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are seen distinctly to rest on it cinnamon is in Exod. xxx. 23. It above. The basalt is not in the is again mentioned in the Song of least changed by the contact of Solomon, iv. 14; and in Prov. the coal, nor the coal by that of vii. 17. Casia a synonime of cinthe basalt. The coal is very beau namon is mentioned in Ezek. tiful and distinct, and in one place xxvii. 19, where it is enumerated is seen a coalified tree, if I may among a large variety of articles use the word, 10 or 12 inches in of merchandise. As the ancients diameter, running directly in be- were supplied with cinnamon from low the basalt.

Arabia, and the north and east Within sight of this spot, and coast of Africa, they without good about 300 yards to the east of it, foundation, supposed that this are the beautifully conspicuous ba- spice was the produce of those saltic pillars, 45 feet long, and countries. There is much provertical, with the longest ones in bability that from the earliest ages the middle, and the others gra- Europe has been indebted to Ceydually shortening towards each lon for part of its consumption of side like the columns of an organ. this article. It may have been From this appearance they have experted from Ceylon by small received the appropriate name of vessels belonging to the island, or the organ. At the bottom of this to the natives of the continent of cliff, by examining and breaking India, to some of the emporia on the loose columnar pieces of the the Malabar coast, and from rock that have fallen down, we thence to Sabea, on the south found many fine specimens of cal- coast of Arabia, by the Arabs, who cedony, zeolite, and semi-opal. were the first who traded extenThese occur in cavities in the ba- sively on the Indian ocean. Here salt. Sometimes the cavity is not the ships belonging to the mercompletely filled with the calcedo- chants of Phænicia and Egypt ny or opal ; and when that is the found large stores of the produce case, the empty space is observed of India, and by this medium the to be always the upper part of the demands from all parts of Europe cavity, while the rock is in situ. were supplied. Even in modern Moreover, the surface of the cal- times the commodities of India cedony or opal next to the empty were chiefly imported into Europe space is always found to be flat and by the way of Egypt. The enorhorizontal, which would show that mous expense incurred by transthe substance must have been fil- porting cinnamon such a circuitous tered into its situation in a fluid route, and a great part of it by state, and afterwards consolidated. land, must have greatly enhanced

its price, and prevented the use

of it from becoming general. Of Cinnamon as an article of Com On some occasions, however,

Ry H. Marshall, Esq. the quantity expended appears to Staff Surgeon to the Forces in have been considerable. At the Ceylon.

funeral of Sylla 210 burthens of

spices were strewed upon the pile. (From the same.)

It is probable that cinnamon The earliest notice we have of formed a great part of the spices

burned

merce.

burned on this occasion, as the as Baldeus emphatically observes, produce of the Moluccas was then is “the Helen or bride in contest but little, if at all, known to the of Ceylon ;” and early in the 17th Romans. Nero is reported to century found means to ingratiate have burned a quantity of cinna- themselves with the king of Kandy, mon and casia at the funeral of who invited them to aid him to Poppæa greater than the countries expel the Portuguese from the from which it was imported pro island. duced in one year.

In 1612 the king engaged to In 1498 Vasco de Gama landed deliver to the Dutch East India at Calicut. Indian commerce now Company all the cinnamon that took a different route, and the he was able to collect. Portuguese supplied Europe with In 1638 the garrison of Battithe articles which had formerly caloa was captured by the compassed through the hands of the bined Dutch and Kandian forces. Venetians. Eager to engross the On this occasion a treaty was concinnamon trade, the Portuguese, cluded between the king and the early in the 16th century, arrived Dutch general, wherein it was at Ceylon, and obtained leave from stipulated that none of the king's one of the chiefs to establish a subjects were to be permitted to factory, which led to the erection sell the Dutch any cinnamon, of the Fort of Colombo. Not &c. &c. except what was sold by withstanding the permission of his order. He retained the entire the chief, their landing was obsti- and exclusive privilege of preparñately opposed by the Arab mer- ing and selling this article of chants, who had for many ages

commerce. supplied Europe with cinnamon, Peace was concluded between and who dreaded an immediate the Portuguese and Dutch in 1644 termination of their monopoly. or 1645. By this treaty a moiety Shortly after a fort had been built, of the cinnamon trade was ceded the Portuguese succeeded in con to the Dutch. The cinnamon was cluding a treaty with the king of collected in the following manner: Kandy, wherein he agreed to fur- -Both parties employed chalias nish themannually with 124,000lb. to cut and prepare cinnamon, of cinnamon : on the part of the which was to be deposited in a Portuguese, it was stipulated that convenient spot upon the river they were to assist the king and Dandegam, near to Negombo. At his successors, both by sea and the end of the cinnamon harvest, land, against all his enemies. the quantity collected was equally

