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ing the gates of heaven; i. e. through which the day issues. Gr. 431. A. & S. 257. See on E. V. 56. — 375. Troja; with vectos. — 376. Diversa per aequora=over various seas. Heyne and Forb, take it to mean, out of our course."— 377. Forte sua by its own chance, casualty; i. e. without any purpose of ours. 378. Raptos mecum explains pius. — 380. Patriam; because his ancestor Dardanus was born in Italy. Genus - summo is epexegetical of patriam. Genus ab: (my) ancestry (sprung) from. - 381. Phry. gium; i. e. that washes the shores of Troas. See on v. 182.-382 Fata = oracles. Cf. IV. 345. The oracle itself is given, III. 94 foll., by Apollo at Delos. - 383. Euro. See on v. 108. - 384. Ig. notus; i. e. in a land where I am unknown. — 385. Europa – pulsus. Cf. vv. 232, 333. Querentem; for queri with sub. acc. — 387. Haud ... invisus not odious. Coelestibus. A. & S. 222, R. 1.—388. Carpis = thou enjoyest, breathest. Ad. veneris. Gr. 519. A. & S. 264. 8 (1). 389. Modo: = now. Perfer. Per implies that he is to go on till he reaches the place. — 391. In tutum = into a safe place. Gr. 441.

Aquilonibus. Gr. 431. A. & S. 257

Gr. 391.

A. & S. 205, R. 7 (1). See on v. 108. - 392.

Vani; i. e. ignorant of what they pretended to understand. Cf. II. 8o. She sees the swans, and professes to interpret the omen on the spot by the rules her parents have given her. -393. Bis senos... cycnos. The swans were the birds of Venus, and their number is that of the missing ships. Laetantes agmine. Gr. 414 and 2. A. & S. 247 and 1. Agmine is opposed to turbabat, and explained by ordine longo. Cf. agmen in v. 186, contrasted with miscet in v. 191. -394. Aetheria... lapsa plaga = swooping from the upper sky; the aetheria plaga being higher than the coelum. Jovis ales; i. e. the eagle. Aperto... coelo = in the wide air; harmonizing with turbabat: was scattering, dispersing. -395. Ordine longo. Gr. 414 and 3. A. & S. 247 and 2. — 396. This perplexing line seems to answer in structure, and therefore probably in sense, to v. 400. Capere has been variously understood either as to settle on or to mark out for settling (capere oculis). It seems best on the whole to take the former meaning, and to make captas = captas ab altera cycnorum parte; i. e. some alight, others look down on those which have alighted, and already (jam) are preparing to follow them. Coetu cinxere polum is no objection to this interpretation, being evidently ornamental and only vaguely descriptive. — 398. Cinxere polum= have wheeled in circles through the air. -399. Pubesque tuorum your companions. Tuorum is distinguished from tuae merely for variety's sake. -400. Tenet... subit. Gr. 463 and I. A. & S. 209, R. 12 (3). —401. Qua—via. Cf. E. IX. 1.—402. Rosearefulsit = with her rosy neck she threw back a brilliant light. — 403.




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Divinum... odorem; i. e. a fragrance such as the gods diffuse. 404. Defluxit. Her short hunting-tunic is changed into the flowing robe characteristic of a god or goddess. —405. Incessu. Cf. v. 46. -408. Ludis mock. - Jungere. Gr. 549. A. & S. 269. —409. Datur. Gr. 640, Ex. A. & S. 290 (a). — Veras; i. e. without disguise on the one part or mistake on the other. -411. Obscuro ... aĕre with a dark mist. —412. Multo=thick. — Circum... fudit; a tmesis for circumfudit. Gr. 384. 1. A. &. S. 249, R. 3. — Dea (=as a goddess) is added rhetorically, expressing the divine power exerted in the action. Cf. vv. 691, 692. Gr. 363. A. & S. 204. 413. Contingere = to injure. — 414. Moliri = to cause. 415. Paphum. See on G. II. 64. Gr. 379. A. & S. 237. — Sublimis through the air. — 416. Laeta; probably to be contrasted with tristior, v. 228.. Templum; sc. est. Sabaeo. See on G. I. 57, and compare Milton, Par. Lost, IV. 161: "Sabaean odors from the spicy shores of Araby the blest."-417. Ture... sertis. Gr. 414 and 2. A. & S. 247 and 1.— 418. Corripuere viam. See on Ov. M. II. 158. Qua semita monstrat; like qua te ducit via, v. 401. Elsewhere via and semita are opposed, as a main road and a by-path; here via is general, semita particular. —419. Plurimus of great size. -421. Molem massive structures. Magalia mere huts. The contrast is in the poet's own mind, not in that of Aeneas. Gr. 363. A. & S. 204. — 422. Strata viarum = paved streets. Gr. 396, III. A. & S. 212, R. 3, N. 4. The expression is partly partitive and partly that of quality. 423. A semicolon is commonly placed at Tyrii; but insto is found with the infin, in II. 627, X. 118. Pars pars; i. e. part are at work on the fortifications, part on the houses. Cf. E. I. 65, 66. Gr. 363. A. & S. 204, R. 10. Ducere to extend. 424. Moliri to build. Arcem; the citadel proper, as distinguished from the arces, v. 420. —425. Optare to choose; i. e. with auspices.



