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to this, I take that title to be, which is so much used in the New Testament, viz. the God and Father of our Lord Jesus Christ, the God of our Lord Jesus, the Father of glory. For since Jesus Christ is the chief of all subordinate powers, the Prince of the kings of the earth, and far above the greatest angels; the Lord of Lords, and King of Kings; he who is styled the God of our Lord Jesus Christ is therein, in effect, styled the God of Gods, or above all Gods. Eph. i. 3, 17. Rev. i. 5. Eph. i. 21.

Now the question to be resolved is, in which of these two senses Christ is said to be God in the holy Scriptures? The bare character of God determines nothing in this case, because it belongs both to the supreme and to subordinate beings in power and authority ; but the question is, whether Jesus Christ be "the God of Gods," or above all gods?

He is indeed the Lord of Lords; but that denotes an inferior character, compared with that of God of Gods, as appears by 1 Cor. viii. 5, though it be included in the superior; so that he who is above all Gods, is also over all Lords, but not contrariwise.* In short, has Jesus Christ any God over him, who has greater authority, and greater ability than himself, or not? This will decide the matter; for if he have a God above him, then is he not the absolutely supreme God, though in relation to created beings he may be a God (or Ruler) over allt.

* To this purpose are the words of that eminent philosopher Sir Isaac Newton in his Optics, p. 314, 315. Lat. Edit. “ The word Deity imports exercise of dominion over subordinate beings, and though the word God most frequently signifies Lord, yet every Lord is not a God. The exercise of dominion in a spiritual being constitutes a God; if that dominion be real, that being is a real God; if it be fictitious, a false God; if it be supreme, the supreme God." He might have added, if subordinate, a subordinate God.


Our Lord Jesus Christ speaks of Another as God, dis

tinct from Himself, and owns this God to be above

or over Him. Nor can we more clearly demonstrate this point, than by showing; First, that Jesus Christ expressly speaks of another God than himself ; Secondly, that he owns this God to be above or over himself ; Lastly, that he wants those supereminent and infinite perfections, which belong only to the Lord God of Gods. Of these I shall treat in a manner suited to vulgar capacities; for I judge it very unfit to speak or write of important articles, (which the common people must believe, and must so far understand,) in such a manner as leaves them wholly unintelligible.

Is not he alone the one God, who knows no superior, no cause of his existence, whom the Son himself teaches us to esteem the only true God, and confesses to be greater than himself, even his God? Euseb. de Eccles. Theol. I. 1. c. 11. See also Irenæus, 1. 3. c. 18. who frequently distinguishes the Father by this character, The God over whom there is no other God.

First, Our Lord Jesus Christ expressly speaks of another God distinct from himself. Several times we find him saying, “ My God," of another, Mat. xxvii. 46. “My God, my God, why hast thou forsaken me?” So John xx. 17. Sure he intended not to say, Myself, Myself, why hast thou forsaken me? This God then was distinct from himself, as he declares in other places; John vii. 17. “He shall know my doctrine, whether it be of God, or whether I speak of myself.” So John viii. 42, where it is to be noted, that he does not distinguish himself from him, as the Father, but as God; and, therefore, in all just construction, he cannot be supposed to be that selfsame God, from whom he distinguishes, and to whom he opposeth himself. How manifestly are the one God and the one Lord distinguished, 1 Cor. viii. 6 ? And that there may be no just pretence to say with Placæus, that the God and the Lord, or the cause of which all things are, and the cause by or through which they are, are but two things said of the same one God; we may see them more clearly distinguished, Eph. iv. 5, 6, where, by the interposing other things between the one Lord, and one God, viz. one faith, one baptism, it appears evidently, that these were not intended as two characters of the same being. I think that none, who impartially attends to the Scripture history, can doubt whether God, and his Christ, are not two distinct beings.



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Secondly, Our Lord Jesus owns, not only another than himself to be God, but also that he is above or over himself, which is plainly intimated also by his Apostles. Himself loudly proclaims bis subjection to the Father in many instances; in general he declares his “ Father to be greater than he ;" he

he not in his own, but in his Father's name or authority; that he sought not his own, but God's glory, nor made his own will, but God's, his rule ; John xiv. 28; X. 29; John v. 43, and in such a posture of subjection came down from heaven” into this earth; John vi. 38, so that it should seem, that nature which did preexist, did not possess the supreme will, even before it was incarnate. Again, he owns his dependence upon his God and Father, even from those things which it is pretended belong to him as God, viz. the power of working miracles, of raising the dead, of executing universal judgment; of all which he says, “ Of my own self I can do nothing." John v. 19, 20. 26, 27. 30. In like manner his Apostles declare his subjection to another, not only as his Father, but as his God; which is emphatically expressed, in calling the most blessed God, “the God of our Lord Jesus," after his humiliation was over, Eph. i. 17; and the “head of Christ is God," 1 Cor. xi. 3. They declare his headship over the universe, and the very foundations of his claim to honour and service, to be owing to the gracious gift of God, Phil. ii. 9, érapidato avtõ; and

e are some of the highest glories of Jesus

Let me only add under this head that great text, so full of irresistible evidence for proving an inferiority in the Son to his Father, or to God, 1 Cor. xv. from verse 24 to 29, where the Apostle says several things to this purpose.

1. That all things are to be "put under Christ's feet;" all enemies and powers are to be subdued to him, but adds, that it is manifest God must be excepted out of these things, that are under him; and that for this reason, because it is he who did put all under him. And how comes it to pass, that it is so evident a thing, that another must be supposed to be the great author of this triumph of Christ ? Why might it not be done by himself independently, if the supreme God? And then there needs have been no exception of any one Being out of the all things under him. But the Apostle knew that Jesus Christ must needs triumph by a power derived from God, to whom it was most eminently to be ascribed; and then to one who had such thoughts, it was manifest that there must be one excepted from the all things under him, because he must needs be above Christ, who enables him to subdue all things, or makes him a God over all.

2. The Son shall“ deliver up his kingdom to God, even the Father,” that is, not to the Father, Son, and Holy Ghost, as some pretend, but to the Father only; since it was the Father who "gave him all power in heaven and earth,” and who made bim

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