Mo-bile' (mo-beel'), on the Al-a-ba'-mo; Bal-ti-more, on Ches'-a-peake Bay (ches'd-pěck); Charles'ton, in S. Carolina ; and San Fran-cis'-co, in Upper California.
* This name is not properly prononnced Or'-leens