The thriving and rich settle- divided between the two parties; ments of the Portuguese in the and each party paid the usual East Indies eventually attracted price to the chalias for peeling the attention of the adventurous their share of cinnamon. War and opulent merchants of the again commenced in 1652. Costates of Holland. Soon after lombo surrendered to the Dutch they had gained some footing in in 1656; and Jaffna, the last India, they became anxious to en place of strength of the Portugross the cinnamon trade, which, guese, fell in 1658.

For

For many years previously to In 1687 the Dutch imported the entire surrender of Ceylon by into Holland cinnamon to the the Portuguese, the Dutch had amount of 170,000lb. This quan. purchased and exported large in- tity is stated to have been less vestments of cinnamon from the than the usual annual importation. Malabar coast. To obtain the In 1730 they imported 640,000lb. exclusive commerce of this coast, The Dutch continued to enjoy they, in the year 1662 and 1663, the exclusive commerce of this wrested from the Portuguese the spice for many years.

The means forts of Quilon, Cannanore, Co. adopted for this end were well chin, and Cranganore.

imagined, but not so correctly The English merchants were carried into effect. The corredesired to withdraw from this spondence between the Directors coast; and the natives were pro- and the Supreme Government hibited from supplying the Eng- evince the care that was taken to lish with produce under penalty“ direct and command that no of confiscation. The Dutch ex cinnamon should be exported but erted all their influence and power what was of an excellent quality." to obstruct the peeling of cinna- The Directors complain repeatedly mon in the territories of the Ma- that much of the cinnamon im. labar princes, except what was ported from Ceylon was of a bad sold to themselves, for which they quality. They enumerated the refused to advance the regular defects, and stated, in their letter market price.

bearing date September, 1768, Notwithstanding a zealous per- that for several years it had been severance, and a rigid exertion of of such a bad quality that they their power, to prevent what they had not dared to bring it to the denominated sinuggling on this sales, for fear of ruining the credit coast, they did not succeed. Other of the Ceylon cinnamon.

On nations, by paying nearly double several occasions they returned a for the articles they purchased, number of bales of “ bad, illwere readily supplied by the na- sorted cinnamon," that the Ceylon tives, even in opposition to the government might institute an orders of their own princes. These inquiry respecting the causes why fruitless attempts are stated to their commands were so much have been very expensive ; which neglected. They complain much induced the Supreme Government of the inspectors of cinnamon; to pass in 1697 a number of re and add, that they must either be gulations. One of these regula- very deficient in a knowledge of tions stated, “ that it was deter- their duty, or extremely negligent. mined not to obstruct any more, According to oral information, the by measures of constraint and chief cause of defective cinnamon harshness, the navigation of the having been exported was, that Malabars, and their trade in the the requisitions from Holland productions of their country, con were always for a larger quantity sisting chiefly in areca, wild cin- than they were able to procure of namon, and pepper, which the an excellent quality. Company could not exclusively Before the Kandian war, which purchase from them."

terminated in 1766, the Dutch Vol. LIX.

annually

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annually exported from Ceylon should have entered cordially into from 8,000 to 10,000 bales of a measure to which he had been cinnamon, each weighing 86 lb forced to yield a reluctant acquiDutch, or about 921 English. escence. So unwilling was the This war, which was very unfor- King of Kandy to extend the tunate for the King of Kandy, was limits for cutting cinnamon, that extremely expensive to the Dutch. he on one occasion refused 5,000 The chief advantage they obtained pagodas which were offered to was the entire possession of the him by the Dutch for permission to harbours and coasts round the peel cinnainon for five months in island. By the treaty of peace a district to the eastward of Baagreed upon on this occasion it lany. was stipulated that the Dutch Stavorinus, who visited the Mawere to be permitted to bark cin- labar coast in the years 1775 and namon in the king's territory to 1778, says that an annual quanthe westward of the Balany Kandy, tity of 1,000,000 lb. of cinnamon which is a range of mountains is said to be exported from this that stretches nearly north and coast to the Gulf of Persia and to south, and is about 12 English the Red Sea. A small quantity is miles west from Kandy. It was likewise sent to Europe. This also stipulated that the king was quantity is incredible. to receive five pagodas per bale, Fra Paolino da San Bartolomeo or about 5d. per lb., for all that had, from his long residence, prowhich his subjects barked and fession, and studies, an infinitely prepared in his country to the better opportunity of learning the eastward of Balany Kandy. The internal state of the country, as cinnamon collected by the Dutch well as the export trade, than was estimated to cost them about Stavorinus, who was only an octhis price. The cinnamon fur- casional visitor. He arrived in nished, in consequence of this India in 1776, where he resided treaty, by the subjects of the King 13 years. He tells us that the of Kandy, was of an inferior English purchased cinnamon from quality, being mixed with thick, the king of Tranvancore, at the coarse, and ill. prepared bark. rate of about 80 rupees a candy,

