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rious for the beanty of the im, however in its being believed, if pression, Please to accept it for that belief has the good conseyour College library. I have sub- quence, as probably it has, of scribed for the Encyclopedia now making his doctrines more l'eprinting here, with the intention spected and more observed; espeof presenting it to the college. I cially as I do not perceive that the shall probably depart before the Supreme takes it amiss by diswork is finished, but shall leave tinguishing the unbelievers in his directions for its continuance to government of the world with any the end. With this you will re- peculiar marks of his displeasure. ceive some of the first numbers. I shall only add respecting myself,
You desire to know something that having experienced the goodof my religion. It is the first ness of that being in conducting time I have been questioned upon me prosperously through long it. But I cannot take your curi life, I have no doubt of its contioşity amiss, and shall endeavour nuance in the next, though within a few words to gratify it. Here out the smallest conceit of merit, is my creed: I believe in one ing such goodness. My sentiGod, the creator of the universe. ments on this lead you will see That he governs it by his Provi in the copy of an old letter dence. That he ought to be wor inclosed, which I wrote in anshipped. That the most accep swer to one from an old relitable service we render to him is gionist whom I had relieved in a doing good to his other children. paralytic case by electricity, and That the soul of man iş immortal, who being afraid I should grow and will be treated with justice in proud upon it, sent me his serious another life respecting its conduct though rather impertinent caution. in this. These I take to be the I send you also the copy fundamental points in all sound re ther letter, which will show someligion, and I regard them as you do thing of my disposition relating to in whatever sect I meet with them. religion. With great and sincere As to Jesus of Nazareth, my opi esteem and affection, nion of whom you particularly I am, &c. B. FRANKLIN, desire, I think the system of mo. PS. Had not your college some rals and his religion as he left present of books froß, the king of them to us, the best the world France ? Please to let me know if ever saw or is like to see ; but I you had an expectation given you apprehend it has received various of more, and the nature of that corrupting changes, and I have, expectation? I have a reason for with most of the present dissen. ihe inquiry, ters in England, some doubts as I confide that you will not exto his divinity ; though it is a pose me to criticisms and censures question I do not dogmatise upon, by publishing any part of this having never studied it, and think communication to you. I live it needless to busy myself with it ever let others enjoy their relis, now, when I expect soon an op- givniş sentiments wii hout reflect. portunity of knowing the truth ing on them for those that apwith less trouble. I see no harın peared to me ynsupportable er
even absurd. All sects here, and in the power of the treasury. And we have a great variety, have ex- it will seem hard, while their perienced my good will in assist. hands are tied, to see the protits ing them with subscriptions for of that article all engrossed by a the building their new places of few particulars. worship, and as I have never Enclosed I take the liberty of opposed any of their doctrines, I sending you a small piece of mine, hope to go out of the world in written to expose, in as striking a peace with them all.
light as I could, to the nation, the
absurdity of the measures towards To The HONORABLE Thomas
America, and to spur the ministry, CUSHING, Esq.
if possible, to a change of those
measures. Project to avoid repealing the Ame Please to present my duty to the
rican Tea Duty. Pretended House, and respects to the comPrussirin Edict.
