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began to drink immediately, and the poor man who had been se bed it was some time before we found in the morning. out our mistake, so much was our The naine of the place at sticla taste injured. On the 17th at we arrived, is Powdy. It is esunset we thought we saw very tuated about sixty miles to those high land right ahead, but having southward of Ganjam, and th:*?y been often disappointed by mis- to the northward of Calingas taking clouds for high land, we On the 25th Captain Hasnan med paid but little attention to it. to Calingapalun to procure During the night the heavy swell supply of money and clothes from from the X.W. went down, when the Beach masier at that per a cross sea took its place, and a lle returned on the oth, dick, ea fine breeze sprung up from the the 29th, after furnishing 1! ( 21 eastward.

with money enough tu artysten On Friday at day-lighit the water to Bengal, the Caplain arał sises was much discoloured, a general started in Doolis carried by us sign of being near land, but still nen. We followed the quest se none could be seen. One of the travelled almost witte-ut 12ermen was now so senseless, and so mission night and day. Or weak, that he could not sit upright. 15th of December me As the sun arose, and cleared away Tombuhe, when we toute the clouds, we had the heartfelt for Calcutta, and on gure up: satisfaction of seeing high land. river, to our very great asli. What a joyful sight was this to Inent saw our bng at arbowe poor creatures nearly sinkingunder ing for the food lide tus carry «r fatigue and want of food. As we up. We went, at en TI neared the land, we saw a number soul on board was there. of huts and the natives walking to see us, leaving givet os Lp on shore. About noon we ran dead. They waited four Cosa the boat on the beach, but were in Diamond l-land, (*p*« a condition too weak to walk. return. In rulede aut The natives assisted us, and as bay they had bud weather, wie soon as they knew our situation, seeing any drifts wint der Rece fetched us hot congy (the water in them, expecting they w oba! *** which rice is boiled) and gave it boat. We Weished in the sun us to drink, of which we cook a and arrive at Kudaurre un great quantity. Each man was 16th of December, and wa led between two people to the hut 23d our pror fellow ».*747* 2: appointed to us, and we were far- rived, looking very weil a'ns nished with every thing we wished long a march. fur, except cold water. We had no desire to eat, but craved cold AN ACCOUNT OPTYENI 1848 water, which the nitipps would

IL VOKIT OHNEMANPR. I not give us, but supplied un plena (mmented by 10 (ory, D tifully with hot corry. Junt as we were sitting down on the

(re) straw, we were informed that one The manner in which d5T: of our people was dead. It was nations d «pose of their cead.

head-man of the place. At Bid- As the metal in this state was dery the jealousy against Euro- divested of all but its natural peans of all classes is carried so colour, I recognized it immedifar, that none are allowed to enter ately as a compound of which its the gates of the city, except such greatest portion is tin.

It conas are in the service of the Nizam, tained of this metal twenty-four and stationed in the fort. It hap- parts, and one of copper, joined pened fortunately that the chief of by fusion. I was herein not a that place had some favours to ask little disappointed, as I had always of Captain Sydenham, and Mr. understood that it was made of a Russell, his assistant, whose kind metallic substance found on the assistance in promoting my inqui- table-land of Biddery, and which, ries on this and all other occasions as I never had made any experiI have gratefully to acknowledge: ment with a view of discovering so that I received the dustuk its composition, I flattered myself without much delay, just as I as- might be a new mineral. In cended the table-land. On pro- coming along I really had found ducing it at Biddery some of the also a lithomarga, which resemmanufacturers were immediately bled the common Biddery ware in sent to me in the choultry, under colour and appearance; and it a guard of peons, with the strictest was probably this that had given orders that they should inform me rise to the account which former of the whole and every part of travellers had given of that subtheir mystery. I wished to go to stance, as the mineral used for the their houses; but as this had not ware manufactured at that place. been mentioned in the order, and The business of their second as they lived in the city, I could visit was to cast, or to make before not obtain permission. The men me, a vessel of their ware. The who attended me complained of apparatus which they brought with want, in an employment which in them on the occasion consisted of former times had been the means a broken earthen pot, to serve as of subsisting a numerous class of a furnace; a piece of bamboo their own cast, and of enriching about a foot long as a bellows, or the place, but which now scarcely blow-pipe; a form made of clay, yielded food for five families that exactly resembling a common remained. They are of the gold- hooka-bottom; and some wax, smith cast, which, together with which probably had been used by some of other handicrafts, is the several generations for the purpose lowest of all sudras, though they for which it is yet employed. wear the brahminical string. The first operation was to cover

At their first visit they brought the form with wax on all sides, nothing but a lump of their com which was done by winding a pound used for casting their ware, band, into which the wax was reand a few vessels which they had duced, as close as possible round just in hand, for inlaying them it. A thin coat of clay was then with silver, an operation which laid over the wax, and, to fasten they conceived would be of all the the outer to the inner clay form, most attractive to a curious fringi. some iron pins were driven through

it in various directions. After the whole surface with a little oil this has been dried for some time or butter. in the sun, the wax was liquified by As nothing looks handsome in putting the form in a place suffi- the eyes of an Indian, but what is ciently heated, and discharged glittering with gold or silver, it through the hole, by which the may be imagined that their hooka melted metal is poured in to occupy and betel dishes, which are chiefly its place. It is scarcely necessary to used on festive occasions, are not say, that when the metal is suffi- left destitute of these ornaments; ciently cooled the form is broken, they are chiefly decorated with and the vessel found of the desired silver, in the form of festoons, shape.