The Dutch accepted only of or about 500lb, avoirdupois, which what they deemed of a good is nearly two fans per lb., and quality, and paid for the quantity that Malabar supplied at least 500 they received. The Kandians con candies, amounting to 250,000 lb. sidered this an unprofitable spe He adds, that "the Dutch do not culation, and soon ceased to fur- wish the cinnamon to thrive, and nish cinnamon of any quality, extirpate the trees in Malabar Posterior to the war of 1766 wherever they find them, in order Ceylon did not export annually that their cinnamon which grows more than from 6,000 to 7,000 on Ceylon may not become of less bales of cinnamon. This defalca value.” The statements of the tion has been ascribed to the dis learned Carmelite appear in gecouraging conduct of the King. neral to deserve belief, except reIt was not to be expected that helating to the subject of religion,

and

and then his opinions and conduct mation which alone can ensure its seem to be at variance with his high price, and consequently our usual good sense.

profit." Their fears were too Mr. Wilcocke, the translator of well grounded : the cinnamon the voyages of Stavorinus, in his importations into Holland granote to the work, says, that in dually declined. 1778, 600,000 lb. of cinnamon The following is an account of were disposed of at the Europe the cinnamon imported and sold sale, at about 11s. sterling per lb., at the Dutch India Company's being part of the imports from sales from the years 1785 to 1791 Ceylon. In an appendix to that inclusive, with the sale amount of work, he gives a statement of the each year :quantities of cinnamon and cin Years.

Ib. namon oil sold at the Dutch East

1785.. 309,040 .. 199,470 India Company's sales from 1775

1786 .. 453,920 .. 280,605 to 1779:

1787 ...

144,000. 82,470 Pounds of cinnamon in 1775,

1788 ,. 485,600 .. 273,765 400,000~1776, 400,000-1777,

1789 . . 463,400 .. 252,785 400,000_1778, 350,0001779,

1790. . 375,920 .. 205,045 300,000.

1791 .. 183,765 ., 100,235 Ounces of oil of cinnamon, in 1775, 240—1776, 160 ~-1777, The average quantity imported 160—1778, 160—1779, 160.

into Holland in each year of the Being an annual average of preceding period is 345,092 lb, 370,000 lb., which, if sold at 11s. and the average annual amount per lb. the rate stated above for the 199,1951. gs. being about 11s. 6d. year 1778, amounts to 203,5001.

The encroachments of other na This statement evinces that the tions into the cinnamon trade exportation of cinnamon was on continued to give the Dutch great the decline : it still, however, realarm. These encroachments, tained its price. The rivalship of which were never regarded with

the China cinnamon trade, and indifference, had been making the difficulties and impediments gradual, but steady, advances. occasioned by the King of Kandy A letter from the Dutch India to the collecting of cinnamon in Directors, addressed to the Su his territories, may be assigned as preme Government, bearing date the chief causes of the diminution Dec. 29, 1787, expressly states,

of the cinnamon commerce in that “ We have great need of a Ceylon. The Kandian Court, alconsiderable quantity of the best though unsuccessful in the resistcinnamon to put a stop to the con ance it made against the Dutch, sumption of the Chinese, and the remained unconquered, and encinnamon imported by other na tertained a proud spirit of indetions; and by that circumstance, pendence, a constant enmity, and to occasion their not yielding a deep resentment, against its inprofit any longer, prevent their vaders, for the many attempts they importation, and by these means had made to humiliate and subdue ours will retain that general esti- its power. The misfortunes of

2 L 2

both

per lb.

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