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what was most conspicuous in his cept an office, is an evidence of character, was his calm constancy, the disinterestedness of his polihis industry, and that indefatigable tics; but his zeal for his opinions patience and perseverance, which or party, did not extinguish his always enabled him to overcome kindness for the merits of his difficulties.

opponents. Society will long reHe was decidedly a republican. member and regret him ; but he The determination which he often will be most lamented by those, avowed, that he never would ac- hy whom he was best known.

MANNERS

MANNERS, CUSTOMS, &c.

OF

NATIONS AND CLASSES OF PEOPLE.

DESCRIPTION OF A SERTANEJO. upon his naked heels,—the straps

which go under the feet prevent (From Koster's Travels.

the risk of losing the slippers. A MAY give some description of long whip of twisted thongs hung

I á

to shew me the well, and this sword by his side, hanging from may be taken as the usual appear a belt over one shoulder ; his ance of a travelling Sertanejo. knife was in his girdle, and his He rode a small horse with a long short dirty pipe in his mouth. tail and mane; his saddle was Fastened to his saddle behind, was rather raised before and behind; a piece of red baize, rolled up in his stirrups were of i'usty iron, the form of a great coat, and this and his bit was of the same; the usually contains a hammock and reins were two very narrow thongs. a change of linen,-a shirt, and His dress consisted of long panta- drawers, and perhaps a pair of loons or leggings, of tanned but nankeen pantaloons; his boroacas undressed leather, of a rusty hung also on each side of the back brown colour, which were tied of his saddle, and these generally tight round his waist, and under contain farinha and dried meat on these are worn a pair of cotton one side, and on the other a flint drawers or trowsers, as the seat and steel, (dried leaves serve as is left unprotected by the leather. tinder) tobacco, and a spare pipe. He had a tanned goat-skin over To this equipment is sometimes his breast, which was tied beliind addeil, a large pistol, thrust partly by four strings, and a jacket also under the left thigh, and thus semade of leather, which is gene- cured. The usual pace of the Serrally thrown over one slıoulder; tanejo's horse is a walk, ipproachhis hat was of th: same, with a ing to a short trot; so that the very shallow crown, and small horses of those people often have brinı ; he had slip-shod slippers acquired the habit of dragging of the saine colour, and iron spur's their hind legs, and throwing up

the

the dust. The usual colour of the

THE INDIAN NATIVES. Sertanejos is a dark brown; for even those who are born white,

(From the same.) soon become as completely tanned

The Indians of these villages, as the dress which they wear,

and indeed of all those which I from exposure to the sun.

passed through, are Christians; The colour of the Sertanejos though it is said that some few of varies from white, of which there them follow in secret their own are necessarily few, to a dark heathenish rites, paying adoration brown; the shades of which are to the maracà, and practising all almost as various as there are per the custoins of their religion, if I sons: two of exactly the same tint may use this word, of which so are scarcely to be met with. Chil exact a description is given in Mr. dren of the same parents rarely if Southey's History of Brazil. When ever are of the same shade ; some the Roman Catholic religion does difference is almost always perceiv- take root in them, it of necessity able, and this is, in many in- degenerates into the most abject stances, so glaring, as to lead at superstition. An adherence to first to doubts of the authenticity; - superstitious rites, whether of but it is too general to be aught Roman Catholic ordination or prehut what is right. The offspring of scribed by their own undefined white and black persons leans, in faith, appears to be the only part most instances, more to one colour of their character in which they than to the other, when perhaps show any constancy. Each village a second child will take a contrary has its priest, who is oftentimes a tinge. These remarks do not hold vicar, and resident for life upon good in the Sertam, but are ap the spot. A director is also atplicable to all the country which I tached to each village, who is suphad opportunities of seeing. The posed to be a white man ; he has Sertanejo, if colour is set aside, great power over the persons withis certainly handsome; and the in his jurisdiction. Ifa proprietor of women, whilst young, have well- land is in want of workinen he apshaped forms, and many of them plies to the director, who agrees for good features ; indeed I have the price at which the daily laseen some of the white persons bour is to be paid, and he comwho would be admired in any

mands his chief Indians to take so country. Their constant expo- many men, and proceed with thein sure to the sun, and its great to the estate for which they are power at a distance from the sea, hired. The labourers receive the darkens the complexion more than money themselves, and expend it if the same persons had resided as they please; but the bargains upon the coast: but this gives thus made are usually below the them a decided dark colour, which regular price of labour. Each has the appearance of durability, village has two Juizes Ordinarios and is much preferable to a sallow or mayors, who act for one year. sickly look, though of a lighter One Juiz is a white man, and the tint.

other an Indian ; but it may easily be supposed that the former has,

!

