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odberwise affect the persons and the ocean on every side, and has property of our citizens. These been a subject of negotiation with antaspations have been realized. the Government of Spain, as an och injuries have been received indemnity for losses by spoliation, from persons acting under the au- or in exchange for territory of tinty of both the parties, and equal value westward of the Mis. ke which redress has, in most in- sissippi, a fact well known to the saxo, been withheld. Through world, it excited surprise that any mery stage of the conflict, the countenance should be given to Insted States have maintained an this measure by any of the colo. partial neutrality, giving aid to nies. As it would be difficult to Delber of the parties, in men, reconcile it with the friendly relaDory, ships, or munitions of tions existing between the United war. They have regarded the States and the colonies, a doubt Fatest, not in the light of an or was entertained whether it had doary insurrection or rebellion, been authorized by them, or any but as a civil war between parties of them. This doubt has gained Dearly equal, having as to neutral strength, by the circumstances powers, equal rights. Our ports which have unfolded themselves bare been open to both ; and every in the prosecution of the enterarticle, the fruit of our soil, or of prise, which have marked it as a Ebe industry of our citizens, which mere private unauthorized adether was permitted to take, has venture. Projected and countebeen equally free to the other. nanced with an incompetent force, would the colonies establish their reliance seems to have been placed nategendence, it is proper now to on what might be drawn, in destate, that this Government nei. fiance of our laws, from within that seeks, nor would accept from our limits; and of late, as their

en any advantage, in commerce resources have failed, it has asor otherwise, which would not be suined a more marked character pu, zaily open to all other nations. of unfriendliness to us, the island The colonies will, in that event, being made a channel for the illiterrae independent states, free cit introduction of slaves from for any obligation to or con- Africa into the United States, an na with us, which it may not asylum for fugitive slaves from the Len be their interest to form on neighbouring States, and a port des us of fair reciprocity.

for smuggling of every kind. * In the summer of the present “A similar establishment was your an expedition was set on made, at an earlier period, by perSxt szemst East Florida, by per. sons of the same description in vos claiming to act under the the Gulph of Mexico, at a place mwnty of some of the colonies, called Galvestown, within the lito trok prasession of Amelia mits of the l'hited States, as we loand, at the mouth of St. Mary's contend, under the cession of 1:101, near the boundary of the Louisiana. This enterprise has rate of Grerna. As this province been marked in a more signal in east of the Mississippi, and is manner, by all the objectionable braided by the C'nited States and circumstances which characterized


the other, and more particularly course with each, due attention by the equipment of privateers, continues to be paid to the prowhich have annoyed our com- tection of our commerce, and to merce, and by smuggling. These every other object in which the establishments, if ever sanctioned United States are interested. A by any authority whatever, which strong hope is entertained, that, is not believed, have abused their by adhering to the maxims of a trust, and forfeited all claim to just, a candid, and friendly policonsideration. A just regard for cy, we may long preserve amicathe rights and interests of the ble relations with all the powers United States required that they of Europe, on conditions advanshould be suppressed: and orders tageous and honourable to our have accordingly issued to that country. effect. The imperious considera “ With the Barbary States and tions which produced this mea. the Indian tribes our pacific relasure will be explained to the par- tions have been preserved. ties whom it may, in any degree, “In calling your attention to concern.

the internal concerns of our coun“ To obtain correct informa- try, the view which they exhibit tion on every subject in which the is peculiarly gratifying. The payUnited States are interested ; to ments, which have been made into inspire just sentiments, in all per the treasury, show the very prosons in authority, on either side, ductive state of the public reveof our friendly disposition, so far nue. After satisfying the approas it may comport with an impar- priations made by law for the tial neutrality; and to secure pro- support of the civil Government, per respect to our commerce in and of the military and naval estaevery port, and from every flag; blishments, embracing suitable it has been thought proper to provision for fortifications and for send a ship of war, with three the gradual increase of the navy, distinguished citizens, along the paying the interest of the public southern coast, with instruction debt, and extinguishing more than to touch at such ports as they may 18,000,000 of the principal, withfind most expedient for these pure in the present year, ii is estiposes. With the existing authori- mated that a balance of more than ties, with those in the possession 6,000,000 of dollars will remain of, and exercising the sovereignty, in the treasury on the 1st day of must the communication be held: January, applicable to the current from them alone can redress for service of the ensuing year. past injuries, committed by per. The payments into the trcasons acting under them, be ob- sury during the year 1918, on actained : by them alone can the count of imposts and tonnage, commission of the like in future resulting principally from duties be prevented.

