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may tend to mar the pro- sults which necessity has in various gress of the best regulated expedi- instances accomplished. tion. Therefore, it may not be improper to confirm and strength

PERSIAN GULF. en the whole, by directing the attention to what has been done, in

Discovery of Eight Islands. journeying under difficulties which (From the Asiatic Journal.) may bear a comparison with the We publish for general inforundertaking here alluded to, and mation, the following observations occasionally under circumstances received from the Hon. James the most unfavourable for success. Ashley Maude, Captain of His

ist. When treating of icebergs, Majesty's ship Favourite, in regard I alluded to the journey of Alexei to the situation and appearance of Markoff, in which it appears, that eight islands discovered by him on he performed near cight hundred the 13th, 14th, and 15th of July, miles across a surface of packed 1816, in the Persian Gulph, during ice, in the spring of 1715, in a a cruize for general protection of sledge drawn by dogs; and con the trade. sequently, that he might be sup

• The situation and appearance posed to have encountered the of eight islands on the Arab ianside principal difficulties that could be in the Gulph of Persia, not laid expected in the proposed scheme, down in any of the charts; the whilst we have the advantage of names of which are Arabic, and improving by his experience. the latitudes and longitudes of

2d. Speaking of the south- each taken from cross bearings, western tendency of the ice, I have the latter by chronometer ; seen also noticed the loss of several of by his Majesty's ship Favourité, the Dutch Greenland feet in 1777, the Hon. James Ashley Maude, from which we learn, that part of captain, during a cruize for the the unfortunate suffering crews, general protection of trade in the under every privation of provision Gulph, on the 13th, 14th, and 15th and clothing, and exposed to the of July, 1916.severity of an arctic winter, ac Dauss.--In latitude 25° 10' N. complished a journey on foot, longitude per chronometer 52° 45 along the coasts of Old Greenland, E. bearing SE. distance 4 leagues, from the east side near Staten- appears of a moderate height with Hook to the Danish settlements a few small hummocks, and south on the west, a distance of near a western extremity a low sandy hundred leagues.

point six or seven miles in length, 3d. On contrasting the project- no trees, and soil a metallic aped polar journey with the cata pearance; in passing it, distance logue of marvellous occurrences, off shore four or five leagues, we and wonderful preservations which had from 13 to 18 fathoms, coarse are exhibited in the records of sand with a few overfalls. maritime disasters, the difficulties Jarnain Island.-South easterly of the undertaking in a great direction found Dauss is in lạtimeasure vanish, and its dangers tude 25° 8' N. longitude, per chroare eclipsed, by the wonderful re- nometer, 52° 55' E. bearing SE. Vol. LIX.

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by S. five or six leagues, has three northern extremity terminates in high hummocks nearly of an equal a low sand, off which a shoal er. height, two on the northern ex tends nearly two miles, and ought tremity and one more to the south- not to be approached under seven ward. The haze of the atmosphere fathoms, as the overfalls are sudwas too great to observe whether den ; to the south eastward the the extremities were low, appa- island is nearly of an equal height, rently no vegetation, hills formed two or three hummocks above a of a metallic substance.

very low sandy point from north Arzenie Island. West south to south, and is about six miles in westerly direction from Jarnain in length, beyond which the pilot inlatitude 24° 56' N. longitude, performed me a shoal extends to a chronometer 52° 33' E. bearing considerable distance; and it is SSW. nine miles, is rather high, recommended not to go to the a rugged appearance.

About a southward of this island, as the cable's length off the eastern and overfalls are sudden, ar western extremities there are two small islands and sand-banks errocks a little above water; and on tend from the Main, which is said the north-east side a shoal extends to be very low, and distant twenty nearly a mile from the shore, com miles to the southward of this posed of rocks and coral sand. island. The Favourite anchored under this The channel between Arzenie island, with the centre of the island and Dalmy is perfectly clear of bearing S. by E ; E. five or six shoals, but the overfalls are sudden miles in 12% fathoms, fine coral from 15 to 21 and 12 to 7 fathoms, sand and shells.

