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attempts to preserve the monopoly tation of cinnamon from China, of the clove and nutmeg trade which is now very generally suhshould be regarded as a beacon to stituted for the finest Ceylon prevent us from splitting upon the cinnamon. same rock. They were anxious The means adopted by the Dutch to engross the trade in these ar to obtain the exclusive trade in ticles; it is our interest, exclusive cloves and nutmegs are worthy of of the produce of our own settle- attention, because, from the simiments, to reduce the cinnamon larity of our prospects, their failure annually exported. They discover- may teach us to avoid the same ed that cloves and nutmegs were

ineffectual or hurtful measures, not confined to the islands and and perhaps open our eyes to a establishinent which owned their more liberal, and not improbably sway. We know that, although to a more efficient and adrantaCeylon produces cinnamon of a geous policy. Shortly after they quality unequalled, yet we also had established themselves in the know that the plant abounds in Moluccas, they attempted to conthe eastern islands, and that they fine the growth of the clove trees afford large quantities of a secon to the islands of Amboina, Honidary quality. We have also strong moa, Oma, and Noussalant ; and reasons to believe that these is- the nutmeg tree to the island of lands would afford cinnamon which Banda. To carry their intentions would rival the finest on Ceylon, into effect, they employed extirwere an equal attention extended. pators to destroy the clove and to its culture and preparation. nutmeg trees that grew in the

The Dutch used every means in neighbouring islands which owned their power to limit the produce their sway; and they paid an anand diminish the exportation of nual tribute to the kings of Tercloves and nutmegs. This was nate, Tidor, and Bonton, to perdone to increase the value of these mit and assist the extirpators to articles. These restrictive mea- destroy the trees which abounded sures led to smuggling the culti- in the Archipelago, of which they vation of cloves and nutmegs in were masters. When the crop of different countries, and to voy- cloves and nutmegs was abundant, ages to ascertain whether they they burned large quantities, somegrew in islands and situations times in the islands where they were which had not been sufficiently produced, and sometimes after they explored.

had been landed in Holland. The We, on the other hand, have contraband trade between the spice not collected and exported all the islands and the large island of Celecinnamon which we might have bes they never could prevent. The done; and in so far as we have English had generally an establishfrom inaitention or indifference, ment, either on the main land of omitted to supply the demands of Borneo, or some of its dependenEurope and Aunerica with Ceylon cies ; by which means they were cinnamon, this neglect has con- always readily supplied by the natributed to encourage the impor- tives with whatever spices they

required,

required, as they paid a higher eventually rival the best we can price for them than the Dutch. produce. The third quality of the

Captain Forrest ascertained that Ceylon cinnamon is by many conthe nutmeg tree grew in New sidered equal, if not superior, to Guinea, and transplanted a num that brought from China, and ber of plants to the Philippine could in all probability be supplied islands. The French have suc at as low, if not a lower, price. ceeded in introducing the clove and This quality of cinnamon might nutmeg trees into the isles of in Ceylon be collected to an alFrance and Bourbon. They have most unlimited quantity. A large likewise introduced them into importation of this sort into the Guiana and Cayenne. In the year London market, and sold at a 1785 there were 10,416 clove moderate profit, would in all protrees on the Isle of France. The bability soon lessen the demand English also have cultivated the for that imported from China. clove tree in the West India is By the London price current of lands. Martinico in the year 1797 Jan. 10, 1815, we find the differimported into London 380 lb. and ent qualities of cinnamon quoted the year following 200 lb. ; St. at from 8s. 3d. per lb. to 13s. 3d. Kitt's, 2981 lb. The extreme cu The finest quality is becoming pidity of the Dutch eventually lower in price. In the same price ruined their own prospects. Had current casia is quoted at from they been contented with mode- 40l. to 45l. per cwt. or from about rate profits, the incitement to a 78. to Ss. per lb. Inferring that contraband trade would have been the third sort of Ceylon cinnamon much diminished, and foreign is of as good a quality, and will nations would have had fewer in- fetch as high a price as the Chicentives to incur much expense nese cinnamon, the purchasers of and labour in cultivating spices in the rejected Ceylon cinnamon their own establishments. Our must have found a good market, situation with regard to the cin- and have at least lately made a namon trade is in many respects profitable speculation. Cinnamon similar to that of the Duch in the oil is quoted at from 25s. to 26s. commerce of cloves and nutmegs : per oz. To procure an ounce of we have too long gazed with a cinnamon oil about 11 lb. of cinfrigid indifference upon the rapidly namon are required. While the increasing cinnamon trade of the oil fetches this price only, the Chinese, and treated with con- Ceylon government cannot, contempt their commerce in this ar sidering the expenses incurred, ticle. Should it not rather have realise much more than Is. 60. excited us to adopt effectual means per lb. for the cinnamon used in to supply the demands of the west- distillation ; and it will evidently ern world from our own establish- appear that when 2s. per lb. can ments ? Even admitting that the be obtained, there is in general cinnamon exported from China is very little encouragement to exinferior to the produce of Ceylon, pend much cinnamon in making its quality however is such as to oil. serve as a substitute, and may The most certain, and undoubt

