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E. V. 7.

given to young men on their first military success. Gr. 419. II. A. & S. 245. II. 1. 761, 762. Lucis loca ; a place in the upper world. Auras aetherias. Cf. I. 546. - 763. Silvius became the regular cognomen of the Alban kings. Postuma=latest. — 765. CL Livy 1.4: casu quodam in silvis natus. 766. Unde =

=a quo, as in V. 133, etc. Longa Alba. See on I. 271. 767, 768. Proximus ; used loosely, as Procas was the twelfth (some say fourteenth) king of Alba Capys was the sixth, eighth, or ninth ; Numitor succeeded Procas. 769 - 770. Aeneas Silvius was one of the earliest of the Alban kings Serv. says that he was kept out of his kingdom fifty-three years by a usurping guardian. — 772. Atque iidem civicas gerunt coronas, nam deducent cives in colonias (Wr.). The civic wreath was originally given only to the soldier who saved the life of a comrade in battle. — 773775. The places named are old Latin towns. Fidenae is more common than Fidena. Collatinas = of Collatia. Pometios; for Pometia, or Suessa Pometia. On Gabii and Fidenae cf. Hor. E. I. 11. 7, 8 777. The meaning is, that Romulus shall appear on earth to join his grandfather, whom, according to the story, he restored to his rights Mavortius. Cf. I. 276. — 778. Assaraci. See on I. 284. Tia See on I. 274. — 779. Viđen?. Gr. 669. I. 3 and IV. Stant. See on

- 780. Et - honore ; i. e. Romulus is already marked as a child of the upper air (superum) by his father's token, the two-crested helmet (Con). Wr. makes superum gen. plu. with pater : the father of the gods already marks him with his own honor ; i. e. with divine beauty and majesty. -782. Animos; her greatness of soul. — 783. Cf. G. II. 535. - 784, 785. See on Ov. M. XI. 16. Turrita ; referring to the mural crown she wore. — 790. Magnum -axem; ie destined to go to the upper world. - 792, 793. Aurea - saecula Cf. Hor. C. IV. 2. 39 and note. — 794. Saturno. Gr. 388. 4. A. & S. 225. II. Cf. E. IV. 6. Super=beyond. Garamantas. See on IV. 198. Indos. See on Hor. C. I. 12. 51. On the whole passage, see on Hor. C. IV. 14. 39 foll. - 795 - 797. Extra sidera, like extra — vias, refers to the zodiac. Tellus ; Ethiopia. Atlas, etc Cf. IV. 481, 482. - 799. Maeotia tellus ; i. e. the Scythians about the Maeotis Palus, the sea of Azov. – 800. See on Ov. M. II. 254 and cf. septem fluus, M. I. 423, septemplice, M. V. 187, etc. Turbant; intrans. - 801. Cf. vv. 123, 392 and Hor. C. I. 12. 25, etc. — 802, 803. Fixerit. Gr. 515. I. A. & S. 263. 2 (1). Three of the labors of Hercules are mentioned : the killing of the Cetynitian stag, the Erymanthian boar, and the Lernean hydra. Cf. v. 287 and V.448 – 805. Liber. See on Ov. M. III. 636. Nysa, the legendary moun: tain on which Bacchus was brought up, was identified with various places in Europe, Asia, and Africa. - 809. Sacra ferens. See on G. II. 476. – 810, 811. Regis ; Numa Pompilius. Fundabit