in fact, the management. These whom they are imperiously treated; Juizes have the power of putting consequently it is not surprising suspicious persons into confine that they should do all in their ment, and of punishing for small power to leave their villages, and crimes; those of more importance be free from an immediate suwait for the Correiçam, or circuit perior ; but even when they have of the Ouvidor of the captaincy. escaped from the irksome domiEach village contains a town hall nion of the director, they never and prison. The administration settle in one place. The Indian of justice in the Sertam is gene- scarcely ever plarits for himself, rally spoken of as most wretch- or if he does, rarely waits the edly bad; every crime obtains crop; he sells his maize or manimpunity by the payment of a sum dioc for half its value, before it is of money. An innocent person fit to be gathered, and removes to is sometimes punished through some other district. His favourite the interest of a great man, whom pursuits are fishing and hunting; he may have offended, and the a lake or rivulet will alone induce murderer escapes who has the him to be stationary for any length good fortune to be under the pro- of time. He has a sort of indetection of a powerful patron. This pendent feeling, which makes him proceeds still more from the feudal spurn at any thing like a wish to state of the country than from the deprive him of his own free

corruption of the magistrates, who agency; to the director he sub. might often be inclined to do their mits, because it is out of his power duty, and yet be aware that their to resist. An Indian can never be exertions would be of no avail, persuaded to address the master and would possibly prove fatal to to whom he may have hired himthemselves. The Indians have self, by the term of Senhor, likewise their Capitaens-mores, though it is made use of by the and this title is conferred for life; whites in speaking to each other, it gives the holder some power and by all other free people in the over his fellows, but as it is among country; but the negroes also use them unaccompanied by the pos- it in speaking to their masters, session of property, the Indian therefore the Indian will not; he Capitáens-mores are much ridi- addresses his temporary master by caled by the whites; and indeed the term of amo or patram, prothe half-naked officer with his tector or patron. The reluctance gold-headed cane is a personage to use the term of Senhor may who would excíte laughter from perhaps have commenced with the the most rigid nerves.

immediate descendants of those The Indians are in general a who were in slavery, and thus the quiet and inoffensive people; they objection may have become tradihave not much fidelity ; but al- tionary. They may refuse to give though they desert, they will not by courtesy what was once réinjure those whom they have quired from them by law. Howserved. Their lives are certainly ever, if it began in this manner, not passed in a pleasant manner it is not now continued for the under the eye of a director, by same reason, as none of those with VOL. LIX.

2 D

whom

whom I conversed, and they were his back, his fishing-net and his very many, appeared to know that arms, and walks in the rear. The their ancestors had been obliged children are washed on the day of to work as slaves.

their birth in the nearest brook or The instances of murder com- pool of water. Both the men and mitted by Indians are rare. They the women are cleanly in many of are pilferers rather than thieves. their habits, and particularly in When they can, they eat immo those relating to their persons ; derately; but if it is necessary, but in some other matters their they can live upon a very trifling customs are extremely disgusting; quantity of food, to which their the same knife is used for all pur. idleness often reduces them. They poses, and with little preparatory are much addicted to liquor, and cleaning is employed in services will dance in a ring, singing some of descriptions widely opposite. of the monotonous ditties of their They do not reject any kind of own language, and drink for food, and devour it almost withnights and days without ceasing. out being cooked ; rats and other Their dances are not indecent, as small vermin, snakes and alligathose of Africa. The mulattos tors, are all accepted. consider themselves superior to The instinct, for I know not the Indians, and even the Creole what else to call it, which the blacks look down upon them; Indians possess above other men, " he is as paltry as an Indian,” in finding their way across a wood is a common expression among to a certain spot on the opposite the lower orders in Brazil. They side without path or apparent are vilely indifferent regarding the mark, is most surprising; they conduct of their wives and daugh- trace footsteps over the dry leaves ters ; lying and other vices at which lie scattered under the tached to savage life belong to trees. The leiter-carriers, from them. Affection seems to have one province to another, are mostlittle hold upon them; they ap- ly Indians, for from habit they pear to be less anxious for the endure great fatigue, and will life and welfare of their children walk day after day, with little than any other cast of men who rest, for months together. I have inhabit that country. The women met them with their wallets made however do not, among these of goat-skin upon their shoulders, semi-barbarians, perform the prin- walking at a regular pace, which cipal drudgery; if the husband is is not altered by rough or smooth. at home, he fetches water from Though a horse inay outstrip one the rivulet and fuel from the of these men for the first few wood; he builds the hut whilst days, still if the journey contihis wife takes shelter in some nues long, the Indian will, in the neighbour's shed. But if they tra- end, arrive before him. If a crivel, she has her young children to minal has eluded the diligence of carry, the pots, the baskets, and the the police officers, Indians are excavated gourds, whilst the hus- sent in pursuit of him, as a last band takes his wallet of goat-skin resource. It is well known that and his hammock rolled up upon they will not take him alive ; each

man

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