« ForrigeFortsæt »
SELECTIONS FROM HORACE.
THE ODES. BOOK I.
ODE I. - It is probable that the first three books of Odes were published together, with this as a preface, A. U.C. 730, B.C. 24. It is a graceful dedication to Maecenas of a work the composition of which had occupied and amused the poet at intervals for some years. It was probably at his patron's instigation that he arranged his fugitive pieces, and put them forth in this collected form.
1 Atavis = ancestors ; properly, an ancestor in the fifth degree, thus : pater, avus, proavus, abavus, atavus. Maecenas belonged to the family of Cilnii, formerly Lucumones or princes of Etruria. -2 Cf. Virg. G. II. 40. — 3. Sunt quos=aliquos. The indicative is used when particular persons are alluded to, as here the Greeks in opposition to the Romans. The subjunctive is used, as Dillenb. ex. presses it, quum non tam esse aliquid ostenditur quam quale quid sit describitur. Cf. Gr. 501. 2. A. & S. 26. 46 and R. 4 Curriculo = either the chariot (from currere, as vehiculum from vehere) or the course. On Olympicum, see on Ov. T. IV. 10. 95, and Virg. G. I. 59. — 4. Collegisse. Gr. 542. 2. A. & S. 268. 2, R. 2. The perfect instead of the present is used, like the Greek aorist, to express a complete action, or one frequently repeated, not a continuing course of action. Cf. C. I. 34. 16; III. 2. 30, etc. Meta=the goal; a conical pillar at the end of the course, round which the chariots turned on their way back to the starting-place. A skilful driver turned the goal as closely as possible without touching it; hence evitata rotis. Fervidis. Cf. Milton : "then stayed the fervid wheels.” – 5. Palma; i.e. the palm-branch which was presented with the crown to the victor in the games. — 6. Terrarum - Deos = exalts them, (as if they were) lords of the world, to the gods. The whole passage has been a very perplexing one to the critics. Some make dominos in apposition with Deos. Some put a period
after nobilis, and consider evehit as impersonal; translating : It exalts the lords of the earth (i. e. ironically, the Romans), to the gods – this one, if, etc. The chief difficulty with the punctuation and interpretation we have followed is, that it leaves hunc and illum to depend on juvat ; a harsh construction (though not so bad as joining them with dimoveas, as some have done), but one which is adopted and defended by Dillenb. and others. On evehit ad deos, cf. C. IV. 2. 17, 18. - 8. Tergeminis honoribus is by most critics under. stood to refer to the three curule magistracies, those of the aedile, praetor, and consul; but some make it =maximis honoribus. The case is ablative; but a few of the commentators make it dative for ad honores. On tollere, see Gr. 553. V. A. & S. 271, N. 3; 274, R. 7 (6). The construction is a very common one in Horace. –10. Libycis. The great bulk of the corn consumed at Rome was imported from Sicily and Libya. See C. III. 16. 26, 31. The area was a raised floor on which the corn was threshed; and after the wind had winnowed it the floor was swept, and the corn was thus collected. See Virg. G. I. 178 foll., where full directions are given for making an area. - 11. Scindere is the proper word for the plough ; findere for the hoe or smaller instruments. Attalicis conditionibus ; i. e. the most extravagant terms. There were three kings of Pergamus of this name, which was proverbial for riches. The third left his great wealth to the Romans, B. C. 134. See C. II. 18. 5. - 13. Dimo. veas. From the meaning of de, down from, demoveo is more properly used when the place from which the removal takes place is expressed, and dimoveo, when the sentence is absolute, as here. Trabe. Gr. 705. III. A. & S. 324. 3. Cf. carina, C. I. 35. 7. Cypria. See on Virg. A. I. 622. Cypria, Myrtoum, Icariis, Africum, are all particular names for general, used to give life to the description. - 14. The Myrtoan Sea, like the Icarian (see on Ov. M. VIII. 230), was a part of the Aegean. - 15. Fluctibus. Gr. 385 and 5. A. & S. 223, R. 2 (6). Africum=the west-southwest wind, which elsewhere Horace calls praeceps, protervus, etc. Cf. Virg. A. I. 85. - 16. Otium-sui
the peaceful fields about his native town. – 18. Pati. Gr. 552. 3. A. & S. 270, R. 1 (a). This is a Greek construction, and very frequent in Horace. Pauperiem is not extreme poverty (egestas), but
Cf. C. III. 29. 56. - 19. Est qui. See on sunt quos, v. 3. Massici. See on Virg. G. II. 143. - 20. Solido die; i. e. to break in upon the hours of business. The solidus dies ended at the dinner hour, which, with industrious people, was the ninth in summer and tenth in winter. The luxurious dined earlier, the busy sometimes later. - 21. Viridi = evergreen. See on Ov. M. I. 104. Membra. Gr. 380. A. & S. 234. II. – 22. Caput = the source. Sacrae; i. e. to the nymphs of the stream. Cf. Virg.
