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the case with which cinnamon rotto, and Ekele, should be discould be collected, and the faci- posed of, his excellency requests lity with which it might be cul. that you would give directions to tivated. It is impossible to say the agents of revenue and comhow far governor North's me merce in whose districts there are moir contributed to the minister's any cinnamon gardens, to advermistake.

tise that they will be sold by public The contracting parties, cager outcry on the first of May next : to retain the monopoly, and ap- the purchasere to bind theinselves parently ignorant that cinnainon to root out all the cinnamon trees ; was produced in many other parts and destroy them; and all such of the world, as well as Ceylon, trees belonging to private persons adopted the most effectual means must likewise be destroyed." to frustrate their own views, by This measure induced the rootlimiting the cultivation of cinna- ing up the cinnamon in many of mon, and by restricting its expor- the plantations. In all those which tation considerably within the were doomed to destruction the annual consumption of the inha- plants were entirely neglected, and bitants of the whole world. By allowed to be overgrown with these restrictive measures, a pre- creepers and brushwood, or browmium was offered to the rice sed upon by cattle. No unusual merchants of other countries to activity was exerted to promote endeavour to procure cinnamon at the cultivation of the four undea cheap rate, and consequently to stroyed plantations. Fortunately, undersell the Ceylon cinnamon. however, the business of uprootThe Ceylon government appears ing the plants was a work of great to have entertained serious alarms labour ; and the purchasers of a that the market would be over number of the plantations failed stocked with cinnamon the produce to perform their agreement to its of Ceylon; and, anxious to prevent completion. Notwithstanding the a reduction of the price of the unforeseen aid of these plantations, article, adopted a most extraor the usual investments became dinary measure, which to greatly reduced, and were obtained employ workmen to root up the with infinite labour. cinnamon in many of the planta In July, 1905, General Maittions.

land assumed the government of On Feb. 19, 1802, the chief. Ceylon. One of the first acts of secretary to government addressed his government was to arrest the a letter (from which the following progress of the despoliation of the is an extract) to the President cinnamon plantations. He readily of the Board of Revenue and Com saw the propriety of encouraging

and increasing the cultivation of “ It being the intention of his cinnamon, and adopted means excellency the governor that all which have been followed with the cinnamon gardens belonging great success. During his governto government, except those of ment the annual investments conthe Marandhan, Kaderane, Mo- tinued gradually to increase, and





many hundred acres of

caste of people employed in its ground were planted.. Less de- cultivation and preparation. pendance was now placed on the The following is an account of supply from the Kandian territory, the quantities of cinnamon bewhich was always uncertain, and longing to the East India Comsubject to many impediments. pany sold at their sales in the years His successor has, with unabated 1803 to 1810 inclusive, with the zeal, prosecuted the same policy : sale amount thereof; likewise the he has been particularly attentive quantities retained for home con. to improve the situation of the sumption :

Retained for
Quantity sold.

Amount. Home Consumption. 1803 ... 287,267 lb. 63,5041.

8,762 lb. 1804 357,683


9,830 1805 . 200,962


6,672 1806 261,196


10,389 1807 366,746


7,947 1808 334,631


13,116 1809 433,624


10,267 1810 ... 303,954





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being, on an average of eight cinnamon, as well as of its reduced years, 318,258 lb. ; and the sale price. amount 95,825l. per annum, or I have not been able to discover about 6s. per lb. The small quan a good reason for supposing that tity retained for home consumption this traffic is of long standing. is not included in this calculation. The Dutch about the year 1787

This statement, when compared began to apprehend a formidable with the account of the cinnamon rivalship in the monopoly of the imported and sold at the Dutch cinnamon trade from the Chinese. East India Company's sales in the As the exportation of cinnamon years 1785 to 1791 inclusive, from Canton has increased, the proves that the annual quantity of demand from that produced on cinnamon imported from Ceylon Ceylon has been on the decay, and was considerably reduced, and that the price reduced. The cinnamon the price was diminished to nearly exported from Canton, although one-half the sum for which it was in general of an inferior quality, sold by the Dutch. The large im can be purchased at a comparaportations of cinnamon which tively low rate, and may be sold, have, under the denomination of even with a large profit, far under casia, for some time past been ex the Ceylon cinnamon. porteil from Canton into Great The following are the quantities Britain, America, as well as the of casia imported and sold at the British settlements in India, are company's sales from 1804 to 1908 the chief apparent causes of the inclusive, 'with the sale amount diminished demand for Ceylon and average price :

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The greater part of these quan- berry were imported and sold at tities of casia came from China. the East India Company's sales in

Under the denomination of casia the years 1804 to 1808 inclusive, buds, the following quantities of together with the sale amount, and the receptacle of the cinnamon average price per cwt. :

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China exported in the year cinnamon plants, under the cleno1805 into the British settle- mination of casia and casia buds, ments in India the product of the to the value of 72,670 rupees :

Calcutta imported to the value of rupees

19,134 51,190 2,346

Some part of this casia was ex- ported into Canton from the Sooported from Calcutta to London. loo, Archipelago, and other islands Bombay supplies the market of in these seas, and the different Massuah, Judda, Aden, Bushin, ports of Cochin China. We have &c. and a great part of the con no good authority for believing sumption of this article in the that any of it is produced in Arabian Gulph.