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constituet et firmabit. Curibus ; an ancient Sabine town. -814. Tullus (sc. Hostilius); the third king of Rome. - 815, 816. Cf. Pomp. Sabinus : Ancus Martius vivente Tullo aegre ferebat, quum e stirpe regia se jactaret, praelatum sibi Tullum. Itaque statuerat favore populari Tullum regem cum tota familia occidere. - 817, 818. Virg. has not chosen to call Tarquin superbus, but has transferred the epithet to Brutus, the majestic and inflexible founder of Roman liberty. Receptos ; i. e. transferred from the kings to the consuls. 820. Nova bella ; the conspiracy to restore the Tarquins. - 822, 823. The meaning is, that he will risk being called cruel by posterity, so long as he forces them to acknowledge that he is great. — 824, 825. Decios. See on G. II. 169. Drusos ; referring especially to Livius, the conqueror of Hasdrubal. See on Hor. C. IV. 4. 37. Torquatum; T. Manlius Torquatus, who caused his own son to be beheaded (hence saevum securi) for fighting contrary to orders. Ca. millum. See on Hor. C. I. 12. 37 foll. He recovered the standards (signa) taken by the Gauls at the battle of the Allia. - 826. Paribus ... armis. CL. G. I. 489. Fulgere ; an older form than fulgère. Cf. G. I. 456. —830. Socer; Caesar, whose daughter Julia Pompey married. Monoeci; the port of Hercules Monoecus, the modern Monaco, where was a promontory and a temple, whence arx, as in III. 531. -831. Adversis - Eois arrayed against him with an Eastern army ; referring to the composition of Pompey's forces—832. Animis - bella; a variety for adsuescite animos bellis. -833. Note the alliteration. - 837. Ille; L. Mummius. Triumphata ; a poetical construction. Cf. Hor. C. III. 3. 43. Capitolia. See on Hor. C. IV. 3. 9. Corintho. Cf. Hor. E. II. 1. 193. Gr. 431. A. & S. 257. — 838. Cf. I. 284, 285. Tle ; probably L. Aemilius Paullus. See on Hor. C. I. 12. 38. - 839. Aeaciden; probably Perseus, the Macedonian king, who is said to have been a descendant of Achilles. — 840. C£. I. 41 ; II. 165, 403, etc. — 841. Cato ; the Censor. See on Hor. C. I. 12. 34. Cosse ; A. Cornelius Cossus, who won the spolia opima, B. C. 428. — 842 - 846. Gracchi genus ; Tiberius, who was general in the second Punic war ; a second of the same name, who distinguished himself in the Spanish wars ; and the brothers Tiberius and Caius, the tribunes, who died the death of martyrs in the protection of the oppressed plebeians. Scipiadas ; not the Scipios who fell in Spain, but the elder and younger Africanus. Potentem opulentum, as in Hor. C. II. 18. 13. Fabricium. See on Hor. C. I. 12. 37 foll. Serrane; an agnomen of M. Atilius Regulus, said to have been given him because he was sowing when the news was brought him that he was elected consul. See on Hor. C. III. 5. 13. Quo- rapitis ; alluding to the numbers and exploits of the Fabii, which tire him who tries to

tell them. Maximus ; Q. Fabius Cunctator, famous for his “mas. terly inactivity" while dictator in the second Punic war. Verse 846 is taken almost verbally from Ennius. — 847 - 850. Alii refers to the Greeks, the natural rivals of Rome. Mollius = = more gracefully; with some reference, perhaps, to giving the soft appearance of flesh. Orabunt – melius ; i. e. excel in oratory. Coeli meatus. Cf. G. II. 477. Radio. See on E. III. 41. – 851-853. Romane; an address to the nation. Hae - artes = these shall be your arts; i.e. shall stand to you in the place of sculpture, eloquence, and astronomy. Pacisque - morem ; i. e. compel them to cultivate the arts of peace (Wr., Henry, and Con.). Parcere, etc. Cf. Hor. C. S. 51. – 855859. Marcellus ; the elder. See on Hor. C. I. 12. 46. Tumultu; a Gallic war. Poenos; in the second Punic war. Tertia arma The spolia opima were won only thrice in Roman history; by Romu. lus, Cossus (see on v. 841), and Marcellus. Quirino. See on I. 292.

- 860 - 863. Una; with Marcellus. Frons — parum ; saddened with the presage of death. - 865. Quantum - ipso = how commanding is his presence ! — 866. Cf. II. 360. — 868. Gnate. Wr. remarks that Virgil prefers the archaic spelling in solemn passages. — 870, 871. The construction seems to be : Romana propago visa (est) nimium potens (futura fuisse). Propria. Cf. E. VII. 31. — 872, 874. Mavortis ; with urbem, and perhaps with Campus also (Con.). See on I. 276. Aget=will send forth. H. berine ; sc. pater. Tumulum; the mausoleum of the Julian family in the Campus Martius, erected by Augustus five years before. -876. Romula; the form of the noun used as an adjective Cf. I. 686; III. 602 ; IV. 552 ; and Hor. C. S. 47. — 878. C£ I. 292 and Hor. C. S. 57. - 879-881. No one would have been his match in fight, had he been destined to live. - 883. See Life of Virgil. Tu - eris = you shall be a true Marcellus ; i. e. worthy of your ancestral renown. - 884. Spargam. Gr. 493. 2. A. & S. 262, R. 4 Cf. V. 79. - 886. Munere. Gr. 419. I. A. & S. 245. I. -887. Aëris ; with campos: the shadowy plains. — 890. Deinde. See on v. 756. - 891. Laurentes populos; the Latini, from Lauren. tum, “the city of Latinus." — 892. Cf. III. 459. - 893-896. The gates of Sleep are from Hom. Od. XIX. 562 foll. Fertur =is said (to be). Veris Umbris ; real spirits which appear in sleep. Can. denti – elephanto = gleaming with the polish of dazzling ivory. Cf. V. 267. – 898. No good reason can be given why Aeneas should have been dismissed by one gate rather than the other. – 900. Caietae ; the modern Gaeta. Recto litore; sailing straight along the shore (Wr., Forb., Con., et al.). Limite is found in three or four inferior MSS. — 901. Cf. III, 277, and see on vv. 4, 5 below.