E. I. 53. - 23. The lituus was curved in shape (but less so than the cornu) and sharp in tone, and used by cavalry; the tuba was straight and of deep tone, used by infantry. Cf. Ov. M. I. 98. For the construction, see Gr. 385. 5. A. & S. 245. II. 2 and R. 1. - 24. Matribus. Gr. 388. 4. A. & S. 225. II. So catulis, v. 27. – 25. Detestata; used passively. Gr. 221. 2. A. & S. 162. 17. Manet= pernoctat. Jove coelo, Cf. Virg. E. VII. 60; G. I. 418; II. 325, 419. So Ennius : Istic est hic Jupiter quem dico, quem Graeci vocant aèrem. 28. Teretes firmly twisted. Plagas; nets of thick rope, used in hunting the larger beasts. Cf. Virg. A. IV. 131. Marsus (see on Virg. G. II. 167); for Marsicus, as in C. II. 20. 18.
So Bithynus, C. I. 35. 7; Colchus, II. 13. 8; Italus, II. 13, 18; Maurus, I. 22. 2, etc. 29. The ivy, sacred to Bacchus, made a fit garland for a lyric poet. - 31. Cum Satyris : et saty.
Cf. C. I. 12. 44; 24. 4; III. I. 36; 3. 24; 18. 12, etc. – 33. Euterpe, the Muse, was said to have invented the tibia, and she especially presided over music. Polyhymnia, or Polymnia, another Muse, invented the lyre. — 34. Lesboum; i.e. of Sappho and Alcaeus, who were natives of Mytilene in the island of Lesbos. See on Ov. M. X. 55. Tendere. See on tollere, v. 8. – 36. Gr. 705. V. A. & S. 324. 5.
ODE II. — The prodigies described at the beginning of this justly celebrated Ode are those which were said to have followed the death of Julius Caesar. They are related also by Virgil, G. I. 466-489, which passage and the verses that follow it to the end of the book, should be read in connection with this Ode. It is very probable that Horace had this description in his mind when he wrote. He refers to these prodigies as evidences of the divine wrath for the guilt of the civil wars. He then invokes one god after another to come and restore the state, and finally fixes upon Mercury, whom he entreats to take upon himself the form of a man (i. e. Augustus), and not to leave the earth until he has accomplished his mission and conquered the enemies of Rome. The ode was probably written on the return of Augustus to Rome, after the taking of Alexandria, A. U.C. 725, B. C. 29.
1. Terris. Gr. 379. 5. A. & S. 225. IV. R. 2. Dirae belongs to both nivis and grandinis. This is very common in Horace. Cf. C. I. 31. 16; 34.8; III. 2. 16; IV. 14. 4, etc. - 2. Rubente=red; i.e. with the reflected glare of the thunderbolt. — 3. Dextera. Gr. 148. 3. 1). A. & S. 106. Jaculatus ; with the accus. of the thing struck, as in the only three instances in which Horace uses the word. In Virg. A. II. 276 the dative is used. Arces; the sacred buildings on the Capitoline Hill. - 5. Terruit ne=terruit, ut metuerent w.
6. Pyrrhae. See on Ov. M. I. 260 foll. - 7. Proteus. See on Ov. M. II. 9. – 8. Visere. See on tollere, C. I. 8. – 11. Superjecto (sc. terris) = poured over the earth. – 12. Damae is both masc. and fem. See Gr. - 13. Flavum; because of the sand washed down in its stream. Horace does not mean that he himself had seen these things, but that his generation had seen them. Retortis – undis = its waters driven violently back from the shore of the Etruscan sea ; i.e. from its mouth. Some take littore Etrusco for the Etruscan or right bank of the river, as opposed to sinistra ripa, v. 18. – 15. Dejectum. Gr. 569. A. & S. 276. II. Monumenta regis; i. e. the palace of Numa adjoining the temple of Vesta. See on Virg. G. I. 498. – 17. Nimium ; with querenti. Tiber is represented as taking upon himself, without the sanction of Jove, and in consequence of Ilia's complaints, to avenge the death of Julius Caesar, the descendant of lulus, her ancestor. Ilia, or Rea (not Rhea) Silvia, is variously reported to have been married to the Tiber and the Anio, because into one of those streams she was thrown by order of Amulius. –18. Sinistra ripa (i. e. looking down stream); on which Rome was situated. — 21. Audiet — ferrum shall hear that citi. zens have sharpened the sword; i. e. inter se, for civil war. — 22. Quo - perirent=by which it were better that the hostile Parthians should die. Persians, Medes, and Parthians are names freely interchanged by Horace. The Parthian Empire, at this time, extended nearly from the Indus to the Roman province of Syria, into which the Parthians often made incursions. See v. 51. The name of Augustus did something towards keeping them in check, but they were held by the Romans to be their most formidable enemies. — 23, 24. Vitio - juventus = our children thinned by the crimes of their fathers ; not only by bloodshed, but by immorality. - 26. Imperi. Gr. 45. 5. 1). A. & S. 52. Rebus. Gr. 384. II. A. & S. 223, N. 27, 28. Virgines. Vesta was the tutelary goddess of Rome. See on Virg. G. I. 499. She turns a deaf ear to the prayers of her virgins, because Caesar as Pontifex Maximus had particular charge of her temple and rites. Carmina, hymns, is opposed to prece, as a set formula to other prayers. — 29. Partes = munus, officium. - 30. Venias. Gr. 493. 2.