fine coral sand. I could not discover any fresh Seer Beni Yass Island. -South water on this island, but from ra easterly direction from Dalmy, in vines occasioned from the heavy latitude 24° 34' N. longitude, per rains, I have no doubt by sinking chronometer, 52° 40 E. bearing wells, water might be procured. SE. by S. five leagues, rather high The soil consists of metallic sub- in the center, and very rugged apstance, no trees, and only a few pearance terminating to the north herbs ; the southern side exceed- western extremity in a low sandy ingly rugged, and in breadth I point, apparently seven or eight imagine two or three miles, and miles in length. seven riles in length, which ter The pilot informed me the point minates to the WSW. in a low nearly joins the main land, leaving sandy point.

a narrow channel only navigable Dalmy Island. -South westerly for small pearl boats. The whole direction from Arzenie in latitude coast to the westward being very 24° 36' N. longitude, per chrono- low, off which there are several meter, 52° 24' E. bearing SW. S. small islands, and they are confour leagues, appears rather high; sidered dangerous to approach. darker colour than the former The channel between Arzenie and island ; has to the northward a Seer Beni Yass is deemed safe by round hill, below which the boun- the pilot. dary is bluff but not high; the Panie Island.-North westerly

direction

direction from Dalmy, in latitude pear formed of the same metallic 25° 1' N. longitude, per chrono substance as the islands of Polior, meter, 52° 20' E. is very low,' the tombs, &c. &c. off the Persian nearly on a level with the sea, about side of the Gulph, of a brownish two miles in length, and very nar colour, their base being formed of row; the colour of the sand so coral. They are said not to pronearly resembles the horizona in duce any good fresh water ; but, hazy weather, that great caution by digging wells, I have every and a good look-out are requisite reason to imagine from the apwhen approaching it.

pearance of the soil, and what I Sherarou Island.—To the north witnessed on the island of Arzenie, westerly direction of Danie, in the rain having formed high banks latitude 25° 13' N. longitude, per by the rapidity of its torrents, good chronometer, 52° 18' E. bearing water might be procured. I do NNW. 12 miles, appears low, with not imagine any of these islands two small hummotia on each ex are equal to much cultivation withtremity; and off the northern out the aid of considerable induspoint, at half a mile, a small rock try; but their situation appears projects above water, and a few particularly convenient, as they smaller rocks off some white sandy are placed nearly in the centre of bays at the foot of the hummocks, a very extensive pearl fishery, on which appear formed of dark me which the finest pearls in the tallic substance: the island is nar world are produced—the season row, and about three or four miles for the fishery from April to Sepin length: in a north-western di- tember : the extent of the bank is rection from this isle, the coast 200 miles in length, east and west, ought to be approached with care, and north and south 70 miles. as it is very low, but said to be The exact position of these is. clear of shoals.

lands I am afraid will not be found The channel between Danie and quite accurate, as their positions Sherarou is clear of shoals, but are stated merely from cross bearthe overfalls are rather sudden; ings, and the strongly heated attut we had not less than 31 fa- mosphere had considerably affected thoms, sand and a mixture of white the rate of my chronometer; and coral.

the sun and moon not being within Huwlool Island.-North easterly distance together, with occasionally direction of Sherarou, in latitude hazy weather, caused some dif25° 41' N. longitude, per chrono- ficulty to be surmounted with remeter, 52° 23' E. bearing NNW. spect to judging of the imaginary distance 10 miles, appears high in distance off shore, but I hope their the centre, gradually decreasing at situations are sufficiently accurate each extremity; no trees and no to render the strangers to this side appearance of vegetation ; the of the Gulph some assistance in water deep close too.

navigating their vessels. The above described islands ap

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by S. five or six leagues, has three northern extremity terminates in high hummocks nearly of an equal a low sand, off which a shoal es. height, two on the northern ex- tends nearly two miles, and ought tremity and one more to the south- not to be approached under seven ward. The haze of the atmosphere fathoms, as the overfalls are sudwas too great to observe whether den ; to the south eastward the the extremities were low, appa- island is nearly of an equal height, rently no vegetation, hills formed two or three hummocks above a of a metallic substance.

very low sandy point from north Arzenie Island. — West south to south, and is about six miles in westerly direction from Jarnain in length, beyond which the pilot inlatitude 24° 56' N. longitude, per formed me a shoal extends to a chronometer 52° 33' E. bearing considerable distance; and it is SSW. nine miles, is rather high, recommended not to go to the a rugged appearance. About a