which have accrued in the present " Our relations with the other year, may be fairly estimated at powers of Europe have expe- 20,000,000 of dollars; internal rienced no material change since revenues at 2,50 000; public the last session. In our inter- Innds at 1,500,000; bank di


vidends and incidental receipts at part of this force iś armed, and 500,000; making, in the whole, measures are taken to arm the 24,500,000 dollars.

whole. An improvement in the “ The annual permanent ex- organization and discipline of the penditure for the support of the militia is one of the great objects civil Government, and of the army which claims the unremitted atand navy, as now established by tention of Congress. law, amounts to 11,800,000; and “ The regular force amounts for the sinking fund, to 10,000,000; nearly to the number required by making in the whole 21,800,000; law, and is stationed along the leaving an annual excess of re- Atlantic and inland frontiers. venue beyond the expenditure of « Of the naval force, it has 2,700,000 dollars, exclusive of the been necessary to maintain strong balance estimated to be in the squadrons in the Mediterranean, treasury on the 1st day of January, and in the Gulf of Mexico. 1818.

Froin several of the Indian “In the present state of the tribes inhabiting the country bortreasury, the whole of the Loui- dering on Lake Erie, purchases siana debt may be redeemed in have been made of lands, on conthe year 1819; after which, if the ditions very favourable to the public debt continues as it now is, United States, and, as it is preabove par, there will be annually sumed, not less so the tribes themabout 5,000,000 of the sinking fund selves. By these purchases, the unexpended, until the year 1825, Indian title, with moderate rewhen the loan of 1812, and the servation, has been extinguished stock created by funding treasury- in the whole of the land within notes, will be redeemable.

the limits of the State of Ohio, “ It is also estimated that the and to a great part of that in the Mississippi stock will be dis- Michigan territory, and of the charged during the year 1819, State of Indiana. From the Chefrom the proceeds of the public rokee tribe a tract has been purlands assigned to that object; chased in the State of Georgia, after which the receipts from and an arrangement made, by those lands will annually add to which, in exchange for lands bethe public revenue the sum of yond the Mississippi, a great part, 1,500,000 dollars, making the per- if not the whole of the land bemanent annual revenue amount longing to that tribe, eastward of to 26,000,000 of dollars, and leav- that river, in the States of North ing an annual excess of revenue, Carolina, Georgia, and Tennesse, after the year 1819, beyond the and in the Alabama territory, will permanent authorized expendi- soon be acquired. By these acture, of more than 4,000,000 of quisitions, and others that may dollars.

reasonably be expected soon to “ By the last returns from the follow, we shall be enabled to exDepartment of War, the militia tend our settlements from the inforce of the several States may be habited parts of the State of Ohio, estimated at 800,000 mén, infan- along Lake Erie, into the Michitry, artillery, and cavalry. Great gan territory, and to connect our



