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METAMORPHOSES. Book XI.

THE STORY OF THE DEATH OF ORPHEUS. [vv. 1– 84] After the loss of Eurydice, Orpheus wandered among the woods and mountains, singing of his bereavement. The beasts and the birds gathered about him, and even the trees followed him, charmed by the magic of his voice and lyre.

Tale nemus vates attraxerat, inque ferarum
Concilio medius turba volucrumque sedebat.

At this point, the narrative in the text begins.

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3. Nurus: mulieres. Cf. II. 366. Ciconum. See on X. 2. Lymphata = frantic; i. e. carried away with Bacchic fury. Strictly, it means nympholeptic, or made insane by seeing the image of a nymph in the water. Lympha and nympha are originally the same word. — 4. Pectora. Gr. 380. A. & S. 234. II.-5. Percussis - nervis. Cf. X. 16, 40. 7. Nostri. Orpheus in his grief had shunned the society of women. 8. Apollinei. See on Orphea, X. 3.—9. Foliis. The hasta was a thyrsus, a staff twined with ivy and vineleaves, carried by Bacchus and his votaries. See v. 28, and III. 667. -13. Sed enim. See on VI. 152. —14. Abiit; final syllable lengthened by the caesura. Erinnys, or Erinys. See on I. 241.15. Forent essent. Gr. 486. I. A. & S. 260. II. or 261, R. 4, the condition being implied in sed, etc. -16. Berecyntia; from Berecyntus, a mountain in Phrygia, sacred to the goddess Cybele. Cf. Virg. A. VI. 785. The instruments used in her worship were adopted in the Bacchic orgies also. The Berecyntian pipe was curved like a horn; hence inflato cornu; sc. ejus.—17. Bacchei; the final syllable not elided. Cf. Virg. G. I. 281, 436; A. IV. 667, See on X. 3. -18. Sono. Gr. 386. A. & S. 224 Tum denique tum demum.-21. See Introduction to this story.— 22. Maenades = Bacchantes; from paivopai, to be mad. Titulum = gloriam. Rapuere attacked; hence cruentatis dextris. Theatri; i. e. the audience of beasts and birds. Theatrum is often put for the persons in the theatre. Gr. 705. II. A. & S. 324. 2.-23. Inde. After tearing in pieces the animals which had thronged about Orpheus, they turn against the minstrel himself. Vertuntur; used reflexively, as often. 24. Luce by day. Cf. Virg. A. IV. 186. -25. Noctis avem the night-owl. Structoque-theatro = in the amphitheatre; which, being circular, while the theatre was semi-circular, may be described as a "theatre built up on both sides," or a double theatre. -26. Matutina. The fights of wild beasts were the morning performance in the Roman theatre. Gr. 443. 2.

etc.

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A. & S. 205, R. 15 (a). Cervus. After coëunt, ut, we should expect canes as the subject; but the change of construction does not seem to us so "awkward" as some of the critics have considered it. -28. Non-factos not made for such a use. Cf. Virg. A. IV. 647.-30. Neu- furori and that they may not want for weapons in their frenzy. Gr. 491. A. & S. 262. Neu, as often in Ovid, =et ne. -31. Presso. Cf. depresso aratro, Virg. G. I. 45. Subigebant. Cf. I. 103 and Virg. G. I. Fructum; i. e. the future harvest. -34. Agmine; i. e. the Bacchantes. — 35. Arma the tools, implements. - 36. Graves. Cf. iniquo pondere and gravibus, Virg. G. L. 164, 496. For sarculaque, see on I. 114.-38. Divellere have torn in pieces. Fata caedem. 41. Sacrilegae; since Orpheus was of divine descent, and a favorite of Apollo and the Muses. 42. Saxis. Gr. 388. 3. A. & S. 225. II. — 43. In ventos. Cf. Virg. A. IV. 705. — 47. Comam. Gr. 380. A. & S. 234. II. Lacrimis- suis tears. 48. Obscuraque - pullo dark with mourning. Pullo is used as terial for the thing made of it. A. & S. 324. 3. Dryades the wood-nymphs. See on I. 192. Passos; from pandere. -50. Diversa locis. Gr. 429. A. & S. 250. 1. Cf. I. 173. Hebre. See on X. 2 and II. 257. — 52. Nescio quid = I know not what; i. e. something. The phrase is equivalent to an accusative after queritur. Gr. 371. 3. 1). A. & S. 234 (2) and N. 1. -54. Invectae; sc. lingua et lyra. Flumen populare = his native river; i. e. the Hebrus. -55. Litore. Gr. 419. I. A. & S. 245. I. Lesbi= Lesbos (called Methymnæan from Methymna, one of its chief cities); a large and important island, in the Aegean, off the coast of Mysia. Cf. Milton, in Lycidas:

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were swollen with their own their robes (or mantles)

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a noun.

Gr. 705. III.

Carbasa; the ma

What could the Muse herself, that Orpheus bore,
The Muse herself, for her enchanting son,

Whom universal nature did lament,

When by the rout that made the hideous roar
His gory visage down the stream was sent,
Down the swift Hebrus to the Lesbian shore?