About a southward of this island, as the cable's length off the eastern and overfalis are sudden, and several western extremities there are two small islands and sand-banks ex. rocks a little abore water; and on tend from the Main, which is said the north-east side a shoal extends to be very low, and distant twenty nearly a mile from the shore, com- miles to the southward of this posed of rocks and coral sand. island. The Favourite anchored under this The channel between Arzenie island, with the centre of the island and Dalmy is perfectly clear of bearing S. by E E. five or six shoals, but the overfalls are sudden miles in 191 fathoms, fine coral from 15 to 21 and 12 to 7 fathoms, sand and shells.

fine coral sand. I could not discover any fresh Seer Beni Yass Island - South water on this island, but from ra- easterly direction from Dalıny, in vines occasioned from the heavy latitude 24° 34' X. longitude, per rains, I have no doubt by sinhing chronometer, 52° 40 E. beari: wells, water might be procured. SE. by S. five leagues, rather ha The soil consists of metallic sub- in the center, and very rugged an stance, no trees, and only a few pearance terminating to the north herbs; the southern side exceed- western extremity in a low saniy ingly rugged, and in breadth I point, apparently seven or eighie imagine two or three miles, and miles in length. seven miles in length, which ter The pilot informed me the point minates to the WSW. in a low nearly joins the main land, leavirg sandy point.

a narrow channel only navigabie Dalmy Island.-South westerly for small pearl boats. The wbuie direction from Arzenie in latitude coast to the westward being verv 24° 36' N. longitude, per chrono- low, off which there are several meter, 59° 24' E. bearing SW. S. small islands, and they are refour leagues, appears rather high; sidered dangerous to approach. darker colour than the former The channel between Arzenie and island ; has to the northward a Seer Beni lass is deemed safe by round hill, below which the boun- the pilot. dary is bluff but not bigh; the Danie liland. -North westerly

direction

direction from Dalıy, in latitude pear formed of the same metallic 950 1' N. longitude, per chrono. substance as the islands of Polior, meter, 59° 20' E. is very low, the tombs, &c. &c. off the Persian nearly on a level with the sea, about side of the Gulplı, of a brownish two miles in length, and very nas colour, their base being formed of row; the colour of the sand so coral. They are said not to pronearly resembles the horizon in duce any good fresh water ; but, kazy weather, that great caution by digging wells, I have every az.d a good look-out are requisite reason to imagine from the apwhen approaching it.

pearance of the soil, and what I Sherarou Island.—To the north witnessed on the island of Arzenie, Westerly direction of Danie', in the rain having formed high banks latitude 25° 13' N. longitude, per by the rapidity of its torrents, good chronometer, 52° 15' E. bearing water might be procured. I do 1.1W. 19 miles, appears low, with not imagine any of these islands tuo small hummodini on each er- are equal to much cultivation withtremity; and od the northerr out the aid of considerable indus. point, at half a mile, a small rock try; but their situation appears projects above water, and a few particularly convenient, as they smaller rocks off some white sandy are placed nearly in the centre of bars at the foot of the hummocks, a very extensive pearl fishery, on which appear formed of dark me- which the finest pearls in the tallic substance: the island is nar- world are produced--the season row, and about three or four miles for the fishery from April to Sepin length: in a north-weatern di- tember : the extent of the bank is rection from this isle, the coast 200 miles in length, east and west, ought to be approached with care, and north and south 70 miles. as it is very low, but said to be The exact position of these isCirar of boala,

Tards I ain afraid will not be found The channel between Danie and quite accurate, as their positions Sherarou is clear of shoals, but are stated merely from cross bearthe overfalls are rather sudden; inks, and the strongly heated atbut we had not less than 31 fa- morphere had considerably affected thums, sand and a mixture of white the rate of my chronometer ; ard cural.

the sun and moon not being within Hiland laund. -North easterly distance together, with occasionally direction of Sherarou, in Latitude hazy weather, caused some dif. 30 41. longitude, per chrono. ficulty to be surmounted with remeter, 3.. 23' E. bearing NNW. spect to judging of the imaginary diatarce 10 miles, appears high in distance off shore, but I hope their the centre, ki dually decreasing at situations are sufficiently accurate euh extremity; no trees and no to render the strangers to this side appearance of træetation ; the of the Gulph some assistance in water deep close too.

navigating their vessels. The above described islands ap

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