settlements, by degrees, through Among the advantages incithe State of Indiana and the Illi- dent to these purchases, and to nois to that of Missouri. A simi- those which have preceded, the lar, and equally advantageous security which may thereby be afeffect will soon be produced to the forded to our inland frontiers is south, through the whole extent peculiarly important. With of the States and territory which strong barrier, consisting of our border on the waters emptying own people, thus planted on the into the Mississippi and the Mo- Lakes, the Mississippi, and the bile. In this progress, which the Mobile, with the protection to be rights of nature demand, and no- derived from the regular force, thing can prevent, marking a Indian hostilities, if they do not growth rapid and gigantic, it is altogether cease, will henceforth our duty to make new efforts for lose their terror. Fortifications in the preservation, improvement, those quarters, to any extent, will and civilization of the native in- not be necessary, and the expense habitants. The hunter state can attending them may be saved. А exist only in the vast, unculti- people accustomed to the use of vated desert. It yields to the fire-arms only, as the Indian tribes more dense and compact form, are, will shun even moderate and greater force, of civilized po- works, which are defended by canpulation ; and of right it ought non. Great fortifications will, to yield; for the earth was given therefore, be requisite only, in to mankind to support the great- future, along the coast, and at est number of which it is capable, some points in the interior, conand no tribe or people have a nected with it. On these will the right to withhold from the wants safety of our towns, and the comof others more than is necessary merce of our great rivers, from for their own support and comfort. the Bay of Fundy to the MissisIt is gratifying to know, that the sippi, depend. On these, therereservations of land made by the fore, should the utmost attention, the treaties with the tribes on skill, and labour, be bestowed. Lake Erie, were made with a “ A considerable and rapid augview to individualownershipamong mentation in the value of all the them, and to the cultivation of public lands, proceeding from the soil by all, and that an annual these and other obvious causes, stipend has been pledged to supply may henceforward be expected. their other wants. It will merit The difficulties attending early the consideration of Congress, emigrations will be dissipated even whether other provision, not sti. in the most remote parts. Several pulated hy the treaty, ought to be new states have been admitted into made for these tribes, and for the our union, to the west and south, advancement of the liberal and and territorial governments, haphumane policy of the United pily organized, established over States towards all the tribes within every other portion in which there our limits, and more particularly is vacant land for sale. In terfor their improvement in the art minating Indian hostilities, as must of civilized life.

soon be done, in a formidable


shape at least, the emigration, tentof territory, within the United which has heretofore been great, States, the great amount and value will probably increase, and the of its productions, the connexion demand for land, and the aug- of its parts, and other circumstanmentation in its value, be in like ces on which their prosperity and proportion. The great increase happiness depend, we cannot fail of our population throughout the to entertain a high sense of the union will alone produce an im- advantages to be derived from the portant effect, and in no quarter facility which may be afforded in will it be so sensibly felt as in the intercourse between them by those in contemplation. The public means of good roads and canals. lands are a public stock, which Never did a country of such vast ought to be disposed of to the best extent offer equal inducements to advantage for the nation. The improvements of this kind, nor nation should, therefore, derive ever were consequences of such the profit proceeding from the vast magnitude involved in them. continual rise in their value. Every As this subject was acted on by encouragement should be given to Congress at the last session, and the emigrants consistent with a there

may be a disposition to refair competition between them ; vive it at the present, I have but that competition should ope- brought it into view, for the purrate, in the first sale, to the ad- pose of communicating my sentivantage of the nation rather than ments on a very important cir-, of individuals. Great capitalists cumstance connected with it, with will derive all the benefit incident that freedom and candour which to their superior wealth, under a regard for the public interest, any mode of sale which may be and a proper respect for Congress, adopted. But if, looking forward require. A difference of opinion to the rise in the value of the has existed, from the first formapublic lands, they should have the tion of our constitution to the opportunity of amassing, at a low present time, among our most price, vast bodies in their hands, enlightened and virtuous citizens, the profit will accrue to them and respecting the right of Congress not to the public. They would to establish such a system of imalso have the power, in that de- provement. Taking into view the gree, to control the emigration trust with which I am now hoand settlement in such manner as noured, it would be improper, their opinion of their respective after what has passed, interests might dictate. I submit discussion should be revived, this subject to the consideration of with an uncertainty of my opinion Congress, that such further pro- respecting the right. Disregardvision may be made in the sale of ing early impressions, I have bethe public lands, with a view to stowed on the subject all the dethe public interest, should any be liberation which its great importdeemed expedient, as in their ance, and a just sense of my duty, judgment may be best adapted to required ; and the result is a the object.

settled conviction in my mind, that “When we consider the vast ex- Congress do not possess the right.

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