edly

edly the most avowable means of rugged and difficultly accessible acquiring or preserving a mono- mountains and situations abound poly of an article of commerce is more with large trees than those to furnish it in abundance, at a hills or eminences whose declivity comparatively cheap rate. The is more gradual, and whose surexportation of the third quality of face is more even. This arises cinnamon would very considerably chiefly from the chena or dry grain contribute to this desirable end. cultivation, which is much pracGreat part of the small quantity tised upon the most accessible of which has been exported has found the hills in the interior. Chenas its way into Europe and America are cultivated by cutting down a under the denomination of casia. number of the large trees and all The duty levied upon that which the brushwood upon the declivity has in trade been styled casia, or top of a hill. The trunks and should be the same as is levied branches of the large trees and the upon cinnamon; or the duty upon shrubby bushes are burned, and the third quality of cinnamon the ashes spread upon the ground, should be reduced to that which which is eventually sown with is paid upon the importation of dry grain. The roots of the trees the casia of commerce. The ex

and bushes are allowed to remain. portation of cinnamon of this One crop only is reaped. The quality to England would at any spot of partially cleared ground time have been of importance to becomes in a few years covered the trade of Ceylon; but in con with underwood and

young

trees. sequence of the recent entire sub- The space of from 15 to 20 years jugation of the interior of the elapses generally before the ground islands, this measure becomes of is again cleared, and another crop infinitely greater consequence. By sown. This statement will readily the fortunate termination of the account for a circumstance conKandian war, the sources and firmed by the chalias, that on the opportunities for collecting and rugged and difficultly accessible preparing cinnamon are greatly hills large cinnamon trees, which increased. The enlarged quantity afford cinnamon of coarse quality, procurable will, however, be chiefly are found, and that cinnamon of the third sort; and without plants of an age well adapted for some means be adopted for col. yielding fine cinnamon are obtainlecting and exporting this quality ed upon the recently cultivated of cinnamon, it will appear like chenas. These patches of high neglecting one of the many ad- ground cultivation form, however, vantages which promise to follow but a small proportion, when comthis very important acquisition. pared to the uncultivated and unWith the exception of the narrow cultivable, rugged, and precipitous indented valleys which intersect mountains, with which the interior the hills and mountains, great of the island abounds. It may part of the interior of Ceylon is likewise be mentioned that the covered with lofty trees and low cinnamon plant is less hardy than brushwood in the most luxuriant many of those which grow in the degree of vegetation. The most same jungle with it, and that

when

ON THE GREENLAND OR POLAR ICE.

when its shoots are cut, and the ticle might be considerable. The young scions only permitted to more carefully and extensively remain, the plant becomes less, we consider the subject, we shall, and less able to resist the en I think, be the more convinced croachments of the surrounding that we must trust chiefly to the underwood, by which means it not plantations for cinnamon of the unfrequently becomes choaked and finest quality, and that notwithovergrown.

standing the recent important Another, and not an unimport- acquisition of the interior of the ant concern, demands the attention island, we should prosecute the of government—the collection and cultivation of cinnamon with unpreparation of the receptacle of abated zeal and

perseverance. the embryo seed of the cinnamon plant, the casia bud of commerce. The full grown trees of the interior will afford them in great abun

By W. Scoresby, jun. M.W.S. dance. They are frequently sub- (From Memoirs of the Wernerian Natural stituted for the more expensive

History Society.] cinnamon, and fetch a good price.

