Charles Kingsley, a clergyman of the Church of England, who late in his life held the chair of history at Cambridge University, wrote mostly didactic historical romances. He put the historical novel to new use, not to teach history, but to illustrate some religious truth. Westward Ho! (1855), his best-known work, is a tale of the Spanish main in the days of Queen Elizabeth I. Hypatia: New Foes with Old Faces (1853) is the story of a pagan girl-philosopher who was torn to pieces by a Christian mob. The story is strongly anti-Roman Catholic.. Hereward the Wake, or The Watchful Hereward the Wake, or The Watchful (1866) is a tale of a Saxon outlaw. The Water-Babies (1863), written for Kingsley's youngest child, "would be a tale for children were it not for the satire directed at the parents of the period," said Andrew Lang. Alton Locke (1850) and Yeast (1851) reflect Kingsley's leadership in "muscular Christianity" and his dramatization of social issues.
Frederick Marryat was born on July 10, 1792 in London, England. He entered the Royal Navy at the age of 14 and served with distinction in many parts of the world before retiring in 1830 with the rank of captain. From 1832 to 1835, he edited the Metropolitan Magazine. His first novel, The Naval Officer, was published in 1829. His other adult novels include Mr. Midshipman Easy, The Kings Own, Newton Forster, Peter Simple, Jacob Faithful, and The Phantom Ship. He also wrote a number of children's books including Masterman Ready, Settlers in Canada, The Mission, The Children of the New Forest, and The Little Savages. He travelled in Canada and the United States from 1837 to 1839. Afterward, he recorded his impressions in A Diary in America. He died on August 9, 1848.