mittee. I have the honour to be, Sir, London, Sept. 12, 1773. with much esteem, Sir,
your most To avoid repealing the American obedient humble servant, tea duty, and yet find a vent for
B. FRANKLIN. tea, a project is executing to send it from this country on account of [Enclosed in the foregoing Letter.] sold in America, agreeable to a late
A PRUSSIAN EDICT, &c. act empowering the Lords of the
Dantzic, Sept. 5, 1773. Treasury to grant licences to the We have long wondered here at company to export tea thither, the supineness of the English naunder certain restrictions, duty tion, under the Prussian imposifree. Some friends of govern- tions upon its trade entering our ment, (as they are called) of Bos- port. We did not, till lately, know ton, New York, Philadelphia, &c. the claims, ancient and modern, are to be favoured with the com that hang over that nation ; and mission, who undertake by their therefore could not suspect that it interest to carry the measure might submit to those impressions through in the colonies. How the from a sense of duty, or froni other merchants thus excluded principles of equity. The followfrom the tea trade will like this, I ing edict, just made public, may, cannot foresee. Their agreement, if serious, throw some light upon if I remember right, was not to this matter: import tea, till the dut; shall be Frederick, by the grace of repealed. Perhaps they will think God, King of Prussia, &c &c. &c. themselves still obliged by that to all present and to come: health. agreement notwithstanding this The peace now enjoyed throughout temporary expedient; which is our dominions, having afforded us only to introduce the tea for the leisure to apply ourselves to the present, and may be dropped riext regulation of commerce, the imyear, and the duty again required; provement of our finances, and at the granting or refusing such li. the same time the easing our ducense from time to time remaining mestic subjects in their taxes : for
these causes, and other good con there shall be levied, and paid to siderations us thereunto moving, our officers of the customs, on all we hereby make known, that after goods, wares, and merchandises, having deliberated these affairs in and on all grain and other produce our council, present our dear bro- of the earth, exported from the thers, and other great officers of said island of Britain, and on all the state, members of the same; goods of whatever kind imported we, of our certain knowledge, full into the same, a duty of four and power, and authority royal, have a half per cent. ad valorem, for made and issued this present edict, the use of us and our successors. viz.
And that the said duty may more " Whereas it is well known to effectually be collected, we do all the world, that the first Ger- hereby ordain, that all ships or man settlements made in the island vessels bound from Great Britain of Britain, were by colonies of to any other part of the world, or people, subjects to our renowned from any other part of the world ducal ancestors, and drawn from to Great Britain, shall in their their dominions, under the con- respective voyages touch at our duct of Hengist, Horsa, Hella, port of Koningsberg, there to be Uffa, Cerdicus, Ida, and others; unladen, searched, and charged and that the said colonies have with the said duties. flourished under the protection of
“ And whereas there hath been our august house, for ages past; from time to time discovered in have never been emancipated there. the said island of Great Britain, from ; and yet have hitherto yield- by our colonists there, many mines ed little profit to the same : and or beds of iron-stone; and sundry whereas we ourself have in the subjects of our ancient dominion, 1:1st war fought for and defended skilful in converting the said stone the said colonies, against the power into metal, have in time past transof France, and thereby enabled ported themselves thither, carrying them to make conquests from the with them and communicating that said power in America; for which art; and the inhabitants of the we have not yet received adequate said island, presuming that they compensation : and whereas it is had a natural right to make the just and expedient that a revenue best use they could of the natural should be raised from the said co. productions of their country, for lonies in Britain, towards our in their own benefit, have not only demnification ; and that those who built furnaces for smelting the are descendants of our ancient said stone into iron, but have subjects, and thence still owe us erected plating-forges, slittingdue obedience, should contribute mills, and steel-furnaces, for the to the replenishing of our royal more convenient manufacturing coffers, (as they must have done of the same; thereby endangering had their ancestors remained in a diminution of the said nianufacthe territories now to us appertain- ture in our ancient dominion; we ing): we do therefore hereby or do therefore hereby farther ordain, dain and command, that, froni and That, from and after the date hereafter the date of these presents, of, no mill or other engine for
slitting or rolling of iron, or any mixed with wool in any of the said plating-forge to work with a tilto counties, be carried into any other hammer, or any furnace for mak- county, or be water-borne even ing steel, shall be erected or con across the smallest river or creek; tinued in the said island of Great on penalty of forfeiture of the Britain: and the Lord Lieutenant same, together with the boats, of every county in the said island carriages, horses, &c. that shall is hereby commanded, on infor- be employed in removing them. mation of any such erection within Nevertheless, our loving subjects his county, to order, and by force there are hereby permitted (if they to cause the same to be abated and think proper) to use all their wool destroyed; as he shall answer the as manure for the improvement of neglect thereof to us at his peril. their lands. But we are nevertheless graciously “And whereas the art and myspleased to permit the inhabitants tery of making hats hath arrived of the said island to transport their at great perfection in Prussia; and iron into Prussia, there to be ma the making of hats by our renufactured, and to them returned; noter subjects ought to be as they paying our Prussian subjects much as possible restrained: and for the workmanship, with all the forasmuch as the islanders before costs of commission, freight, and mentioned, being in possession of risk, coming and returning; any wool, beaver, and other furs, have thing herein contained to the con- presumptuously .conceived they trary notwithstanding.