Cf. III. 132. Sulco is generally

taken as the trench for the foundations. - 426. Jura—legunt, a zeugma for jura constituunt magistratusque legunt. Gr. 704. I. 2. A. & S. 323. 1 (2) (a). Sanctum; the regular epithet of the Roman senate.-427. Effodiunt. The harbor of Carthage was artificial. — 429. Scenis . . . futuris for the future stage. For the strict

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meaning of scena see on v. 164. The dat. limits, not decora, but some omitted participle. Gr. 392, 1; 398, 5. A. & S. 211, R. 5, N. -430. Qualis implies some such antecedent clause as talis labor Poenos exercet. See on v. 316. — Aestate nova; in the first bright days of summer, when the hive, awakened from its winter torpor, is busiest and most like a young colony. The divisions here introduced by cum imply, not different times, but different parties, and so are parallel to the different occupations of the Carthaginians. Cf. G. IV. 162– 169.



-432. Liquentia; from liquor, not liqueo. —433. Nectare. Gr. 87. II I. A. & S. 82, Ex. 1 (ẻ). —435. Pecus. Gr. 363. A. & S, 436. Thymo. Gr. 414 and 2. A. & S. 247 and 1The want of a city is the key-note of the whole Aeneid. Aeneas envies the Carthaginians as he envies Helenus and Andromache, III, 493 foll.—438. Suspicit. He has now descended the hill.-439. Mirabile dictu. See on v. 114. -440. Miscet probably borrows se from the previous line, as no other instance is quoted of its intransitive use. Viris. Gr. 385. 5. A. & S. 245. II. R. 1. Ulli. Gr. 388. 4. A. & S. 225. II.

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441-493. Aeneas enters a grove, where a temple is building to Juno. There he sees represented the various incidents of the Trojan war,441, Lucus is a sacred grove, Laetissimus


very abun dant; and therefore causing joy. Umbrae. Gr. 399 and 2. 2). A. & S. 213 and R. 1 (3). —442. Primum; with effodere. 443. Signum; the, not a, sign; i. e. the sign which Juno had, in some way not here described, taught them to expect. -444. Caput. A horse's head is common on Punic coins, Cf. III. 539 foll. Sic; i, e. by this sign. Fore; sc. monstrarat. Bello. Gr. 429. A. & S. 250, 1. — 445. Facilem viotu: wealthy; lit, easy to live. Some take vict from vinco (in which case facilem victu: = victorious); but cf. G. II, 460, fundit humo facilem victum justissima tellus (of which expression this, as Heyne remarks, is only a variety), and VIII, 318, asper victu venatus. Bello egregiam et facilem victu thus answers to the two characteristics of Carthage, v. 14, dives opum studiisque asperrima belli-446. Sidonia. Dido is so called from Sidon, the most ancient city of Phoenicia, and the mother-city of Tyre. 447. Donis

divae = enriched by offerings and by the especial presence of the goddess. It is a zeugma. See on coluisse, v. 16. There was doubtless a statue, though this is implied rather than expressed by numen both here and in IV. 204, - 448. The threshold was of brass, with steps leading up to it. Cui gradibus=from the steps of which, Gr. 384; 422. 2. A. & S. 223; 255, R. 3 (6). Nexaeque aere trabes and doorposts bound (i, e, plated and fastened) with brass, Surgebant is to be supplied to trabes, but so that nexae aere shall be a predicate, See on v. 332. —449. Foribus—aënis. Gr. 704. L. 1; 384. A. & S. 323, 1 (6); 223, In translating supply while. 452. Rebus. Gr. 385. 1. A, & S. 223, R, 2. —453. These representa tions are probably on the doors or external walls of the temple. Sub then will express that Aeneas is looking up. Compare the sculptures mentioned at G. III, 26; A, VI. 20. Singula the objects one by one,454. Quae — urbi... miratur; for miratur fortunam urbis marvels at the prosperity of the city; i, e. as shown in the splen dor of its temple, Gr. 445; 485, A. & S. 206 (6) (b); 266, 3. —

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455. Manus

skill. Inter se

compared with one another.