A. & S. 262, R. 4. - 31. Humeros. See on membra, C. I. 21. — - 32. Augur; as the god of divination. Cf. Virg. A. IV. 376. — 33. Ma is; sc. venire ad scelera nostra expianda. Erycina. See on Ov. M. V. 363. Cf. Virg. A. V. 759. Apollo is invoked as the steadfast friend of Troy ; Venus, as the mother of Aeneas and the Julian family; and Mars (Auctor), as the father of Romulus. — 34. Jocus Mirth. Circum; the prep. after the noun, as often in the poets. Cf. C. III. 3. II ; Virg. A. I. 32 ; II. 792, etc. - 36. Respicis = thou regardest. — 38. Leves burnished.
- 39. The order is, et vultus Mauri peditis acer in cruentum hostem. Peditis; i. e. equo dejecti. The troops of Mauritania were chiefly cavalry. — 41. Juvenem; i. e. Augustus, who was forty years old at the time. Cf. Virg. G. I. 500. Juvenis and adolescens were used of any age between pueritia and senectus. Cicero speaks of himself as adolescens at the age of forty-four, and as senex at sixty-two. — 42. Ales; with filius. See Virg. A. IV. 239 foll. Mercury is selected as the representative of Augustus, because he is the messenger of peace. -43. Filius. Gr. 369. 2. A. & S. 52. Vocari. See on tollere, C. I. 1. 8. — 45. Serus; adj. for adv., as often. Cf. C. I. 7. 17; 10. 3; 12. 57, etc. Gr. 443. 2. A. & S. 205, R. 15. Redeas. Gr. 488 1. A. & S. 260, R. 6. So tollat, ames, and sinas. — 46. Laetus = propitious. Quirini. See on Virg. A. I. 292. - 49. Triumphos; object of ames. Cf. C. I. 1. 19, 20. Augustus had just celebrated, or was about to celebrate, three triumphs on three successive days, for his victories, (1.) over the Gauls, Pannonians, and Dalmatians, (2.) at Actium, and (3.) at Alexandria. — 50. Pater. The title of pater patriae was not assumed by Augustus till A. U. C. 752. It was the highest title of honor that could be given to a citizen, and was first given by the Senate to Cicero (the army had previously bestowed it on Camillus), on the suppression of Catiline's conspiracy. Princeps (sc. senatus); a title taken by Augustus, A. U. C. 726. — 51. Inultos
unpunished. See on v. 22. — 52. Caesar. Macleane speaks of the unexpected introduction of the name of Caesar at the end of the ode, as “an instance of consummate art.”
ODE III. — This Ode is addressed to the ship which was carrying Virgil the poet to Greece, perhaps on that voyage from which he only returned to die, A. U. C. 735, B. C. 19.
1. Sic, in this place, is = =an emphatic utinam ; the object of the wish being a means by which the desired end may be accomplished. It is not precisely like those passages in which sic follows the prayer on which it depends, where condition and consequence are clearly marked, and an opposite wish is implied, if the condition be not ful. filled. Cf. Virg. E. IX. 30. — Diva; i. e. Venus, who, as born of the sea, was supposed to have power over it. Cf. Virg. A. V. 800, 801. Hence she was sometimes called marina, had temples built for her in harbors, etc. Cypri. See on Virg. A. I. 622. Gr. 399. 3. A. & S. 213, R. 1 (3). — 2. Fratres ; i. e. Castor and Pollux, who were worshipped as the protectors of travellers by sea. The Greeks called them åpwyóvavtal, “ sailor-helpers.” They were placed by Jupiter in the constellation Gemini ; but lucida sidera here is thought by some to refer to the electrical phenomena, now known among sailors as “ St. Elmo's fires,” which the ancients supposed to indicate the