had a right to make some advanWe do not, however, think fit tage thereof, by manufacturing to extend this our indulgence to the same into hais, to the prejudice the article of wool ; but meaning of our domestic manufacture :to encourage not only the manu we do therefore hereby strictly facturing of woollen cloth, but also command and ordain, that no hats the raising of wool, in our ancient or felts whatsoever, dyed or undominions ; and to prevent both, dyed, finished or unfinished, shall as much as may be, in our said be lailen or put into or upon any island, we do hereby absolutely vessel, cart, carriage or horse ; to forbid the transportation of wool be transported or conveyed out of thence even to the mother-country, one county in the said island into any Prussia ;—and that those islanders other county, or to any other place may be farther and more effectual- whatsoever, by any person or perly restrained in making any advan sons whatsoever; on pain of fortage of their own wool, in the way feiting the game, with a penalty of of manufacture, we command that five hundred pounds sterling for none shall be carried out of one every offence. Nor shall any hatcounty into another ; nor shall maker, in any of the said counties, any worsted, bay, or woollen employ more than two apprentices, yarn, cloth, says, bays, kerseys, on penalty of five pounds sterling serges, frizes, druggets, cloth. per month: we intending hereby serges, shalloons, or any other that such hat-makers, being so drapery stuffs, or woollen manu- restrained, both in the production factures whatsoever, made up or
and sale of their commodity, may
find no advantage in continuing island are hereby cautioned not to their business. But, lest the said oppose in any wise the execution islanders should suffer inconve- of this our edict, or any part niency by the want of hats, we are thereof, such opposition being further graciously pleased to per- high-treason; of which all who mit them to send their beaver
are suspected shall be transported furs to Prussia ; and we also per- in fetters from Britain to Prussia, mit hats made thereof to be ex there to be tried and executed ported from Prussia to Britain; according to the Prussian law. the people thus favoured to pay all
Such is Our pleasure. costs and charges of manufactur- Given at Potsdam, this twentying, interest, commission to our fifth day of the month of Aumerchants, insurance and freight gust, one thousand seven hun. going and returning; as in the dred and seventy-three, and in case of iron.
the thirty-third year of our “And lastly, being willing far reign. ther to favour our said colonies in By the King, in his council, Britain, we do hereby also ordain
RechTMÆSSIG, Sec.” and command, that all the thieves, highway and street robbers, housebreakers, forgerers, murderers,
Character of the late Robert Fulton, sed-tes, and villains of every
Esq. from Colden's Life of that
celebrated Engineer, read before denomination, who have forfeited their lives to the law in Prussia ;
the Literary and Historical Sobut whom we, in our great cle
ciety of New York. mency, do not think fit here to We cannot think that it will be hang; shall be emptied out of imputed to an undue partiality for our gaols into the said island of our regretted associate, if we say Great Britain, for the better peo- that there cannot be found on the pling of that country.
records of departed worth, the "We flatter ourselves that these name of a person to whose indiour royal regulations and com vidual exertions mankind are more mands will be thought just and indebted than they are to the late reasonable by our much favoured Robert Fulton. The combined colonists in England; the said efforts of philosophers and statesregulations being copied from men have improved the condition their statutes of 10 and 11 Will. of man ; but no individual has HI. c. 10.45 Geo. II. c. 22.— conferred more important benefits 23 Geo. II. Ć. 29.—4 Geo. 1. c.
species than he whose 11.--and froin other equitable laws memory now engages our attenmade by their parliaments; or tion. from instructions given by their When we have taken a view of princes, or from resolutions of what he has done, and bestowed both houses, entered into for the some consideration on its effects, good government of their own it will not appear that this praise colonies in Ireland and America. is exaggerated, and we shall be “ And all persons in the said obliged to acknowledge that