HORACE is his own biographer. All the material facts of his personal history are to be gathered from allusions scattered throughout his poems. A memoir, attributed to Suetonius, of somewhat doubtful authenticity, furnishes a few additional details, but none of moment, either as to his character or career.

QUINTUS HORATIUS Flaccus was born VI. Id. Dec. A. U. C. 689 (Dec. 8, B. C. 65), during the consulship of L. Aurelius Cotta and L. Manlius Torquatus. His father was a freedman of the town of Venusia, the modern Venosa, the inhabitants of which belonged to the Horatian tribe, and had received his manumission before his son was born. He had acquired a moderate independence in the vocation of coactor, a name borne indifferently by the collectors of public revenue and of money at sales by public auction. To which of these classes he belonged is uncertain, but most probably to the latter. With the fruits of his industry he had purchased a small property near Venusia, upon the banks of the Aufidus, the modern Ofanto, in the midst of the Apennines, upon the doubtful boundaries of Lucania and Apulia. Here the poet was born, and in this picturesque region of mountain, forest, and stream the boy became imbued with the love of nature, which distinguished him through life.

He describes himself (C. III. 4. 9 foll.) as having lost his way, when a child, upon Mount Vultur, and being found asleep under a covering of laurel and myrtle leaves, which the wood-pigeons had spread to shield this favorite of the gods from snakes and wild animals. The augury of the future poet said to have been drawn from the incident at the time was probably an afterthought of Horace himself, who had not forgotten Anacreon and the bees; but whatever may be thought of the omen, the picture of the strayed child, asleep with his hands full of spring flowers, is pleasing. In his father's house, and in those of the Apulian peasantry around him, Horace had opportunities of becoming familiar with the simple virtues of the poor, – their independence, integrity, chastity, and humble worth, — which he loved to contrast with the luxury and vice of imperial Rome. Of his mother no mention occurs, directly or indirectly, throughout his poems. This could scarcely have happened, had she not died while he was very young. He appears also to have been an only child. No doubt he had at an early age given evidence of superior powers; and to this it may have been in some measure owing, that his father resolved to give him a higher education than could be obtained under a provincial schoolmaster, and, although ill able to afford the expense, took him to Rome when about twelve years old, and gave him the best education which the capital could supply. No money was spared to enable the boy to keep his position among his fellow-scholars of the higher ranks. At the same time, he was not allowed to feel any shame for his own order, or to aspire to a position which he was unequal to maintain. His father taught him to look forward to filling some position akin to that in which he had himself acquired a com petency, and to feel that in any sphere culture and self-respect must command influence, and afford the best guarantee for happiness. Under the stern tutorage of Orbilius Pupillus, a grammarian of high standing, richer in reputation than gold, whose undue exercise of the rod the poet has condemned to a bad immortality, he learned grammar, and became familiar with the earlier Latin writers and with Homer. He also acquired such other branches of instruction as were usually learned by the sons of Romans of the higher rank. Bat, what was of still more importance, during this critical period of his first introduction to the temptations of the capital, he enjoyed the advantage of his father's personal superintendence, and of a careful moral training. His father went with him to all his classes, and, being himself a man of shrewd observation and natural humor, he gave his son's studies a practical bearing, by directing his attention to the follies and vices of the luxurious and dissolute society around him, and showing their incompatibility with the dictates of reason and common sense. From this admirable father Horace appears to have gathered many of “the rugged maxims hewn from life" with which his works abound, and also to have inherited that manly independence for which he was remarkable, and which, while assigning to all ranks their due influence and respect, never either overestimates or compromises its own. Under the homely exterior of the Apulian freedman we recog. nize the soul of the gentleman. His influence on his son was manifestly great. In the full maturity of his powers Horace penned a tribute to his worth (S. 1. 6. 65 foll.), in terms which prove how often and how deeply he had occasion in after life to be grateful for the bias thus early communicated. His father's character had given a tone and strength to his own which, in the midst of manifold temptations, had kept him true to himself and to his genius.

At what age Horace lost his father is uncertain, but probably be


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