fanciful flowers, and leaves. SomeColouring the ware with the times I have seen a little gold instanding black, for which they are terspersed. celebrated, is the next, and in my The way of inlaying them is opinion the most remarkable ope- very simple; but of course as teration. It consists in taking equal dious as can well be imagined, and parts of muriate of ammonia and could be only practised where time saltpetre earth, such as is found is of little value. The parts of at the bottom of old mud walls the projected figure are first cut in old and populous villages in out in silver leaf, which are placed India, mixing them together with in a piece of broken earthenware water, and rubbing the paste before the artist, who cuts with which is thus produced on the a pointed instrument the same vessel, which has been previously figure on the vessel, applies the scraped with a knife. The change silver leaf, piece after piece, and of colour is almost instantaneous, gently hammers it into its place. and, what is surprising to me, The greatest skill consists in lasting:

tracing the pieces of the figure on The saltpetre earth of this place the vessel exactly of the same size has, when dry, a reddish colour, as they are in the silver leaf, and like the soil about Biddery. It is in this I have never seen them very likely that the carbonate, or mistaken. oxide of iron, which it contains, They do their work very expeis essentially necessary for the ditiously, and will make any figure production of the black colour. on copper with the greatest nicety, The muriate and nitrate of lime, according to the sample which is which is in considerable propor- laid before them. tion in all earth from which salt Note.-Mr. Wilkins informed petre is manufactured in India, Dr. Heyne that the Biddery ware may be perhaps not an useless in- is likewise manufactured in Begredient in this respect.

nares, and he thinks that zinc is The hooka-bottoms of this ware used as an alloy in that part of happen sometimes to get tarnished, India. I examined a piece of a meacquiring a brownish, or shillering tal statue, which Mr. Wilkins concolour, which is easily removed, sidered as Biddery ware : it waszinc and the black restored, by rubbing alloyed with a very little copper.



chief food of the poultry and other USE OF THE COCOA-NUT Tree. domestic animals.

When the tree has grown to a (From the same.)

considerable height, one of the

sprouts, which forms what is callA cocoa-nut planted in the sandy ed the flour, is cut off nearly at shore of Ceylon, shews its first its base, leaving, however, a shoots above the ground after stump sufficiently long for a Chatabout three months, and at the ty (or earthen vessel) to be attachend of six is fit for transplantation. ed to it, into which the juices of No particular care is necessary to the tree drop and form the liquor rear it; planted in a barren soil, called toddy, which is not only a and fanned by the bleak winds of pleasant beverage in its primary the ocean,


to gain state, but is used in making jagstrength from neglect, and fecun- gery (coarse sugar) vinegar and dity from exposure: notwith- arrack, which, after cinnamon, is standing these apparent disadvan- the chief article of merchandize in tages, its hardihood surmounts this island. every obstacle, and at the end of The inside or soft part of the six years it begins to bear fruit tree is used for fuel, while the —and from that period becomes a more solid external part is convaluable source of wealth to the verted into rafters, and the napossessor. While it continues tural net work which surrounds young, the fruit, or interior of the base of the branches, forms the nut, affords a palatable and sieves for straining medicinal oils, nutritive food to the native. The &c.—The boughs which support watery liquid within, which we the fruit are used as brooms, as term milk, is a beverage equally well as the husk of the shell, which pleasant and cooling, and is as is sometimes converted into agreeable to the palate as invigo- brushes for whitewashing, &c.; rating to the body. The juice of the shell itself makes fuel, and the cocoa-nut when inixed with the fibres of the husk which chunam serves to strengthen it, encloses it, form coir, another and to increase its adhesive quali- most valuable article of exporties. When older, the cocoa-nut, tation. as it is well known, is used in The cabbage is fit for almost making curry, and without it, the every culinary purpose, but parCingalese would find himself at a ticularly for pickling; the root is loss for one of the principal in- useful in medicine, and the natives gredients of this his simple, but occasionally mix it with betel for constant and only food. The nut chewing. The branches of the grown older still, when pressed, tree the natives weave into hedges, yields that oil, which affords al- and sometimes burn for fuel The most the only sort of light used in cla or leaf is put to a great variety Ceylon ; and the nut itself, after of uses; there are few natives who the juice is pressed out, is con dwell under any other covering verted into flour, and forms the than that which an ola hut affords,


and most of our Indian readers from sixty to ninety feet, and lives have witnessed the celerity with about one hundred and twenty or which a comfortable bungalo is one hundred and, thirty years, constructed of the cocoa-nut leaf, while those in a hilly country live even in the most remote districts, about one hundred and fifty, and on the approach of an European do not reach so great a height; traveller. A cocoa-nut tree planted these latter do not produce fruit on the sea-shore, or

on low

so soon after their being planted grounds, grows to the height of as the former.


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