Greenland is a country where The collection of them in Cey- every object is strikingly singular, lon might be extensive, and effected or highly magnificent. The atat a very small expense. Labour, mosphere, the land, and the ocean, which is all that required, is each exhibit remarkable or sublime cheap. They could be collected appearances. by boys : and the drying, sorting,

With regard to the atmosphere, &c. of them might be entrusted to several peculiarities may be nofemales. We might soon be able ticed, viz. its darkness of colour to rival the Chinese monopoly of and density; its frequent producthis article. The Dutch, however tion of crystallised snow in a woneager they were to extend the derful perfection and variety of exportation of colonial produce, form and texture; and its astoseem to have entirely neglected nishing sudden changes from calm the preparation of this important to storm,-from fair weather to article of trade. Indeed I have foul, and vice versa. pot been able to learn that they

The land is of itself a sublime were aware of the fact that casia object; its stupendous mountains buds are the produce of the cin- rising by steep acclivities from the namon plant." The native head- very margin of the ocean to an men now employed in the cinna- immense height, terminating in mon department, and who were ridged, conical, or pyramidal sumin the same situation under the mits ; its surface, contrasting its Dutch, express their entire igno- native protruding dark-coloured rance of the circumstance.

rocks, with its burthen of purest In the London New Price Cur- snow; the whole viewed under rent of Jan. 10, 1815, casia buds the density of a gloomy sky, forms are quoted at from 321. to 371. per a picture impressive and grand. cwt. or from about 5s.6d. to 6s.6d. Its most remarkable inhabitant is per lb. The profit upon this ar, the White or Polar Bear, which Vol. LIX.

2 M

indeed

indeed also occurs on the ice. This stupendous masses, known by the ferocious animal seems to be the name of Ice-Islands, Floatingnatural lord of those regions. He Mountains, or Icebergs, common preys indiscriminately on quadru- to Davis' Straits and soinetimes ped, fowl, reptile, and fish; all met with here, from their height, behold him with dread, and flee various forms, and the depth of his presence. The seals signify water in which they ground, are their fear of him by their constant calculated to strike the beholder watching, and betake themselves with wonder: yet the fields of ice, precipitately to the water on his more peculiar to Greenland, are approach. Carrion, therefore, (of not less astonishing. Their defiwhich the carcase of the whale is ciency in elevation is sufficiently at a certain season the most plen- compensated by their amazing extiful), affords him a passive, sure, tent of surface. Some of them and favourite food. His sense of have been observed near a hundred smelling is peculiarly acute : in miles in length, and more than his march, he is frequently ob- half that breadth ; each consisting served to face the breeze, to rear of a single sheet of ice, having its his head, and snuff the passing surface raised in general four or scent, whereby he can discover six feet above the level of the the nearest route to his odorous water, and its base depressed to banquet, though the distance be the depth of near twenty feet beincredibly great.

neath. The water of the ocean is not the least interesting of the ele The various kinds of Ice described. ments, particularly as affording the bed, and partly the materials The ice in general is designated for the most prodigious masses of by a variety of appellations, disice. Its colour is peculiar. Its tinguishing it according to the products are numerous, and of size or number of pieces, their particular importance. It is here form of aggregation, thickness, that the huge Mysticetus, or transparency, &c. I perhaps canWhalebone Whale, takes up his not better explain the terms in residence, and collects his food ; common acceptation amongst the it is here that he sports and asto. whale-fishers, than by marking nishes, by his vast bulk and pro- the disruption of a field. The portionate strength;-and it is thickest and strongest field cannot here that he becomes the object of resist the power of a heavy swell ; maritime adventure, and a source indeed, such are much less capable of commercial riches.

of bending without being dissever

ed, than the thinner ice which is Ice, an interesting production.

more pliable. When a field, by

the set of the current, drives to Of the inanimate productions of the southward, and being deserted Greenland, none perhaps excites by the loose ice, becomes exposed so much interest and astonishment to the effects of a ground swell, it in a stranger, as the ice in its presently breaks into a great many great abundance and variety. The pieces, few of which will exceed

forty

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