This line gives the prepares us for the

Operumque laborem, probably referring to the magnitude of the work rather than to the elaborate detail. -457. reason why the battles have been painted, and thoughts that follow. -458. Atridas = the sons of Atreus; i. e. Agamemnon and Menelaus. Priamum; the son of Laomedon, and the last king of Troy. Ambobus; i, e. to the sons of Atreus as one party, by his wrath on account of Briseïs and his consequent withdrawal from the contest; and to Priam as the other party, in the slaying of so many of his sons. -459. Jam by this time. -460. La❤ boris = misfortune, sorrow, disaster. —461. Priamus. Gr. 367. 3. A. & S. 209, R. 13. Sua. Gr. 449. II. 2. A. & S. 208 (7) (a). Laudi worth, merit. Cf. V. 355.462. Rerum. See on v. 178. -463. Haec fama; i. e. this knowledge of our glory. - 465. Multa. Gr. 371. 1. 3) (2). A. & S. 205, R. 10. —466. Uti-how, Pergama, properly the citadel of Troy, is often used, as here, for Troy itself.467. Hac here; i. e. in this part of the picture, or of the series of pictures. Fugerent. Gr. 525. A. & S. 265. So premeret and instaret. —468. Phryges. See on v. 182. Curru, Gr. 414 and 4 A. & S. 247 and 3.-469. Rhesi; a Thracian prince, and an ally of the Trojans in their war with the Greeks. Niveis - velis. An anachronism similar to that noticed in v. 169, The Homeric kλiata were huts of planks thatched with grass. In the treatment of antiquities, Virgil generally inclines to Roman notions, and especially to the usages of his own age. Velis. Gr. 428. A. & S, 211, R. 6. 470. Primo - somno= which betrayed by the first sleep. Whether the first time they slept or the first part of their sleep, as being the deepest, is meant, the critics cannot decide. — 471. Tydides. See on v. 97. Caede, Gr. 414 and 3. A. & S. 247 and 2-472, Avertit, Gr. 467. III. A. & S. 145. I. 3. Castra; i, e.

the Grecian camp. — 473. Gustassent... bibissent. Gr. 523. II. and 1. A. & S. 263. 3. The subj. denotes the intention of Diomedes. Eustathius and Serv. say that this intention was to prevent the accomplishment of an oracle, that if the horses of Rhesus tasted the grass or water of Troy the city should not be taken. Xanthum; a name of the Scamander. See on Simois, v. 100. 474. Parte alia; i. e. of the picture, Troilus; a son of Priam, slain by Achilles, Armis; i. e. all but the spear, which he still held (v. 478). 475. Atque couples impar congressus with infelix. . Impar = in unequal combat. Achilli. Gr. 386. A. & S. 224-476, Fertur equis; i. e, is run away with. Cf. G. I. 513. Curru — inani, He has fallen backwards from the car (war chariots were made low and open behind), but hangs by the reins, which were passed round the body, and which he still grasps with his hand. 477. Huic, Gr.


= un

398. 5. A. & S. 211, R. 5 (1). — 478. Hasta; the spear of Troilus. 479. Interea introduces another scene in the series of paintings. Non aequae unpropitious. 480. Peplum; a large shawl, often very skilfully and richly wrought, an important part of female dress. It is here borne as a propitiatory offering. 481. Pectora. Gr. 380. A. & S. 234. II. —482. Solo. Gr. 422 and 1. A. & S. 254, R. 3. -484. Auro. Gr. 416. A. & S. 252. Cf. VI. 621. Vendebat; i. e. to Priam, who came to beg the body of his son, bringing as a ransom ten talents of gold. -486. Spolia; i. e. of Hector. Currus; probably of Achilles.-487. Inermes = armed; and so suppliant. -488. Principibus. Gr. 385. 5. A. & S. 245. II. R. 1. — 489. Memnonis. Memnon, an Ethiopian prince, son of Tithonus and Aurora, and nephew of Priam, came with a large body of Oriental and Ethiopian troops to assist his uncle in the Trojan war. He slew Antilochus, the son of Nestor, and was himself slain by Achilles in single combat. He is called niger as being an Ethiopian. He had arms made by Vulcan.-490. Amazonidum. The Amazons were a warlike race of women said to inhabit the coun try about Mt. Caucasus. Towards the end of the Trojan war, they came, under their queen Penthesilea, to the assistance of Priam; but the queen was killed by Achilles. Peltis. Gr. 428. A. & S. 211, R. 6. —491. Penthesilea. Gr. 612. III. 5. A. & S. 283. I. Ex. -492. Exsertae bare, uncovered. virgo as a warrior - though a virgin. Both words are made strongly emphatic by their position. 494. Dardanio: Trojano. Aeneae. Gr. 388. 3. II. 495. Obtutu = steady gaze. & S. 250. I. Incessit conveys a notion of majesty, as incedo in v. 46. Juvenum. See on G. I. 500. 498. Qualis. The corre sponding talis is found in v. 503. Eurotae; the principal river of Laconia, on the banks of which Sparta stood, where Diana was wor shipped with peculiar honors. Cynthi; a mountain in the island of Delos, celebrated as the birthplace of Apollo and Diana. — 499. Exercet... choros = leads the choral dances. — 500. Glomerantur = are gathered together. Oreades. See on E. V. 75. Humero. Gr. 422 and 1. A. & S. 254, R. 3.—501. Gradiens = as she walks. - 502. Latona; the mother of Apollo and Diana.503. Se ferebat advanced. See on v. 189. Cf. V. 290. — 504. Instans-futuris; i. e. urging on the work which was to set up her kingdom. - 505. Foribus-templi = at the gate of the goddess, in the centre (lit. of the vaulted roof) of the temple. Foribus divae is the gate of the cella, or chapel, in which was the statue of the goddess. 506. Armis; i. e. of her attendants, body-guards. Solio; by, not on, the throne. Subnixa means supported from be


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493. Bellatrix... Gr. 363. A. & S. 204

496. Forma.

A. & S. 225. Gr. 429. A.

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