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49.

-57. Rore

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56, Arenis. Gr. 422. 1. 2). A. & S. 254, R. 3. aqua.- 58. Tandem = at last; not earlier, as might have been expected. 60. Congelat is here transitive. Cf. VI. 307. — 61. Terras. Gr. 371. 4. A. & S. 233 (3). Ante = before; i. e. when he had gone thither in search of Eurydice. See X. 13 foll. — 62. Arva piorum the Elysian Fields. 63. Ulnis =arms. See ref. on carbasa, v. 48. —65. Anteit. Gr. 669. II. 2. A. & S. 306. 1. 66. Tuto; i. e. without fear of losing her. Lyaeus = Bacchus ; i. e. (Avaîos) he who frees from care.

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III. 520.

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68. Suorum.

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According to some of the legends, Orpheus had introduced the orgiastic worship of Bacchus into Thrace. - 69. Edonidas = Thracian; from the Edoni, or Edones, a people of Thrace, noted for their devotion to Bacchus. — 70. Quae-nefas which (things) it is dreadful to behold; a parenthetical clause, akin to nefas dictu (Ep. ex Pont. I. 9. 3.) etc. Radice. Gr. 414 4 A. & S. 247. 3.—71. In-secuta = as far as each had pursued; i. e. where each had halted in the pursuit of Orpheus. Some make it= quotquot secutae sunt, as many as had pursued him. One editor frankly says that he does not understand the passage; and another shows that he does not by translating : (Füsse) womit eine jede ihm gefolgt war; i. e. with which (feet) each had followed him! -72. Traxit = lengthened. -73. The prose order would be: et ut volucris, ubi crus suum laqueis, quos callidus auceps abdidit, commisit et teneri se sensit, plangitur, etc. Laqueis. Gr. 386. A. & S. 224. 75. Ac motu and fluttering tightens the cords by its motion; i. e. its efforts to escape.—78. Exsultantem=exsultare conantem. -79. Sint. Gr. 525. A. & S. 265.-80. Adspicit suras= she sees wood take the place of her rounded limbs. 82. Fiunt Gr. 462. 2. A. & S. 209, R. 9. · 84. Putes. Gr. 486. I. A. & S. 260. II. and R. 4. So fallare.

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Satyri

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Satyrs.

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THE STORY OF MIDAS. [vv. 85-193.] — 86. Choro= cohors, v. 89. i. e. train, retinue. Tymoli Tymolus, or Tmolus, a a mountain in Lydia. Sui; because of the vineta. -87. Pactolon the Pactolus, a river of Lydia, rising on Tmolus, famous for its golden sands. — 88. Invidiosus = envied, or enviable. See on VI. 276. Avenis. Gr. 414. 2. A. & S. 247. I. - 89. Hunc; i. e. Bacchus. See on I. 193. Bacchae Bacchantes. 90. Silenus. The older Satyrs were generally called Sileni, but one of these is commonly the Silenus, who always attends Bacchus, and is said to have been his foster-father. He is described as a jovial old man, bald, fat, generally drunk, riding on an ass, or supported by other Satyrs. — 92. Regem; sc. Phrygiae. Orpheus. See on v. 68. 93. Cecropio Eumolpo = Athenian Eumolpus; a bard of Thracian birth, who spent much of his life in Attica, where he introduced the worship of Ceres and Bacchus. Here, as in some other legends, he is associated with Orpheus. There are so many conflicting stories about him that some of the ancients supposed that there were several Eumolpi. The final syllable of Cecropio is not elided, and the line is spondaic. See on v. 17, and on I. 117.- Cocropio, from Cecrops, first king of Attica and founder of Athens. 94. Qui; i. c. Midas. -95. Adventu. Gr. 414. 2 and 3). A. & S. 247 and R. 2 (a). — 97. Cf. II. 114.98. Lucifer, like Aurora, is often dies. Cf. Virg. A. V. 65. — 99. Alumno

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is represented as ever youthful.

100. Huic =

Gr. 562 and 1. A. & S. 275. II. Inutile:

Midas. Optandi. pernicious; as it proved.

-102. Donis. Gr. 419. I. A. & S. 245. I. —103. Vertatur. Gr.

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-104. Solvit bestows. -105. Petis

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A. & S. 162. 7 (a); 266. 3. — 106.

See on v. 16. —107. Fidem...
The order is: non alta ilice vir-

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A. & S. 262, R. 4. 493. 2. set. Gr. 234 I; 520. II. Bereoyntius heros; i. e. Midas. tentat tests the truth.-108. gam fronde virentem detraxit. Fronde. Gr. 429. A. & S. 250. I. -110. Humo. Gr. 424. 2. A. & S. 255, R. 1. — 112. Massa; sc. aurea, or auri. Cereris of wheat. Cf. Virg. A. I. 177. — 114. Hesperidas - putes = you would think that the Hesperides had given it to him. The Hesperides were the guardians of the golden apples which Terra gave to Juno at her marriage with Jupiter. See on IV. 637. For putes, see on v. 84. So posset, v. 117.-117. Danaën; an allusion to the golden shower in which Jupiter visited Danaë. See on IV. 611.-118. Vix-capit scarcely can he grasp in thought his own hopes. Fingens: as he imagines. 120. Tostae frugis =corn roasted (and ground, and made into bread).

