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the three heavenly witnesses in John, together with an answer to Mr Martin's dissertation on this subject, and also four other tracts, and a brief memoir of the life and sentiments of Dr Samuel Clarke. The third volume is composed wholly of sermons.

The Humble Inquiry, selected for publication in the present work, is a fair specimen of Mr Emlyn's mode of thinking, his powers of reasoning, and style of composition. To explain and convince is in every part the obvious purpose of the author, and his main effort is to come to the argument with the fewest words, and by the shortest course. A clearer exposition of his opinions, and a more natural and connected chain of reasoning to support them, could not well be imagined.

His examination of Leslie's dialogue relating to the Satisfaction of Jesus Christ, is one of the best treatises on this subject, which has been written. The difficulties of the satisfaction scheme are set forth in their proper dimensions, and pressed with a powerful weight of argument drawn from the nature of rewards and punishments, the Scriptures, and the character of the Supreme Being.

The Inquiry into the Original Authority of the Text, 1 John v. 7, concerning the three heavenly witnesses, is a performance of very great merit, considering the time in which it was produced. It was among the first which appeared on that side of the question, for although Sir Isaac Newton's great argu

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ment had been written, and sent in manuscript to Le Clerc in Holland some time before, yet it was not known to the public till nearly thirty years afterwards. Emlyn proves himself thoroughly master of the subject, as far as the means of knowledge were then within his reach, and although he does not discover the same profound logic as Sir Isaac Newton, nor the same astonishing compass of learning and exuberance of wit as the gigantic Porson in his reply to Travis, yet he selects and combines his materials with a skilful hand, and reasons closely and conclusively. Mr Martin, minister of the French church at Utrecht, wrote in defence of the Text, and a controversy ensued between him and Mr Emlyn.

The Sermons of our author are chiefly remarkable for their plainness of style, vigour of thought and expression, clearness of method, directness of

manner, and their strictly practical tendency. One sermon in the volume, entitled Funeral Consolations, written immediately after the death of his wife in Dublin, has been often commended as one of the rarest examples of this species of composition in the language, showing the happy union of deep feeling at a most afflictive loss, with the calm resignation of a firm and pious mind to the will of Providence.

The other tracts in these volumes are of more or less value, according to the subjects on which they treat. Some of them had a temporary object, and consequently a temporary interest; but there are very

few from which instruction may not be derived to the student in theology at the present day. It was the author's fortune to be driven into controversy, but he never lost his temper, nor descended to recrimination ; his retorts were not pointed with sarcasm, nor his pleasantry with malice; his victory was that of argu

; ment; his triumph was the conviction of an honest mind, resolved to defend itself against the assaults of hardened injustice, and in all seasons to be the unwearied champion of truth, right, liberty, and religion.











The Term God is used in Scripture in different

Senses, supreme and subordinate. That the blessed Jesus has the title of God ascribed sometimes to him in the holy Scriptures, is not denied by Arians or Socinians; but it remains to be examined in what sense that character, as given to him, is intended. Nor is this an unreasonable or needless inquiry, since it is beyond all reasonable denial, that the title of God is given in very different senses in the Scripture.

1. Sometimes it signifies the most High, Perfect, and Infinite Being, who is of himself alone, and owes neither his being nor authority, nor anything to another; and this is what is most commonly intended, when we speak of God in ordinary discourse, and in prayer and praise; we mean it of God in the most eminent sense.

2. At other times it has a lower sense, and is made the character of persons who are invested with subordinate authority and power from that supreme Being. Psalm xcvii. 7. Thus Angels are styled Gods, Psalm viii. 5. “Thou hast made him a little lower than the Gods," as it is in the margin. So magistrates are Gods, Exod. xxii. 28. Psalm lxxxii. 1. John s. 34, 35. And sometimes in the singular number, one person is styled God, as Moses is twice so called, a God to Aaron, and afterwards a God to Pharaoh; Exod. iv. 16; vii. 1; and thus the devil is called the God of this world, that is, the prince and mighty ruler of it; though by unjust usurpation, and God's permission. Now as he who alone is God, in the former sense, is infinitely above all these ; so we find him distinguished from all others, who are called God, by this character, viz. a God of Gods, or the chief of all Gods, with whom none of those Gods may be compared.* So Philo describes him to be not only the God of men, but the God of Gods also. This is the highest and most glorious epithet given him in the Old Testament, when it is designed to make a most magnificent mention of his peerless greatness and glory. Equivalent

* Origen. Com. in John. p. 46-49. Duet. x. 17. Jos. xxii. 22. Ps. lxxxvi. 8; cxxxv. 5.

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