China. In 1810 and 1811 China ex The following is a statement of ported from Canton in country the quantity of cinnamon prepared ships to the British settlements in Ceylon, the quantity rejected casia to the amount of 3019 pi- on inspection, and the number of quels, or 401,527 lb. : in regular pounds exported annually on acships, 6 peculs 998 lb. In the count of the East India Company, same season were exported from from the year 1804 to 1814 inCanton, in American ships, 1604 clusive, with the annual expense peculs, or 199,977 lb.

of the cinnamon department from This quantity of casia is im 1807 to 1814 inclusive :

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This statement shows that the merchants purchase it with the average annual exportation of cin- avowed purpose of supplying the namon on account of the com- Indian markets : great part of it, pany, from the year 1804 to 1806 however, eventually reaches Enginclusive, amounts to 290,018 lb.; land under the denomination of and that from the year 1807 to casia. 1814 inclusive it amounts to Cinnamon oil to the amount 370,913 lb., and the annual ex of about 3,000 oz. has within these pense for this period to 14,2231. few months been prepared ; a part or about 9d. per lb.

of which has been forwarded to For a number of years included England, in this period the premium upon By the foregoing statement, it bills drawn upon the company on will appear that the Ceylon goaccount of the investment cannot vernment gain very considerably be estimated at less than 30 per by the cultivation and preparation cent. This premium is evidently of cinnamon. Cinnamon being a amply adequate to liquidate the staple commodity on Ceylon and expense incurred annually by go- the Malabar coast, and as these vernment on account of the culti- situations possess many peculiar vation and preparation of cinna- and natural adrantages for extendmon.

ing the commerce in this article of In 1804 a considerable quantity trade, it appears to be a great of oil was distilled from the re want of foresight or industry to jected cinnamon : the quantity 1 look with an eye of indifference have not been able to ascertain. upon the rapidly increasing trade

The Ceylon government has for of China in cinnamon. The cul. a number of years annually dis- tivation of cinnamon might be posed of part of the rejected cin- carried to any extent on Ceylon, namon to private merchants, and and with every prospect of profit. generally at about 2s, per 1b). The The cheapness of labour, in con


sequence of the degree of servi able quantities of cinnamon in tude under which the chalias are Sumatra, and had chalias, whom held, and the universal preposses they enticed from Ceylon, to presion in favour of the Ceylon cin- pare the bark. The quality of the namon, are peculiar and powerful cinnamon prepared by these peoadvantages, which, if judiciously ple is stated to be equal to the improved, may greatly contribute finest in Ceylon. The Dutch, even to repress the China cinnamon when they had possession of the trade, and to make it a profitable coasts of Ceylon, purchased the enterprise for the possessors of cinnamon produced in Sumatra, Ceylon.

which they exported to foreign Captain Melborn mentions a countries as Ceylon cinnamon. circumstance which renders it al To rival the excellence of the most unaccountable why the Ma- cultivated cinnamon of Ceylon, the labar cinnamon is not a more Dutch will, in all probability, powerful rival to the China trade adopt measures for cultivating it in this article. He tells us that in the island of Java, or in some the Canton price current of casia of its immediate dependencies. A in 1809 and 1810 was 20 Spanish productive cultivation must be a dollars per pecul, or about 9d. per work of time; and a period of 20 1b.; and that casia is exported years will elapse before their exfrom Mangalore at from eight to ertions in cultivating cinnamon nine pagodas per candy, or about can greatly interfere with our 2d. per lb.

present monopoly of that of the In addition to the China cinna- finest quality, for which we are mon trade, we may now expect to chiefly indebted to the unwearied have to combat with the Dutch in and judicious exertions of the the commerce of this article. This Dutch. people are intimately acquainted It is very evident that our intewith the spice trade, and parti- rest strongly points out that we cularly with that of cinnamon. should exert the powerful means The enterprising and persevering which circumstances have placed character of the Dutch is prover- in our power to cultivate, collect, bially known; and the possessors and export, a greatly increased of Java have powerful means in quantity of cinnamon, with the their hands ; so that we have no view of supplying the markets of mean antagonist to oppose. Ba- both Europe and America; so as tavia may become the depôt of the to render the trade less immecinnamon produced in Sumatra, diately profitable to our rivals, the extensive island of Borneo, the and less encouraging for them to Philippine and Sooloo islands ; attempt eventually to monopolize and should these islands not afford the commerce of this very importa sufficient quantity to supply all ant article. demands, cinnamon can be fur This plan is evidently more launished to a very great extent from dable, and promises to be as sucTonquin and Cochin China. The cessful as measures of restraint. English at one time cut consider. The conduct of the Dutch in their


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