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Gr. 409. I. A. & S. 220. 3. Cf. Virg. G. I. 267; A. I. 179.—121. Cerealia munera Cf. X. 74. — 123. Dente. Gr. 414. 4 A. & S. 247. 3. -124. Dente. Gr. 431. A. & S. 257. Premebat: 125. Auctorem muneris : Bacchus; i. e. wine. Cf. v. 112, and see on VIII. 665. Undis aqua. See on V. 555.-126. Videres. Gr. 486. I. and 4. A. & S. 260. II. R. 2, or 261, R. 4.—128. Voverat had prayed for. -130. Meritus. Gr. 443. A. & S. 205, R. 15. Auro. Gr. 414. 2. 3). A. & S. 247 and R. 2 (a). — 133. Specioso damno this splendid wretchedness. 134. Mite deum (= deorum) numen = mitis deus. Cf. Virg. A. II. 623, 777. -135. Restituit = restored him; i. e. to his former nature. Factaque — solvit = and revokes the gift he had bestowed in fulfilment of his promise. In v. 104, munera solvit means "fulfils his promise concerning the gift," or frees himself from his obligation by bestowing it; here it means "frees Midas from the gift." In both cases solvere has its original meaning, "to loosen, unbind, or release."-136. Neve... ait et ait: Ne, etc. Cf. I. 151; II. 33, etc. Maneas. Gr. 491. A. & S. 262. —137. Sardibus Sardes, or Sardis, the capital of Lydia. Amnem; i. e. the Pactolus. See on v. 87.-138. Perque-viam = and take your way along the height of the bank, up the stream. Undis. Gr. 391. A. & S. 222, R. 1 (b). — 139. Venias. Gr. 522. II. A. & S. 263. 4.–140. Fonti. Gr. 386. I. A. & S. 224, N. 1. Plurimus: maximus. Cf. Virg. A. I. 419. 141. Corpusque - crimen while you bathe your body, wash away your fault. Cf. Virg. A. VI. 741. — 142. Jussae. Cf. I. 399; VI. 163, etc. Vis aurea; i. e. the power of changing everything to

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gold, which in v. 141 is called crimen, because he owed it to his own folly.144. Jam veteris = now ancient. Venae; sc. aureae.— 145. Auro pallentia. Cf. v. IIO. Madidis glebis = in their moist clods.

utroque

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147. Pana Pan; the great god of flocks and shepherds, and of everything connected with pastoral life. His worship was associated with that of Bacchus and the Nymphs. — 148. Pingue = dull, stupid. Ut ante; i. e. when he wished to change what he touched to gold. — 149. Domino. Gr. 385. A. & S. 223, R. 2. — 151 Clivoque and sloping on either side. -152. Sardis was at the foot of the mountain to the north, Hypaepa to the south. 153. Jactat boasts. 154. Cerata arundine. See on VIII. 192. Modulatur accompanies. 155. Prae se= prae suis (cantibus) in comparison with his own music. - 156. Tmolo; i. e. the god of the mountain, who acted as judge of the contest. Impar; since Apollo was the god of music. 158. He removes the trees, as one pushes back his hair from his ears, that he may hear the better. Caerula; suggested probably by the azure hue of mountains seen in the distance. 161. Calamis. See on VIII. 192. Gr. 414. 4. A. & S. 247. 3.-162. Barbarico; i. e. Phrygio. Aderat = he was present; with many others, as appears from v. 173. Canenti; sc. ei. Gr. 386. A. & S. 224.-163. Hunc; i. e. Pan. Sacer; as the god of the mountain. So sancti, v. 172. —164. Sua. Gr. 449. 2. A. & S. 208 (7). — 165. Caput. Gr. 380. A. & S. 234. II. Lauro. See on I. 106. Parnaside. See on I. 317.-166. Murice. See on I. 332.-167. Distinctam =set, inlaid. Dentibus Indis; i. e. ivory (from India).—168.

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- fuit his very attitude acknowledge to be inferior. his birth-place. See on VI. A. & S. 273. 4-176. - 177. Imo ima parte.

1.

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Posse moveri (= the power of motion) is the object of dat; a poetical construction.-178. Hominis. Gr. 401.

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A. & S. 234, Gr. 705. II.

8 (3). In in regard to.-179. Aures. Gr. 374. 7. R. 1 (a).-180. Pudore; the effect for the cause. A. & S. 324. 2. - 181. Tiaris = tiara; a Phrygian head-dress, covering the cheeks, and fastened under the chin. Cf. Virg. A. IV. 216. -186. Adspexerit. Gr. 525. A. & S. 265.—187. Vocehaustae in a low voice tells and whispers to the hole. Terrac haustae loco unde terra hausta erat.—190. Creber - coepit = there a thick growth of rustling reeds began to rise. Arundinibus. Gr. 429. A. & S. 250. 1.-192. Agricolam; i. e. the servant. The humor of the expression has been lost on most of the critics,

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